SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Taiyuan

Taiyuan is the capital and largest city of Shanxi province in Northern China. It is one of the main manufacturing bases of China. Throughout its long history, Taiyuan was the capital or provisional capital of many dynasties in China, hence the name Lóngchéng. Taiyuan is located in the centre of Shanxi, with the Fen River flowing through the central city; the two Chinese characters of the city's name are 太 and 原, referring to the location where the Fen River leaves the mountains and enters a flat plain. Throughout its long history, the city had various names, including Jìnyáng and Lóngchéng. Taiyuan has been known as "Yangku", since the county seat of Taiyuan was called Yangku in Qing Dynasty. During the Tang dynasty and subsequent Five Dynasties, the status of the city of Taiyuan was elevated to be the Northern Capital, hence the name Běidū, Běijīng. Taiyuan is an ancient city with more than 2500 years of urban history, dating back from 497 BC, it was the capital or secondary capital of Zhao, Former Qin, Eastern Wei, Northern Qi, Northern Jin, Later Tang, Later Jin, Later Han, Northern Han.

Its strategic location and rich history make Taiyuan one of the economic, political and cultural centers of Northern China. From about 859 BC the area around modern-day Taiyuan was occupied by the Rong people. In 662 BC the Rong were driven out by the Di people. During the Spring and Autumn period, the state of Jin emerged to the south of Taiyuan. In 541 BC, the Jin army led by General Xun Wu, drove out the Di Tribes, Taiyuan became part of the state of Jin. In 497 BC, the first ancient city of Jinyang was built around the southern Jinyuan District of present-day Taiyuan, by Dong Anyu, a steward of Zhao Jianzi, an upper-level official of the state of Jin. During the Battle of Jinyang in 453 BC, Zhi Yao diverted the flow of the Fen River to inundate the city of Jinyang, caused significant damage to the Zhao. Zhao Xiangzi alerted Wei and Han, who both decided to ally with Zhao. On the night of 8 May 453 BC, Zhao troops broke the dams of the Fen River and let the river flood the Zhi armies, annihilated the Zhi army, with the help from Wei and Han.

The Tripartition of Jin happened in 403 BC, when the state of Jin a strong power in Northern China, was divided into three smaller states of Han and Wei. This event is the watershed between the Spring and Autumn and Warring States periods in Chinese history. Jinyang, was chosen as the capital of Zhao, by Zhao Ji; the capital of Zhao was moved to Handan. In 248 BC, the state of Qin attacked Zhao under General Meng'ao, obtained the area around Jinyang from Zhao. Qin set up the Commandery of Taiyuan, with the city of Jinyang as its administrative center. Although, the name Taiyuan had appeared in historic records before referring to different regions in nowadays southern and central Shanxi, this was the first time Taiyuan was used to refer to present-day Taiyuan. In 246 BC, there was an uprising in Jinyang, it was quelled by Meng'ao. In 221 BC, Qin conquered the rest of China, started the first imperial dynasty of China. Qin established thirty-six commanderies on its territory, Taiyuan was one of them.

The capital of commandery of Taiyuan is Jinyang. In 206 BC, Emperor Gaozu Liu Bang established the Han dynasty. During that period, the Qin administrative system of commanderies was abolished, the two Commanderies of Taiyuan and Yanmen were combined as the vassal state of Han under the rule of King Xin of Han. King Xin of Han moved the capital from Jinyang to Mayi with the approval from the emperor Gaozu. However, King Xin of Han conspired with the Xiongnu against Gaozu, attacked Han for many years. In 196 BC, King Xin of Han was killed, and the vassal state of Han was replaced by the vassal state of Dai, with Jinyang as the administrative center of Dai. During the tumultuous Three Kingdoms, the population of Taiyuan decreased due to constant warfares. Taiyuan was ruled by Gongsun Zan, Yuan Shao, by Cao Cao, was part of Cao Wei afterwards. During the Jin dynasty, Taiyuan was again changed into a vassal state. Following the ending of the Jin dynasty, ethnic minority peoples settled a series of short-lived sovereign states in northern China referred to as Sixteen Kingdoms.

Taiyuan was part of Former Zhao, Later Zhao, Former Qin, Former Yan, Former Qin again, Western Yan, Later Yan chronologically. In 304, Liu Yuan founded the Xiongnu state of Former Zhao, whose army raided the area around Taiyuan for years and obtained Taiyuan in 316. In 319, Taiyuan became part of Later Zhao, founded by Shi Le. Taiyuan was obtained by Former Yan in 358, by Former Qin in 370. Former Qin was founded by Fu Jian in 351 with capital of Chang'an. Fu Jian died in 384, his son Fu Pi declared himself an emperor in 385, with Jinyang as the capital. But the next year, Fu Pi was defeated by the Western Yan prince Murong Yong in 386, Taiyuan became part of Western Yan. In 394, Taiyuan was conquered by Later Yan army. In 386, Tuoba Gui founded Northern Wei. In 396, Northern Wei expanded to Taiyuan. In 543, Eastern Wei was founded by Gao Huan, with the capital at the city of Ye, Taiyuan as the alternative capital, where the Mansion of the "Great Chancellor" Gao Huan was located. In 550, Northern Qi was founded by Gao Yang, who maintained his father Ga

