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Takoma Park, Maryland

Takoma Park is a city in Montgomery County, United States. It is a suburb of Washington, part of the Washington metropolitan area. Founded in 1883 and incorporated in 1890, Takoma Park, informally called "Azalea City", is a Tree City USA and a nuclear-free zone. A planned commuter suburb, it is situated along the Metropolitan Branch of the historic Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, just northeast of Washington, it shares a border and history with the adjacent neighborhood of Takoma It is governed by an elected mayor and six elected councilmembers, who form the city council, an appointed city manager, under a council-manager style of government; the city's population was 16,715 at the 2010 national census. Since 2013, residents of Takoma Park can vote in municipal elections, it was the first city in the United States to extend voting rights to 16- and 17-year-olds in city elections. Since the City of Hyattsville has followed suit. Takoma Park was founded by Benjamin Franklin Gilbert in 1883, it was one of the first planned Victorian commuter suburbs, centered on the B&O railroad station in Takoma, D.

C. and bore aspects of a trolley park. Takoma was the name of Mount Rainier, from Lushootseed,'snow-covered mountain'. In response to a wish of Gilbert, the name Takoma was chosen in 1883 by DC resident Ida Summy, who believed it to mean'high up' or'near heaven'; the city of Tacoma in Washington State is named after Mount Takhoma. Gilbert's first purchase of land was in spring 1884 when he bought 100 acres of land from G. C. Grammar, known as Robert's Choice; this plot of land was located on both sides of the railroad station bounded by today's Sixth Street on the west, Aspen Street on the south, Willow Avenue on the east, Takoma Avenue on the north. At the time, much of the land was covered by thick forest, some of, cleared away in order to lay out and grade streets and housing lots. At its founding, most lots were sold for $327 to $653 per acre. By August 1885, there were about 100 people living in Takoma Park, including temporary summer residents and year-round permanent residents. Gilbert himself lived in a wooden house with 20 rooms and a 65-foot tower.

Gilbert purchased another plot of land in 1886. The land was bounded by Carroll Avenue to the Big Spring and what is now Woodland Avenue. Gilbert named this land New Takoma. Gilbert purchased the Jones farm and the Naughton farm, which together he named North Takoma, he purchased land from Francis P. Blair, Richard L. T. Beale, the Riggs family. Gilbert hired contractor Fred E. Dudley to build many of the homes in Takoma Park. One of the homes built by Dudley was the home of Cady Lee, which still stands today at Piney Branch Road and Eastern Avenue. Dudley's son Wentworth was the first child born in Takoma Park. By 1888, there were 75 houses built in the community, the number increased to 235 homes by 1889. In 1889, Gilbert purchased several acres of land along Sligo Creek from a physician in Boston named Dr. R. C. Flower, in order to build a sanitarium on the land. By this point, Takoma Park stretched 1,500 acres; the deed of each of the original houses prohibited alcohol from being made or sold on the property, a prohibition that continued in the city until 1983.

Takoma Park incorporated as a town on April 3, 1890. The first town election was held on May 5, 1890, Gilbert was elected mayor and J. Vance Lewis, George H. Bailey, Daniel Smith, Frederick J. Lung were elected to the town council; the Watkins Hotel was built in 1892. A fire destroyed the town's built commercial district and the Watkins Hotel in 1893. Gilbert's North Takoma Hotel was built that year, advertising the pure spring water nearby its 160 rooms. Many of the streets were known as avenues; when the Commissioners of the District of Columbia mandated a District-wide street-naming system, those on the District side were renamed streets but retained their names otherwise. Other streets in Takoma, D. C. were renamed entirely. Susquehanna Avenue became Whittier Street. Tahoe Street was renamed Aspen Street. Umatilla Street became Aspen Street. Vermilion Street became Cedar Street. Wabash Street was renamed Dahlia Street. Aspin became Elder Street. Magnolia Street became Eastern Avenue. In 1904, the Seventh-day Adventist Church purchased five acres of land in Takoma Park along Carroll Avenue, Laurel Avenue, Willow Avenue.

The land was located on both sides of the Maryland-District of Columbia border. The land was intended for a church, office building and residences for prominent members of the church. In 1903, the Seventh-day Adventist Church decided to move their headquarters to the Washington area after its headquarters' publishing house in Battle Creek, had burned to the ground; the church decided that moving to a more urban setting would be a more appropriate place from which to increase the church's presence in the southern states. The church purchased fifty acres of land along Sligo Creek in Takoma Park to build the new headquarters; the land was away from downtown Washington and had clean water available from a natural spring located at present-day Spring Park. For many decades Takoma Park served as the world headquarters of the Seventh-day Adventist Church, until it moved to northern Silver Spring in 1989. In 1908, North Takoma Hotel was bought by Louis Denton Bliss, who turned it into Bliss Electrical School.

