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Taiwan under Japanese rule

Japanese Taiwan was the period of Taiwan and the Penghu Islands under Japanese rule between 1895 and 1945. Taiwan became a dependency of Japan in 1895 when the Qing dynasty of China ceded Taiwan Province in the Treaty of Shimonoseki after Japanese victory in the First Sino-Japanese War; the short-lived Republic of Formosa resistance movement was suppressed by Japanese troops and defeated in the Capitulation of Tainan, ending organized resistance to Japanese occupation and inaugurated five decades of Japanese rule. Taiwan was Japan's first overseas colony and can be viewed as the first steps in implementing their "Southern Expansion Doctrine" of the late 19th century. Japanese intentions were to turn Taiwan into a showpiece "model colony" with much effort made to improve the island's economy, public works, cultural Japanization, to support the necessities of Japanese military aggression in the Asia-Pacific. Japanese rule of Taiwan ended after the surrender of Japan concluded World War II in August 1945, the territory was placed under the control of the Republic of China with the issuing of General Order No. 1.

Japan formally renounced rights to Taiwan in the Treaty of San Francisco in April 1952. The experience of Japanese rule, ROC rule and the February 28 massacre of 1947 continues to affect issues such as Taiwan Retrocession Day, national identity, ethnic identity, the formal Taiwan independence movement. Japan had sought to expand its imperial control over Taiwan since 1592, when Toyotomi Hideyoshi undertook a policy of overseas expansion and extending Japanese influence southward. Several attempts to invade Taiwan were unsuccessful due to disease and armed resistance by aborigines on the island. In 1609, the Tokugawa Shogunate sent Arima Harunobu on an exploratory mission of the island. In 1616, Murayama Toan led an unsuccessful invasion of the island. In November 1871, 69 people on board a vessel from the Kingdom of Ryukyu were forced to land near the southern tip of Taiwan by strong winds, they had a conflict with local Paiwan aborigines and many were killed. In October 1872, Japan sought compensation from the Qing dynasty of China, claiming the Kingdom of Ryukyu was part of Japan.

In May 1873, Japanese diplomats arrived in Beijing and put forward their claims, but the Qing government rejected Japanese demands on the ground that the Kingdom of Ryukyu at that time was an independent state and had nothing to do with Japan. The Japanese refused to leave and asked if the Chinese government would punish those "barbarians in Taiwan"; the Qing authorities explained that there were two kinds of aborigines on Taiwan: those directly governed by the Qing, those unnaturalized "raw barbarians... beyond the reach of Chinese culture. Thus could not be directly regulated." They indirectly hinted that foreigners traveling in those areas settled by indigenous people must exercise caution. The Qing dynasty made it clear to the Japanese that Taiwan was within Qing jurisdiction though part of that island's aboriginal population was not yet under the influence of Chinese culture; the Qing pointed to similar cases all over the world where an aboriginal population within a national boundary was not under the influence of the dominant culture of that country.

The Japanese launched an expedition to Taiwan, with a force of 3,000 soldiers in April 1874. In May 1874, the Qing dynasty began to send in troops to reinforce the island. By the end of the year, the government of Japan decided to withdraw its forces after realizing Japan was still not ready for a war with China; the number of casualties for the Paiwan was about 30, that for the Japanese was 543. By the 1890s, about 45 percent of Taiwan was under standard Chinese administration while the remaining populated regions of the interior were under aboriginal control; the First Sino-Japanese War broke out between Qing dynasty China and Japan in 1894 following a dispute over the sovereignty of Korea. Following its defeat, China ceded the islands of Taiwan and Penghu to Japan in the Treaty of Shimonoseki, signed on April 17, 1895. According to the terms of the treaty and Penghu were to be ceded to Japan in perpetuity. Both governments were to send representatives to Taiwan after signing to begin the transition process, to be completed in no more than two months.

Because Taiwan was ceded by treaty, the period that followed is referred to by some as the "colonial period", while others who focus on the fact that it was the culmination of a war refer to it as the "occupation period". The cession ceremony took place on board a Japanese vessel because the Chinese delegate feared reprisal from the residents of Taiwan. Though the terms dictated by Japan were harsh, it is reported that Qing China's leading statesman, Li Hongzhang, sought to assuage Empress Dowager Cixi by remarking: "birds do not sing and flowers are not fragrant on the island of Taiwan; the men and women are inofficious and are not passionate either." The loss of Taiwan would become a rallying point for the Chinese nationalist movement in the years that followed. Arriving in Taiwan, the new Japanese colonial government gave inhabitants two years to choose whether to accept their new status as Japanese subjects or leave Taiwan; the "early years" of Japanese administration on Taiwan refers to the period between the Japanese forces' first landing in May 1895 and the Ta-pa-ni Incident of 1915, which marked the high point of armed resistance.

