click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Taiwanese Hokkien

Taiwanese Hokkien known as Taiwanese Minnan or Taiwanese, is a language of Southern Min spoken natively by about 70% of the population of Taiwan. It is spoken by the Taiwanese Hoklo people, who descended from immigrants from southern Fujian during the Qing dynasty; the Pe̍h-ōe-jī romanization is a popular orthography for this variant of Hokkien. Taiwanese Hokkien is similar to the speeches of Amoy and Zhangzhou, as well as their dialectal forms used in Southeast Asia and are mutually intelligible; the mass popularity of Hokkien entertainment media from Taiwan has given prominence to the Taiwanese variety of Hokkien since the 1980s. Taiwanese Hokkien is a branched-off variety of a group of Southern Min dialects. Like many Min varieties, it has distinct literary and colloquial layers of vocabulary associated with formal and informal registers respectively; the literary layer can be traced to the late Tang dynasty, can thus be related to Middle Chinese. In contrast, the colloquial layers of Min varieties are believed to have branched from the mainstream of Chinese around the time of the Han dynasty.

Regional variations within Taiwanese may be traced back to Hokkien variants spoken in Southern Fujian those from Quanzhou and Zhangzhou later Amoy. Taiwanese Hokkien contains loanwords from Japanese and the native Formosan languages. Recent work by scholars such as Ekki Lu, Toru Sakai, Lí Khîn-hoāⁿ, based on former research by scholars such as Ông Io̍k-tek, has gone so far as to associate part of the basic vocabulary of the colloquial Taiwanese with the Austronesian and Tai language families; the literary form of Hokkien was brought to Taiwan by early emigrants. Tale of the Lychee Mirror, a manuscript for a series of plays published during the Ming dynasty in 1566, is one of the earliest known works; this form of the language is now extinct. However, literary readings of the numbers are used in certain contexts such as reciting telephone numbers. During Yuan dynasty, Fujian province became a major international port for trade with the outside world. From that period onwards, due to political and economic reasons, many people from Hokkien-speaking regions started to emigrate overseas.

This included the undeveloped island of Formosa, starting around 1600. They brought with them Hokkien. During the late Ming dynasty, due to political chaos, there was increased migration from southern Fujian and eastern Guangdong to Taiwan; the earliest immigrants who were involved in the development of Taiwan included pirate-merchants Chinese Peter and Zheng Zhilong. In 1621, Chinese Peter and his forces, hailing from Zhangzhou, occupied Ponkan and started to develop Tirosen. After the death of Peter and another pirate, Li Dan of Quanzhou, Zheng sought to dominate the Strait of Taiwan. By 1628, he had grown so powerful that the Ming court bestowed him the official title, "Patrolling Admiral". In 1624, the number of Chinese in the island was about 25,000. During the reign of Chongzhen Emperor, there were frequent droughts in the Fujian region. Zheng and a Chinese official suggested to send victims to Taiwan and provide "for each person three taels of silver and for each three people one ox". Although this plan was never carried out, the Zheng family maintained an interest in Taiwan that would have dire consequences for the Dutch, who ruled Taiwan as Dutch Formosa at the time.

In 1624 and 1626, the Dutch and Spanish forces occupied the Keelung areas, respectively. During the 40 years of Dutch colonial rule of Taiwan, many Han Chinese from the Quanzhou and Hakka regions of mainland China were recruited to help develop Taiwan; because of intermingling with Siraya people as well as Dutch colonial rule, the Hokkien dialects started to deviate from the original Hokkien spoken in mainland China. In the 1661 Siege of Fort Zeelandia, Chinese general Koxinga expelled the Dutch and established the Kingdom of Tungning. Koxinga originated from the Quanzhou region. Chen Yonghua, in charge of establishing the education system of Tungning originated from Quanzhou; because most of the soldiers he brought to Taiwan came from Quanzhou, the prestige variant of Hokkien on the island at the time was the Quanzhou dialect. In 1683, Chinese admiral Shi Lang attacked Taiwan in the Battle of Penghu, ending the Tungning era and beginning Qing dynasty rule. In the following years, in order to prevent people from rebelling, the Qing court instituted a ban on migration to Taiwan the migration of Hakka people from Guangdong province, which led Hokkien to become a prestige language in Taiwan.

