Taiwanese indigenous peoples or Taiwanese aborigines, Formosan people, Austronesian Taiwanese or Gāoshān people, are the indigenous peoples of Taiwan, who number 569,008 or 2.38% of the island's population—or more than 800,000 people, considering the potential recognition of Taiwanese plain indigenous peoples in the future. Recent research suggests their ancestors may have been living on Taiwan for 5,500 years in relative isolation before a major Han immigration from mainland China began in the 17th century. Taiwanese aborigines are Austronesian peoples, with linguistic and genetic ties to other Austronesian peoples. Related ethnic groups include Polynesians, most people of the Philippines, Indonesia and Brunei, among others. For centuries, Taiwan's aboriginal inhabitants experienced economic competition and military conflict with a series of colonising newcomers. Centralised government policies designed to foster language shift and cultural assimilation, as well as continued contact with the colonisers through trade and other intercultural processes, have resulted in varying degrees of language death and loss of original cultural identity.
For example, of the 26 known languages of the Taiwanese aborigines, at least ten are now extinct, five are moribund and several are to some degree endangered. These languages are of unique historical significance, since most historical linguists consider Taiwan to be the original homeland of the Austronesian language family. Taiwan's Austronesian speakers were distributed over much of the island's rugged Central Mountain Range and were concentrated in villages along the alluvial plains; the bulk of contemporary Taiwanese aborigines now live in cities. The indigenous peoples of Taiwan have economic and social deficiencies, including a high unemployment rate and substandard education. Since the early 1980s, many aboriginal groups have been seeking a higher degree of political self-determination and economic development; the revival of ethnic pride is expressed in many ways by aborigines, including the incorporation of elements of their culture into commercially successful pop music. Efforts are under way in indigenous communities to revive traditional cultural practices and preserve their traditional languages.
The Austronesian Cultural Festival in Taitung City is one means by which community members promote aboriginal culture. In addition, several aboriginal communities have become extensively involved in the tourism and ecotourism industries with the goal of achieving increased economic self-reliance and preserving their culture. For most of their recorded history, Taiwanese aborigines have been defined by the agents of different Confucian and Nationalist "civilizing" projects, with a variety of aims; each "civilizing" project defined the aborigines based on the "civilizer"'s cultural understandings of difference and similarity, location and prior contact with other groups of people. Taxonomies imposed by colonizing forces divided the aborigines into named subgroups, referred to as "tribes"; these divisions did not always correspond to distinctions drawn by the aborigines themselves. However, the categories have become so established in government and popular discourse over time that they have become de facto distinctions, serving to shape in part today's political discourse within the Republic of China, affecting Taiwan's policies regarding indigenous peoples.
The Han sailor, Chen Di, in his Record of the Eastern Seas, identifies the indigenous people of Taiwan as "Eastern Savages", while the Dutch referred to Taiwan's original inhabitants as "Indians" or "blacks", based on their prior colonial experience in what is Indonesia. Beginning nearly a century as the rule of the Qing Empire expanded over wider groups of people and gazetteers recast their descriptions away from reflecting degree of acculturation, toward a system that defined the aborigines relative to their submission or hostility to Qing rule. Qing used the term "raw/wild/uncivilized" to define those people who had not submitted to Qing rule, "cooked/tamed/civilized" for those who had pledged their allegiance through their payment of a head tax. According to the standards of the Qianlong Emperor and successive regimes, the epithet "cooked" was synonymous with having assimilated to Han cultural norms, living as a subject of the Empire, but it retained a pejorative designation to signify the perceived cultural lacking of the non-Han people.
This designation reflected the prevailing idea that anyone could be civilized/tamed by adopting Confucian social norms. As the Qing consolidated their power over the plains and struggled to enter the mountains in the late 19th century, the terms Pingpu and Gaoshan were used interchangeably with the epithets "civilized" and "uncivilized". During Japanese rule, anthropologists from Japan maintained the binary classification. In 1900 they incorporated it into their own colonial project by employing the term Peipo for the "civilized tribes", creating a category of "recognized tribes" for the aborigines, called "uncivilized"; the Musha incident of 1930 led to many changes in aboriginal policy, the Japanese government began referring to them as Takasago-zoku. The latter group included the Atayal, Tsou, Paiwan and Amis peoples; the Tao and Rukai were added for a total of nine recognized peoples. During the early period of Chinese Nationalist Kuomin
Hans Eleonardus Møller Sr. was a Norwegian businessperson. Hans Eleonardus Møller was born in 1780 to dr.med. Hans Møller and his wife Eleonore Hedevig, née Rasch, his father had immigrated to Norway from their native Denmark. He was born at Onsø, but grew up at Åkre at Porsgrund, his uncle was Danish bishop Rasmus Møller, his cousin was professor Paul Martin Møller. His older brother Jacob Nikolaus moved to Germany, where his son Johannes Møller became a history professor. Jacob Nikolaus was an intellectual, befriending Henrik Steffens. Hans Eleonardus Møller Sr. married socialite Inger Aall, daughter of Nicolai Benjamin Aall. As such his brothers-in-law were noted politicians Niels, Jørgen and Jacob Aall, their son Hans Eleonardus Møller became a member of the national parliament and married a daughter of Jacob Aall. Their daughter Simonine married a son of merchant and mayor Jens Gasmann, their younger daughter Marianne married Hans J. C. Aall, a son of Jacob Aall; the grandson of Møller Sr. Hans Møller became a parliament member.