During this period, popular resistance to Japanese rule was high, the world questioned whether a non-Western nation such as Japan could effe

Sickness bag

A sickness bag is a small bag provided to passengers on board airplanes and boats to collect and contain vomit in the event of motion sickness. Hovercraft-ferry operators and train companies have been known to furnish bags. People who know they are prone to motion sickness will sometimes bring their own bags; the plastic-lined airsickness bag was created by inventor Gilmore Schjeldahl for Northwest Orient Airlines in 1949. Bags had been made from waxed paper or card. Modern bags are still made from plastic-lined paper, but a significant proportion are now made from plastic. Among the collectors of aeronautical memorabilia there is a sub-culture of sickness-bag aficionados; the Guinness Book of Records recognizes Dutchman Niek Vermeulen as the world record holder for the number of different bags. In 2004, Virgin Atlantic issued a limited edition set of half a million bags in collaboration with designer Oz Dean of'forcefeed:swede'. Oz had conceived and run an online gallery of sick bags since 2000 under the project name "Design for Chunks".

It challenged designers to illustrate the dull medium of the sick bag, as opposed to T-shirts or splash pages which were the standard challenges at the time. The Imperial War Museum in London has a sea sickness bag issued to D-Day landing troops in its collections. Although the project achieved cult status in a short time amongst the design community, Dean felt that it had run its course and closed it down in 2003. With the offer of doing the project for real "DFC" was opened up again, in 2004, with the strapline "This time it's real!" The printed bags were intended to be on the global fleet of planes for 6 months but only lasted 3, with people walking through the aisles collecting the sets. The project divided opinion; the whole set of 20 finalists designs as a framed piece can be found in the Virgin Atlantic Clubhouse at Heathrow, UK or online at the archived website. Virgin Atlantic released another four bags promoting the Star Wars movie Star Wars: Episode III – Revenge of the Sith shortly after the "Design for Chunks" project.

Steven J. Silberberg is a collector of air sickness bags; the development of larger aircraft and advances in design have reduced the occurrence of air sickness. This has led to bags being given a secondary use as general purpose waterproof waste containers, reflected in the labelling of the bag and instructional diagrams. Another common use is that of a photographic mailing envelope. Airlines have printed bags to serve as card game scoresheets and Continental Airlines once suggested that they be used as doggy bags for airline food. Non-airline aircrew have used these bags as improvised urinals or fecal collection devices aboard aircraft lacking on-board toilets. A specialized urine collection bag known colloquially as the "piddle pack" developed as an improvement from this practice. In 2010, Spirit Airlines began selling advertising space on its air sickness bags; some airlines have used humor in their designs. For a short time, for example, Hapag-Lloyd Express had bags that stated "Thank you for your criticism!".

The defunct ATA Airlines used airsickness bags. Delta Air Lines has "Feel Better?" Printed on the bag. NIKI Airlines uses sickbags with the legend "Speibsackerl" on them. Many exploitation horror films in the 1970s handed out vomit bags as a promotion gimmick for the more violent and shocking movies. Aircraft safety card Inflight magazine Media related to Sick bags at Wikimedia Commons

Stephen Thompson (fighter)

Stephen Randall Thompson is an American professional mixed martial artist, who fights as a welterweight in the Ultimate Fighting Championship. He is a former full-contact kickboxer and was undefeated through 37 amateur and 20 professional kickboxing matches. Thompson is regarded as one of the most accomplished strikers in UFC history, he has trained with former UFC Welterweight Georges St-Pierre and trains with his brother-in-law, former UFC Middleweight Champion Chris Weidman. As of January 27, 2020, he is #6 in the UFC welterweight rankings. Thompson was born on February 1983, in Simpsonville, South Carolina. Growing up in a martial arts family where Thompson's father, Ray Thompson, a professional kickboxer and owned Upstate karate school in South Carolina, Thompson started training at age of three, under his father's guidance, he started competing in kickboxing and karate at the age of 15. Thompson is the Head Instructor of the children's karate program at Upstate Karate in Simpsonville, South Carolina.