In the first decades of the 18th century, the linguistic differences between the Qing imperial bureaucrats and the commoners was recorded by the Mandarin-speaking first Imperial High Commissioner to Taiwan, Huang Shujing: The tone of Huang's message foretold the uneasy relationships between different language communities and colonial establishments over the next few centuries. The ban on migration to Taiwan was relaxed sometime after 1722. During the 200 years of Qing dynasty rule, thousands of immigrants from Fujian arrived yearly. Civil unrest and armed conflicts were frequent. In addition to resistance against governments, battles between ethnic groups were significant: the belligerents us

Momoko Hirata

Momoko Hirata is a Japanese principal dancer for the Birmingham Royal Ballet. She attended the Reiko Yamamoto Ballet School before enrolling in the Royal Ballet School in the London, England, she won the 2001 Prix de Lausanne and joined the Birmingham Royal Ballet in 2003. She was promoted to First Artist in 2005, Soloist in 2008, First Soloist in 2010, she danced with the Barcelona Ballet as a principal dancer in 2012, before returning to the Birmingham Royal Ballet where she was promoted to Principal in 2013. Born in 1985 in Gunma Prefecture, Hirata began training in classical ballet at the Reiko Yamamoto Ballet School, she attended the Royal Ballet School and in 2001 she won the Prix de Lausanne. She danced the Princess Aurora variation from The Sleeping Beauty. In 2003, Hirata joined the Birmingham Royal Ballet, she was promoted to First Artist in 2005 and to Soloist in 2008. In 2010, she was further promoted to First Soloist. In 2011, she joined the Barcelona Ballet before returning to the Birmingham Royal Ballet the following season.

She was promoted from First Soloist to Principal in 2013. Judith Mackrell, a critic for The Guardian, has described Hirata as "astoundingly fast and crystal clear in the ballerina role; every detail of rhythm and style has a bevelled finish so that within the most pressured rush of a phrase, each step sings." In her role as The Princess in John Cranko's The Prince of the Pagodas, Mark Monahan from The Telegraph noted that it was "performed with an enchanting grace - first melancholic joyful - by the beautiful Japanese-born dancer Momoko Hirata." Twenty five years on and BRB dancers are still in their element with the speed and precision required by this rollercoaster ride of classicism. None more so than Momoko Hirata, splendid from first to last in each of the principal ballerina’s fiendishly fast and complex variations. Elegance of line was paramount with her razor sharp outlines undiminished by the rapid speed of execution. Hirata has that rare quality of retaining an air of conservatism – in complete control of the precision of her movement – despite the challenging momentum of the music.

As Juliet in Sir Kenneth MacMillan's Romeo and Juliet her performance was positively received. The Herald noted "Hirata is cast as Juliet - exquisitely marrying the vulnerability and playfulness of a young Juliet in the nursery scene, with the passionate and ardent sensuality of her love scenes with Romeo."Her repertory includes Polyhymnia in Apollo, Agon and Western Symphony by George Balanchine. Lady Elgar in Enigma Variations, Dante Sonata, La fille mal gardée, Scènes de ballet and Les Deux Pigeons by Sir Frederick Ashton. Princess Badr al-Budur in Aladdin, Princess Belle Sakura in The Prince of the Pagodas, Spring in Cinderella, the title role of Sylvia, Titania in The Dream, Carmina Burana, Hobson's Choice, Candy Kane in The Nutcracker Sweeties and Winter in The Seasons and the Beast, Celeritas² in E=mc², Allegri diversi, Les petits riens, The Sons of Horus by David Bintley. Other repertory includes works by Galina Samsova, Kim Brandstrup, Oliver Hindle, Kit Holder, Millicent Hodson, Kenneth Archer, Garry Stewart, Twyla Tharp, Sir Peter Wright.