Hans Eleonardus Møller Sr. started his career working for his father-in-law Nicolai Benjamin Aall. Following the death of N. B. Aall in 1798, Møller continued working for inheritor Niels Aall. From 1811 they co-owned a company Aall & Møller, but this was not profitable and was dissolved. Møller had invested 100,000 rigsdaler in the venture, he instead started as a merchant of his own, having acquired burghership in October 1803. Concentrating on timber merchantry, he owned several ships; the Gunboat War from 1807 to 1813 saw the loss of many ships, but he invested and had the ships replaced. One ship seized in 1812 was bought back in 1814, he bought his last ship in 1828. Jacob Aall, father-in-law of two of Møller's children, described Møller as "one of Norway's most active and skillful merchants". Møller Sr. became noted in the context of marine insurance, an endeavour spearheaded by his son Hans Eleonardus Jr. An association for marine insurance companies Den første norske Assuranceforening was founded in 1837, with Møller Sr. hired as treasurer in 1838.
The association soon became an arena of contest between the Møller family and others, with Møller Jr. breaking away to found a rivalling marine insurance company Det Norske Lloyd in 1860. Møller Sr. died the same year
The 2020 World Junior Figure Skating Championships were held in Tallinn, Estonia on March 2–8, 2020. Figure skaters competed for the title of junior world champion in men's singles, ladies' singles and ice dance; the competition determined the entry quotas for each federation during the 2020–21 ISU Junior Grand Prix series and at the 2021 World Junior Championships. Skaters who reach the age of 13 before July 1, 2019, but have not turned 19 or 21 are eligible to compete at the junior level; the ISU stipulates that the minimum scores must be achieved at an ISU-recognized junior international competition in the ongoing or preceding season, no than 21 days before the first official practice day. Based on the results of the 2019 World Junior Championships, each ISU member nation can field one to three entries per discipline. Member nations began announcing their selections in December 2019; the International Skating Union published a complete of entries on February 12, 2020. Medals awarded to the skaters who achieve the highest overall placements in each discipline: Small medals awarded to the skaters who achieve the highest short program or rhythm dance placements in each discipline: Medals awarded to the skaters who achieve the highest free skating or free dance placements in each discipline: Table of medals for overall placement: Table of small medals for placement in the short/rhythm segment: Table of small medals for placement in the free segment: The following new ISU best scores were set during this competition: Official website
Robert Charles Janiszewski is a former American Democratic Party politician who served as County Executive of Hudson County, New Jersey from 1988 to 2001. In 2002 he pleaded guilty to taking more than $100,000 in bribes, in 2005 was sentenced to 41 months in prison, despite cooperating with federal investigators, he was the highest-ranking elected official in state history to work undercover for the FBI. Janiszewski was born in 1945 in New Jersey, of paternal Polish heritage, he attended St. Joseph's School in Jersey St. Michael's High School in Union City, he went on to attend Jersey City State College, receiving a B. A. degree in 1967 and an M. A. degree in sociology in 1975. He taught social sciences at Hudson County Community College. In 1977, Janiszewski was elected to the New Jersey General Assembly, serving from 1978 to 1984. In 1987 he was elected County Executive of Hudson County, after winning the Democratic primary against incumbent Edward J. Clark Jr. who had served in the position for 12 years.
He was appointed a commissioner of the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey and chairman of the North Jersey Transportation Planning Authority. He entered the race for the Democratic gubernatorial primary in 1997 but withdrew before the election. Beginning in 1999, as Janiszewski testified, he accepted more than $20,000 from Union City psychiatrist Oscar Sandoval in exchange for renewing contracts to provide psychiatric services to the Hudson County jail, juvenile detention facility, psychiatric hospital. Sandoval funneled some of the payments to Janiszewski through Hudson County Freeholder Nidia Dávila-Colón, romantically involved with Sandoval. Cooperating with the FBI, Sandoval arranged a meeting with Janiszewski in November 2000 to deliver another payment at an Atlantic City hotel room. After the meeting, FBI agents confronted Janiszewski with a videotape of him receiving a bribe from Dávila-Colón in 1999 and asked him to cooperate with their corruption investigations. Janiszewski was allowed to remain in office for nearly a year, secretly recording conversations with his associates as part of the FBI's undercover operation in Hudson County.