Months a fire destroyed the building, Bliss rebuilt the school at another site. The school was bought by Montgomery County where it became the site of Montgomery College's Takoma Park/Silver Spring campus

Bose–Hubbard model

The Bose–Hubbard model gives a description of the physics of interacting spinless bosons on a lattice. It is related to the Hubbard model which originated in solid-state physics as an approximate description of superconducting systems and the motion of electrons between the atoms of a crystalline solid; the model was first introduced by Gersch and Knollman in 1963 in the context of granular superconductors. The model rose to prominence in the 1980s after it was found to capture the essence of the superfluid-insulator transition in a way, much more mathematically tractable than fermionic metal-insulator models; the Bose–Hubbard model can be used to describe physical systems such as bosonic atoms in an optical lattice, as well as certain magnetic insulators. Furthermore, it can be generalized and applied to Bose–Fermi mixtures, in which case the corresponding Hamiltonian is called the Bose–Fermi–Hubbard Hamiltonian; the physics of this model is given by the Bose–Hubbard Hamiltonian: H = − t ∑ ⟨ i, j ⟩ b ^ i † b ^ j + U 2 ∑ i n ^ i − μ ∑ i n ^ i.

Here, ⟨ i, j ⟩ denotes summation over all neighboring lattice sites i and j, while b ^ i † and b ^ i are bosonic creation and annihilation operators such that n ^ i = b ^ i † b ^ i gives the number of particles on site i. The model is parametrized by the hopping amplitude t describing the mobility of bosons in the lattice, the on-site interaction U which can be attractive or repulsive, the chemical potential μ, which sets the total number of particles. If unspecified the phrase'Bose–Hubbard model' refers to the case where the on-site interaction is repulsive; this Hamiltonian has a global U symmetry, which means that it is invariant by the transformation b ^ i → e i θ b ^ i. In a superfluid phase, this symmetry is spontaneously broken; the dimension of the Hilbert space of the Bose–Hubbard model is given by D b =! / N b!!, where N b is the total number of particles, while L denotes the total number of lattice sites. At fixed N b or L, the Hilbert space dimension D b grows polynomially, but at a fixed density of n b bosons per site, it grows exponentially as D b ∼ L. Analogous Hamiltonians may be formulated to describe spinless fermions or mixtures of different atom species.

In the case of a mixture, the Hilbert space is the tensor product of the Hilbert spaces of the individual species. Additional terms need to be included to model interaction between species. At zero temperature, the Bose–Hubbard model is in either a Mott insulating state at small t / U, or in a superfluid state at large t / U; the Mott insulating phases are characterized by integer boson densities, by the existence of an energy gap for particle-hol

English cricket team in South Africa in 1895–96

An English cricket team and led by Lord Hawke, toured South Africa from December 1895 to March 1896. The team played three matches against the South Africa national cricket team which were retrospectively awarded Test status. There is uncertainty about the status of South African cricket as a whole in the late nineteenth century and so only two of Hawke's matches against provincial teams, those involving Transvaal and Western Province, are rated first-class. Hawke's XI is designated England for the Test series which they won 3–0, winning all three matches by substantial margins. Tim O'Brien captained England in the first Test, although Hawke was playing, Hawke was captain in the second and third Tests; the South African teams were captained by Alfred Richards. Hawke's team was average in quality and nothing like a full-strength England team, but it did include four of the best players of the time in Tom Hayward, C. B. Fry, George Lohmann and Sammy Woods. England won the Test series 3-0

Scorched 3D

Scorched 3D is a free and open source artillery game modeled after the MS-DOS game Scorched Earth. Scorched 3D offers a new game-play approach compared to the 2D original, such as: destructible 3D environments, devastating weapons and defensive gadgets, LAN play, online multiplayer, free player generated content, a choice of real-time or turn-based play modes. Scorched 3D is an open source game licensed under the GNU GPL, supports numerous platforms: Windows, Unix-like systems, it wxWidgets. Gameplay is simplistic in nature, yet requires skill and practice to master. Scorched 3D challenges players to destroy enemy tanks using a vast arsenal of weapon systems, defense systems and maneuvers. At the beginning of each round, AI and player controlled tanks are randomly situated on a deformable 3D landscape. Players launch weapons at enemy tanks by adjusting their tank's angle and power, they may equip shields and use defensive gadgets or countermeasures based on their current landscape position. To win, a player must kill a majority of the enemy tanks by the end of 10 rounds and have the highest score.