岡見. "バーミンガム・ロイヤル・バレエ団「シンデレラ」 心温まるリアルな夢のひととき". Sankei Shimbun. Retrieved 2 November 2016. "白鳥の湖 英国バーミンガムロイヤルバレエ 1回目". Yahoo! Japan. 25 April 2015. Retrieved 2 November 2016. Birmingham Royal Ballet bio

Treaty of Bila Tserkva

The Treaty of Bila Tserkva was a peace treaty signed on 28 September 1651, between the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Ukrainian Cossacks in the aftermath of the Battle of Bila Tserkva. It was signed for the Poles by Mikołaj Potocki, Marcin Kalinowski, Adam Kisiel, Stanisław Lanckoroński, palatine of Bratslav, Zbigniew Gorajski, castellan of Kyiv, Mikolaj Kazimierz Kossakowski, deputy judge of Bratslav. Signing for Lithuania, were Prince Janusz Radziwill, Palatine Jerzy Karol Hlebowicz, Wincenty Gosiewski. Signing for the Zaporozhian Host were Bohdan Khmelnytsky "on behalf of the entire host". According to the concluded agreement, the number of Registered Cossacks was reduced from 40,000 to 20,000 and their residence restricted to the area of the Kiev Voivodeship. Additionally, the Brastlav and Chernihiv palatinates were given back to Polish governmental administrators, the noblemen were permitted to return to their properties. "The Greek religion to which the Zaporozhian Host adheres is to be considered to have its ancient liberties according to the old laws", "the noblemen of the Roman and Greek faith who were in the Zaporozhian Host...are to be amnestied", "the Jews who lived in royal and nobiliary estates and held leases there are to do so now also".

Most "the Horde...is to be sent home" and "the present Hetman...will have any relations or agreements with it or with foreign rulers, but will remain and inviolably in loyal subordination to the king and the Commonwealth and benevolently serving the Commonwealth in everything." "Envoys from the hetman and the Zaporozhian Host are to be sent to the next Diet, with humble thanks for the mercy and favor of the king and the entire Commonwealth." The treaty was blocked by a single vote, the Liberum Veto, thus never ratified by the Polish diet. "Moreover, by a resolution of 18 February", 1652, "the House of Delegates raised a rather definite protest against it and declared it invalid...they were to agree to 6,000 Cossacks, not 20,000". Khmelnytsky decided to fulfill its provisions and ordered a Cossack detachment to pacify a peasant uprising against returning nobles in the Kiev palatinate; the Ruin #List of treaties Bila Tserkva, Treaty of in Encyclopedia of Ukraine

Hermann Föttinger

Hermann Föttinger was a German engineer and inventor. In the course of his life he submitted over 100 patent applications, but he is most notable for inventing fluid coupling. From 1895 to 1899 Hermann Föttinger studied electrical engineering at the Technical University of Munich. From 1904 he worked as a chief designer in the shipyard AG Vulcan Stettin, he was responsible for the testing of new steam turbines. During this time he developed the fluid coupling consisting of a pump and a turbine in a unit that in further development resulted in the automatic automobile transmission. In 1909 he obtained a position at the Technische Hochschule in Danzig where he started the institute for fluid dynamics technology. In 1924 he took up a position as head of the current department of physics and turbines at the Technical University of Berlin. Here he remained until his death from grenade fragments in April 1945. Föttinger laid the basis of the fluid dynamics from Euler over Rankine and Hermann von Helmholtz to its current uses in the boundary layer of airplane wings and propulsion theory.

Together with Franz Kruckenberg he started the Flugbahn-Gesellschaft mbH to develop the Schienenzeppelins. Föttinger's patents for internal combustion engines include: US1636050, Device for damping the oscillations of multiple crank shafts US2244453, Scavenging of two-stroke cycle internal combustion engines Hans Jürgen Reuß:"Hermann Föttinger". In: Journal internationally maritime HANSA, 6, S. 58-59. Hamburg: Navigation publishing house "Hansa" C. Schroedter & Co.2008. Http://www.hfi.tu-berlin.de/Foettinger/Projekte/SVT137155/svt137155.pdf description of SVT 137 155 Hermann Föttinger in the German National Library catalogue Georg Schnadel, "Hermann Föttinger", Neue Deutsche Biographie, 5, Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 283–284 detailed representation Föttingers life and creating the institute for current mechanics and technical acoustics of the TU Berlin, ehem. Hermann-Föttinger-institute for current mechanics in/volltexte/2008/2012/html/festschrift/foettinger.htm biography in the commemorative volume"125 years University of Berlin' technical'