He is the oldest son of Ray Thompson, his trainer and manager. Thompson graduated from high school in 2001, he has been studying martial arts since his pre-teens and holds black belt ranks in Tetsushin-ryū Kempo, American Kickboxing and Jujutsu. He studies Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu under Carlos Machado, his brother-in-law. In 2006, Thompson was the #1 ranked fighter in Chuck NorrisWorld Combat League. Thompson has been featured in Martial Arts Digest magazine, Fighter magazine and MMA Authority magazine. Thompson has performed along with his father at the Peace Center for the Performing Arts in the “Athletes Project”, has appeared in several TV commercials. Thompson fought Raymond Daniels in a anticipated bout. Thompson lost the bout by technical knockout due to a knee injury he suffered that left him unable to continue. However, this was overturned into a no contest. Thompson was expected to face Justin Edwards on February 4, 2012, at UFC 143, replacing an injured Mike Stumpf. However, Edwards was replaced by Dan Stittgen.

Thompson won the fight via KO in the first round after landing a flush head kick. For his performance, Thompson was awarded Knockout of the Night honors. Thompson lost to Matt Brown on April 2012, at UFC 145 via unanimous decision. Thompson was expected to face Besam Yousef on November 17, 2012, at UFC 154. However, Thompson was replaced by Matthew Riddle. Thompson was expected to face Amir Sadollah on May 25, 2013, at UFC 160. However, Sadollah was replaced by Nah-Shon Burrell. Thompson won the fight via unanimous decision. Thompson next faced Chris Clements on September 21, 2013, at UFC 165, he won the fight via knockout in the second round. Thompson faced Robert Whittaker on February 22, 2014, at UFC 170, he won the bout via first-round technical knockout. The win earned him his first Performance of the Night bonus award. Thompson faced Patrick Côté on September 27, 2014, at UFC 178. Thompson won the fight via unanimous decision. Thompson was expected to headline against Brandon Thatch on February 14, 2015, at UFC Fight Night 60.

However, Thompson pulled out of the fight on January 30, citing a rib injury and was replaced by former UFC Lightweight Champion Benson Henderson. Thompson faced Jake Ellenberger on July 2015, at The Ultimate Fighter 21 Finale, he earned a Performance of the Night bonus. Thompson was expected to face Neil Magny on January 2, 2016, at UFC 195. However, Magny was tabbed as an injury replacement for Matt Brown and instead faced Kelvin Gastelum on November 21, 2015, at The Ultimate Fighter Latin America 2 Finale. In turn, Thompson was removed from the card and rebooked to face former champion Johny Hendricks on February 6, 2016, at UFC Fight Night 82, he won the bout via TKO in the first round. The win earned Thompson his third Performance of the Night bonus award. Thompson next faced Rory MacDonald on June 18, 2016, at UFC Fight Night 89, he won the fight via unanimous decision. Thompson fought for the UFC Welterweight Championship at UFC 205, where he faced reigning champion Tyron Woodley; the fight ended in a majority draw with two judges scoring the fight 47–47 and the third 48–47 in favor of Woodley.

However, there was some confusion as the result was announced as a split decision victory for Woodley only to be corrected moments when the decision of a majority draw was announced, albeit with the same result of Woodley remaining champion. Subsequently, both fighters were awarded Fight of the Night bonus awards. UFC President Dana White stated; the rematch with Woodley took place on March 4, 2017, in the main event at UFC 209. Thompson lost by majority decision. In a sample of 19 media pundits scoring the fight, five scored it in favor of Woodley, six scored in favor of Thompson, eight scored it a draw. Thompson faced Jorge Masvidal on November 4, 2017 at UFC 217, he won the one-sided fight via unanimous decision. Thompson faced Darren Till on May 27, 2018 at UFC Fight Night 130. At the weigh-ins, Till weighed in at 174.5 pounds, 3.5 pounds over the welterweight non-title fight limit of 171. After negotiating with Thompson's team, the bout proceeded at a catchweight with the stipulation that Till can't weigh more than 188 pounds on the day of the fight.

Till forfeited 30 percent of his purse to Thompson. Thompson lost via unanimous decision. Conversely, 22 of 25 media outlets scored the bout in fav