He disappeared from public life. It was revealed that he was moved out of the state of New Jersey under FBI protection. In February 2002, a reporter from The Jersey Journal located Janiszewski working at a ski shop near Hunter Mountain in the Catskill Mountains of New York, where he and his wife had a second home; the FBI moved Janiszewski again soon thereafter. On October 3, 2002, Janiszewski pleaded guilty to taking more than $100,000 in bribes, testifying that he accepted two bribes of $5,000 each from Dávila-Colón in 1999. Dávila-Colón was indicted that month, her trial was held in May and June 2003, with Janiszewski as a key witness, she was convicted on five counts of mail fraud. On March 24, 2005, U. S. District Court Judge Joel A. Pisano sentenced Janiszewski to 41 months in prison, the maximum sentence allowed under his plea agreement, despite his cooperation with investigators. Before sentencing he had been living in hiding, most working as a construction worker in New York. Janiszewski was released on April 25, 2008 after serving the last four months of his sentence at a halfway house in Albany, New York.
Biographical information for Robert C. Janiszewski from The Political Graveyard Robert C. Janiszewski on IMDb
Hendra Purnama is an Indonesian competitive archer. He competed as a member of the Indonesian archery squad in major international tournaments, spanning the World Championships, Asian Championships, 2014 Summer Youth Olympics, the 2016 Summer Olympics. Purnama was selected to compete for Indonesia at the 2016 Summer Olympics in Rio de Janeiro, shooting in both individual and team recurve tournaments. First, Purnama amassed a total of 655 points out of a maximum 720 to hand him a thirty-ninth seed heading to the knockout stage, along with his team's score of 1,962 collected from the classification round. Sitting at tenth in the men's team recurve and his compatriots Riau Ega Agatha and Muhammad Wijaya put up a more tremendous effort by trouncing Chinese Taipei in the opening round, before they faced their quarterfinal match against the Americans, which led to the trio's early departure from the competition at 2–6. In the men's individual recurve, Purnama succumbed to the two-time medalist Viktor Ruban of Ukraine in the opening round match with a score of 3–7.
Hendra Purnama at the World Archery Federation
Cakile maritima, the European searocket, is a common plant in the mustard family. It is widespread in Europe, North Africa and western Asia on coastlines, it can now be found in many other areas of the world. It is an inhabitant of the west and east coasts of North America, where it has the potential to become a noxious weed; this is an annual plant which grows in mounds in the sand on beaches and bluffs. The shiny leaves are fleshy and tinted with purple or magenta, long-lobed, it has white to light purple flowers and sculpted, corky brown fruits one to three centimeters long. The fruits are water-dispersed, it is succulent annual, with a slender or stout taproot. It has a branched stem ascending, growing up to 15 -- 45 cm; the lobed leaves, are flesh-like and alternate, they are different from top and bottom of the stem, the lower leaves are obovate or oblancelate, while the upper ones are oblong. It blooms between June and August; the small flowers come in shades of white, lilac-coloured or purple, with 4 petals measuring up to 25 mm across.
It produces green maturing to brown, seed capsules, that are short and stubby. They contain 2 yellow, smooth seeds; the seed oil contains a high level of erucic acid. Due to its efficient antioxidant system, it can withstand high doses of Cadmium pollution, it was described by Giovanni Antonio Scopoli in ` Fl. Carniol.' Edition 2, Vol.2 on page 35, in 1772. The specific epithet maritima, refers to the Latin term for'of the sea'. Cakile maritima is native to temperate areas of western Asia and Europe, it is found in Africa within Algeria, the Canary Islands, Libya, the Madeira Islands and Tunisia. In Western Asia, it is found in the Caucasus, Iran, Israel and Turkey. In Eastern Europe, it is found in Ukraine. In middle Europe, it is found within Belgium, the Netherlands and Poland. In Northern Europe, in Denmark, Iceland and the United Kingdom. In Southeastern Europe, within Albania, Croatia, Italy, Romania and Slovenia. In Southeastern Europe, within France and Spain, it is widely naturalised outside of its native range, in North America.
It grows on the foreshores near large dune systems, in shingle banks. It is tolerant of transient seawater inundation, it is pollinated by a wide range of insects, from Apis mellifera, Eristalis intricarius and Pieris rapae. As the seed oil contains a high level of erucic acid which can have pathological effects on the cardiac muscle of several animal species. However, orange-bellied parrots feed on its seed during their northward migrating journey from Tasmania and Australia; the seed oil can be used for industrial applications. Jepson Manual Treatment USDA Plants Profile Plant-identification Photo gallery