Sharon Dijksma

Sharon Alida Maria Dijksma is a Dutch politician of the Labour Party. She is an Alderperson of Amsterdam since 30 May 2018, she was a member of the House of Representatives from 23 March 2017 until 30 May 2018. From 3 November 2015 until 26 October 2017 she was the State secretary of the Ministry of Infrastructure and the Environment succeeding to Wilma Mansveld who resigned from the position. Therefore, Dijksma was allowed to use the ministerial title "Minister for Agriculture" while on foreign business. Before that she was an MP from 17 June 2010 to 19 September 2012, she focused on matters of water management and home affairs. Dijksma was the State secretary for Education and Science in the Fourth Balkenende cabinet from 2007 to 2010. From 1994 to 2007, she was a member of the House of Representatives. When, on 16 May 1994, Dijksma became an MP, her age was 23 and she was the youngest MP in Dutch parliamentarian history. In 1991 she became secretary general of the Young Socialists. From 1992 to 1994 she was chairwoman of the Young Socialists.

Dijksma studied law at the University of Groningen and public administration at the University of Twente but did not finish her studies. Official S. A. M. Dijksma Parlement & Politiek

New neoclassical synthesis

The new neoclassical synthesis or new synthesis is the fusion of the major, modern macroeconomic schools of thought, new classical and New-Keynesianism, into a consensus on the best way to explain short-run fluctuations in the economy. This new synthesis is analogous to the neoclassical synthesis that combined neoclassical economics with Keynesian macroeconomics; the new synthesis provides the theoretical foundation for much of contemporary mainstream economics. It is an important part of the theoretical foundation for the work done by the Federal Reserve and many other central banks. Prior to the synthesis macroeconomics was split between new Keynesian work on market imperfections demonstrated with small models and new classical work on real business cycle theory that used specified general equilibrium models and used changes in technology to explain fluctuations in economic output; the new synthesis has taken elements from both schools. New classical economics contributed the methodology behind real business cycle theory and new Keynesian economics contributed nominal rigidities.

Goodfriend and King proposed a list of four elements that are central to the new synthesis: intertemporal optimization, rational expectations, imperfect competition, costly price adjustment. Goodfriend and King find that the consensus models produce certain policy implications. In contradiction with some new classical thought, monetary policy can affect real output in the short-run, but there is no long-run trade-off: money is not neutral in the short-run but it is in the long-run. Inflation has negative welfare effects, it is important for central banks to maintain credibility through rules based policy like inflation targeting. More Michael Woodford attempted to describe the new synthesis with five elements. First, he stated; these allow both short-run and long-run impacts of changes in the economy to be examined in a single framework and microeconomic and macroeconomic concerns are no longer separated. This element of the synthesis is a victory for the new classical, but it includes the Keynesian desire for modeling short-run aggregate dynamics.

Second, the modern synthesis recognizes the importance of using observed data, but economists now focus on models built out of theory instead of looking at more generic correlations. Third, the new synthesis uses rational expectations. However, based on sticky prices and other rigidities, the synthesis does not embrace the complete neutrality of money proposed by earlier new classical economists. Fourth, the new synthesis accepts that shocks of varying types can cause economic output to fluctuate; this view goes beyond the monetarist view that monetary variables cause fluctuations and the Keynesian view that supply is stable while demand fluctuates. Older Keynesian models measured output gaps as the difference between measured output and an ever-growing trend of output capacity. Real business cycle theory did not consider the possibility of gaps and used changes in efficient output, caused by shocks to the economy, to explain fluctuations in output. Keynesians rejected this theory and argued that changes in efficient output were not large enough to explain wider swings in the economy.

The new synthesis combines elements from both schools on this issue. In the new synthesis, output gaps exist, but they are the difference between actual output and efficient output; the use of efficient output recognizes that potential output does not grow continuously, but can move upward or downward in response to shocks. Fifth, it is accepted; this is a victory for monetarists, but new synthesis models include an updated version of the Philips curve that draws from Keynesianism. Neoclassical synthesis New classical macroeconomics New Keynesian macroeconomicsGeneral History of macroeconomic thought Mainstream economics Blanchard, Olivier, "What Do We Know About Macroeconomics That Fisher and Wicksell Did Not?", Quarterly Journal of Economics, 115: 1375–1409, CiteSeerX 10.1.1.410.6153, doi:10.1162/003355300554999. Goodfriend, Marvin. Kocherlakota, Narayana R, "Modern macroeconomic models as tools for economic policy", The Region, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis, pp. 5–21, archived from the original on 2012-10-20.

Mankiw, N Gregory, "New Keynesian Economics", The Concise Encyclopedia of Economics, Library of Economics and Liberty. Snowdon, Brian. Woodford, Michael, "Convergence in Macroeconomics: Elements of the New Synthesis", American Economic Journal: Macroeconomics, 1: 267–79, doi:10.1257/mac.1.1.267. Jean-Pierre Laffargue.