East Coast Bays (New Zealand electorate)

East Coast Bays is a New Zealand parliamentary electorate. It has existed apart from a break lasting two parliamentary terms; the electorate has been held by Erica Stanford of the National Party since the 2017 general election. Since the 1969 election, the number of electorates in the South Island was fixed at 25, with continued faster population growth in the North Island leading to an increase in the number of general electorates. There were 84 electorates for the 1969 election, the 1972 electoral redistribution saw three additional general seats created for the North Island, bringing the total number of electorates to 87. Together with increased urbanisation in Christchurch and Nelson, the changes proved disruptive to existing electorates. In the South Island, three electorates were abolished, three electorates were newly created. In the North Island, five electorates were abolished, two electorates were recreated, six electorates were newly created; the electorate is based around the north-eastern suburbs of North Shore City in north Auckland, including Torbay, Browns Bay and Mairangi Bay.

The electorate crosses State Highway One at its southern end. East Coast Bays is a wealthy electorate, with incomes above the national average and boasting some of the most expensive real estate in the country; the electorate contains many émigrés from South Africa. East Coast Bays was an electorate in the New Zealand Parliament between 1972 and 1996, before being abolished to make way for the Albany electorate at the change to Mixed Member Proportional voting. High population growth in North Auckland lead to the electorate's western fringe being removed in 2002, with it the eponymous suburb of Albany, thus recreating East Coast Bays ahead of the 2002 election. Although now a safe electorate for National, it was held for seven years by Social Credit MP Gary Knapp, from the 1980 by-election when he defeated future National party leader Don Brash. In the 1981, 1984 and 1987 general elections, Labour came third, with Knapp defeating Brash in 1981 and Murray McCully in 1984, but in 1987 the declining fortunes of the Democratic Party, led to Knapp being defeated by Murray McCully, who held the electorate for National until 2017.

In December 2016, McCully announced that he would not stand for parliament in the 2017 general election, the seat of East Coast Bays was won by Erica Stanford, retaining it for the National Party. Key National Social Credit Democrats United Future Green 1 Resigned when appointed Ambassador to the United States Members of Parliament elected from party lists in elections where that person unsuccessfully contested the East Coast Bays electorate. Unless otherwise stated, all MPs terms ended at general elections. 2Resigned in October 2009, five months after losing Green Party co-leadership vote to Metiria Turei Electorate: 47,305 McRobie, Alan. Electoral Atlas of New Zealand. Wellington: GP Books. ISBN 0-477-01384-8. Wilson, James Oakley. New Zealand Parliamentary Record, 1840–1984. Wellington: V. R. Ward, Govt. Printer. OCLC 154283103. Electorate Profile Parliamentary Library

Juya

Juya, born Qiemoju, was a chanyu of the Xiongnu Empire. The brother and successor of Souxie, he reigned from 12 to 8 BC. Juya sent his son Wuyidang to Chang'an. Juya was succeeded by his brother, Wuzhuliu. Barfield, The Perilous Frontier: Nomadic Empires and China, Basil Blackwell Bichurin N. Ya. "Collection of information on peoples in Central Asia in ancient times", vol. 1, Sankt Petersburg, 1851, reprint Moscow-Leningrad, 1950 Chang, Chun-shu, The Rise of the Chinese Empire 1, The University of Michigan Press Cosmo, Nicola Di, Ancient China and Its Enemies, Cambridge University Press Cosmo, Nicola di, Military Culture in Imperial China, Harvard University Press Loewe, Michael, A Biographical Dictionary of the Qin, Former Han, Xin Periods, Brill Taskin B. S. "Materials on Sünnu history", Moscow, 1968, p. 31 Whiting, Marvin C. Imperial Chinese Military History, Writers Club Press