Extra score and rewards are given for surviving the end of a round. Another important element of gameplay, is the dynamic economy. Players may earn cash each round by killing enemy tanks and structures; the player can use their funds to buy advanced special weapons, gadgets and fuels before the next round. Every shield and weapon is unique, each has a variety of different strengths and weaknesses. Players can influence the economy by purchasing upgrades; the economy is designed to fluctuate based on player buying patterns. The default mode stays true to the original gameplay formula of Scorched Earth. Nearly all classic weapons make a new 3D debut, include: The devastating and colorful Funky Bomb The ultra destructive Death's Head Land hugging explosive Rollers Dirt destroying Missiles Tank incinerating Napalm Nuclear Weapons Mountain piercing Lasers Multiple warhead MIRVsDefense is important on the battlefield: Batteries allow a player to repair their damaged tank. Shields protect a player's tank from being destroyed.

Magnetic shields and Force Shields reflect incoming enemy weapons. Parachutes prevent damage from falling. Fuel allows a player to move their tank across the 3D landscape, is used to avoid incoming enemy weapons, attack an enemy position, scramble to cover, or to gain a more advantageous firing position. Scorched 3D is user modifiable, supports a variety of exotic community mods that users may choose to download. Scorched 3D allows players to view and gain stats and medals that are displayed in the scorched3d.co.uk forums. These stats appear if the player has registered their username at the forum and have linked their in game Player ID via the website's User Control Panel. Accumulated scores are based on skill, deaths and rank; the higher the rank number, the less skilled, or less active a player is. Medals are gained through winning tournaments and destroying the most enemy tanks by the end of the season; the first build. The inspiration behind Scorched 3D was revealed in an interview with him on The O'Reilly Network: Scorched Earth was an institution for me and my friends at university.

On many nights we would play the game while drinking — though it is pretty good without the drink. On a boring flight I played it with friends for eight hours straight. I thought that Scorched in 3D would allow many more game concepts, combine my love of 3D graphics with the classic game. Scorched 3D started as a 3D landscape generator, it was converted into a game, is continually updated with new features and concepts. The project is being hosted by SourceForge.net. The latest public release version is v44. Since version 43.3d it includes a new real-time gameplay mode, as well as a new included mod: AWE. The game was downloaded alone via May 2017 over 2.2 million times. A 2004 review in German print magazine LinuxUser was favourable. In 2005 a O'Reilly article on "Open Source Mac Gaming" recommended Scorched 3D. Scorched 3D Official Website Scorched 3D Project Page on SourceForge

Venango, Pennsylvania

Venango is a borough in Crawford County, United States. The population was 239 at the 2010 census, down from 288 at the 2000 census. Venango is located in north-central Crawford County at 41°46′22″N 80°6′39″W, it is bordered by Venango Township to the north and south, by Cambridge Township to the east, across French Creek. According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough has a total area of 0.27 square miles, all of it land. Venango is located on conjoined U. S. Route 6 and U. S. Route 19, with Cambridge Springs 4 miles to the northeast and Meadville, the county seat, 10 miles to the south. Interstate 79 passes 2 miles without any nearby exits; as of the census of 2000, there were 288 people, 104 households, 79 families residing in the borough. The population density was 1,089.7 people per square mile. There were 112 housing units at an average density of 423.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 96.53% White, 2.43% African American, 1.04% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.04% of the population.

There were 104 households, out of which 36.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.6% were married couples living together, 12.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 24.0% were non-families. 17.3% of all households were made up of individuals, 6.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.77 and the average family size was 3.11. In the borough the population was spread out, with 25.3% under the age of 18, 11.5% from 18 to 24, 28.8% from 25 to 44, 21.2% from 45 to 64, 13.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females there were 110.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 106.7 males. The median income for a household in the borough was $35,250, the median income for a family was $38,125. Males had a median income of $27,250 versus $21,563 for females; the per capita income for the borough was $15,978. About 3.5% of families and 7.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.8% of those under the age of eighteen and 7.7% of those sixty five or over

Hoi Tin Tong

Hoi Tin Tong is a chain of herbal products stores in Hong Kong. The traditional Chinese turtle jelly is their first herbal product. Today, Hoi Tin Tong has developed a wider range of products such as Chinese Herbal Gummy Series and Herbal Drink Series. Hoi Tin Tong markets their natural products as aids to fulfill customers’ health needs; the founder of Hoi Tin Tong, Mr. Ng Yiu-ming, believes that Chinese herbs can strengthen human bodies and the immune system; the founder, Mr. Ng Yiu-ming, established the first store of Hoi Tin Tong in 1990 on Bowring Street in Jordon. Before setting up the first store, Ng had studied traditional Chinese medicine and herbs started the business, "Hoi Tin Ye Mei”, which sold wild animals and turtles; as time passed by, Ng became more experienced in this aspect and began to develop other products like Chinese Herbal Series, Cooking Sauce Series, Chinese Herbal Gummy Series that can be found nowadays. The idea of selling herbal turtle jelly came from Ng's mother who once weighed less than 100 pounds due to her sickness.

However, her health improved after taking herbal turtle gelatin for a period of time. Her appetite and diet returned to normal, she gained back her weight to around 150 pounds. After hearing Ng's mother's story, people wanted to try herbal turtle jelly for curing other diseases and preventing themselves from illnesses. In order to meet the demand of the herbal turtle jelly, the first store of Hoi Tin Tong was established; as only the natural and fresh ingredients could be used in herbal turtle jelly, thus the price was HK$50 a bowl. Customers found its worthiness and returned to the shop for more with their friends. Since Ng has opened a chain of retail stores in Hong Kong, New Territories and Mainland China to produce and invent a variety of new products; the market has further expanded to North America as well. Herbal jelly is the signature product of Hoi Tin Tong. Hoi Tin Tong puts an emphasis on the use of fresh turtles as the main ingredient. Fresh turtles contain rich collagens which can are claimed to be useful for eliminating toxins from the body.

As the herbal jelly is made of fresh turtles and poria herbs, the jelly does not have a significant bitter taste. Hoi Tin Tong has produced a series of television advertisements. In order to differentiate their brand from other similar brands, Ng participated in each one of them and built an image of "Hero of Turtle Jelly"; the signature series is the Fresh Herbal Jelly Series. This series includes Hong Kong Traditional Herbal Jelly, turtle jelly and Fritillaria Bulb Herbal Jelly. Moreover, Freshness Retained Jelly Series is a newly developed series; some above-mentioned products are packed in disposable zip-lock containers in order to ensure the quality of takeout food such as Herbal Jelly, Chuan Bei Herbal Jelly and Turtle Jelly. Additionally, Hoi Tin Tong provides vegetarians with packed Poria Herbal Jelly, similar to Herbal Jelly. Apart from herbal jelly products, Hoi Tin Tong offers citizens Healthy Herbal Drink Series including Hemp Seed Tea, Spica Prunellae Tea, Almond Tea and Five Flower Tea.

Hoi Tin Tong provides Chinese Herbal Series. There are Cooling 24 and Slimming Tea in such series. In an attempt to broaden the market and to attract customers, Hoi Tin Tong has introduced a new series called Maintain Youthfulness; this series focuses more on beauty care. The products include Bird's Nest and Hasma; as the leading company in the Hong Kong herbal industry, in 2013, Hoi Tin Tong was condemned by citizens and media for selling moldy and fraudulent turtle gelatin to customers. These two crises belonged to the fields of food safety and food quality and aroused publics’ concerns. Consumer Council got more than 12 complaints over the hotline. On 11 September, Choi Kwok-keung, a former shareholder and senior manager released a video clip displaying that an employee of Hoi Tin Tong was rinsing molds off from the surface of bowls of turtle jelly and sold them to customers; the Health Inspectors collected samples from 81 retail points for testing. The report showed that the total bacterial count and microbiology of the samples did not exceed the legal limit and no irregularities or impurities were found.

On 12 September, the City University of Hong Kong announced a laboratory experiment and study report related to the main ingredient of turtle jelly, turtle shells. The result revealed that among the three samples of Hoi Tin Tong’s products, two contained only a small amount of turtle-shell collagen while none could be found in the third sample. Founder Ng Yiu-ming defended. Hoi Tin Tong used a series of public relations strategies and crisis management tactics to rebuild the company’s image, they held conferences in Guangzhou to clarify the safety of their products. They further set up customer hotline and invited a celebrity, Lo Hoi-pang, to promote through television advertisements. Guilinggao List of Chinese desserts Herbal tea shops Hong Kong Herbal Tea: A Study of Intangible Cultural Heritage from The Hong Kong Anthropologist Traditional Herbal Teas in Southern China from Shen-Nong Limited