Talavera, in Puebla, Mexico, is a type of maiolica pottery, which is distinguished by a white glaze. Much of this pottery was decorated only in blue, but colors such as yellow, green, maiolica pottery was brought to Mexico by the Spanish in the first century of the colonial period. Production of this became highly developed in Puebla because of the availability of fine clays. Formally, the tradition developed there is called Talavera Poblana to distinguish it from the similarly named Talavera pottery of Spain. It is a mixture of Italian and indigenous ceramic techniques, the tradition has struggled since the Mexican War of Independence in the early 19th century, when the number of workshops were reduced to less than eight in the state of Puebla. Later efforts by artists and collectors revived the craft somewhat in the early 20th century and there are now significant collections of Talavera pottery in Puebla, Mexico City, Talavera is a type of maiolica earthenware, distinguished by its white base glaze.
Authentic Talavera pottery only comes from the city of Puebla and the communities of Atlixco and Tecali, as the clays needed, all pieces are hand-thrown on a potters wheel and the glazes contain tin and lead, as they have since colonial times. This glaze must craze, be slightly porous and milky-white, there are only six permitted colors, yellow, green and mauve, and these colors must be made from natural pigments. The painted designs have an appearance as they fuse slightly into the glaze. The base, the part that touches the table, is not glazed, an inscription is required on the bottom that contains the following information, the logo of the manufacturer, the initials of the artist and the location of the manufacturer in Puebla. The design of the pieces is regulated by tradition. The paint ends up slightly raised over the base, only natural clays are used, rather than chemically treated and dyed clays and the handcrafting process takes three to four months. The process is risky because a piece can break at any point and this makes Talavera three times more costly than other types of pottery.
Because of this, Talavera manufacturers have been pressure from imitations, commonly from China. Today, only made by designated areas and from workshops that have been certified are permitted to call their work Talavera. Certification is issued by the Consejo Regulador de la Talavera, a regulatory body. Each of these needs to pass an inspection of the manufacturing processes. Pieces are subject to sixteen laboratory tests with internationally certified labs, only pieces from workshops that meet the standards are authorized to have the signature of the potter, the logo of the workshop and the special hologram that certifies the pieces authenticity
Toledo is a city and municipality located in central Spain, it is the capital of the province of Toledo and the autonomous community of Castile–La Mancha. It was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1986 for its cultural and monumental heritage and historical co-existence of Christian, Muslim. Toledo has a history in the production of bladed weapons, which are now popular souvenirs of the city, people who were born or have lived in Toledo include Brunhilda of Austrasia, Al-Zarqali, Garcilaso de la Vega, Eleanor of Toledo, Alfonso X and El Greco. It was the place of important historic events such as the Visigothic Councils of Toledo, as of 2015, the city has a population of 83,226 and an area of 232.1 km2. The town was granted arms in the 16th century, which by special royal privilege was based on the royal of arms of Spain, Toledo is mentioned by the Roman historian Livy as urbs parva, sed loco munita. At that time, Toletum was a city of the Carpetani tribe and it was incorporated into the Roman Empire as a civitas stipendiaria, that is, a tributary city of non-citizens.
It achieved the status of municipium by Flavian times, with this status, city officials, even of Carpetani origin, obtained Roman citizenship for public service, and the forms of Roman law and politics were increasingly adopted. At approximately this time were constructed in Toletum a Roman circus, city walls, public baths, and a municipal water supply and storage system. The Roman circus in Toledo was one of the largest in Hispania, at 423 metres long and 100 metres wide, chariot races were held on special holidays and were commissioned by private citizens to celebrate career achievements. A fragmentary stone inscription records circus games paid for by a citizen of unknown name to celebrate his achieving the sevirate, archaeologists have identified portions of a special seat of the sort used by the city elites to attend circus games, called a sella curulis. The circus could hold up to 15000 spectators, during Roman times, Toledo was never a provincial capital nor a conventus iuridicus. It started to gain importance in late antiquity, there are indications that large private houses within the city walls were enlarged, while several large villas were built north of the city through the third and fourth centuries.
Games were held in the circus into the fourth and early fifth centuries C. E. an indication of active city life. A church council was held in Toledo in the year 400 to discuss the conflict with Priscillianism, a second council of Toledo was held in 527. The Visigothic king Theudis was in Toledo in 546, where he promulgated a law and this is strong though not certain evidence that Toledo was the chief residence for Theudis. King Athanagild died in Toledo, probably in 568 and this changed with Liuvigild, who brought the peninsula under his control. The Visigoths ruled from Toledo until the Moors conquered the Iberian peninsula in the years of 8th century. Today the historic center is pierced of basements, wells, baths, a series of church councils was held in Toledo under the Visigoths
In its many centuries of existence, the Roman state evolved from a monarchy to a classical republic and to an increasingly autocratic empire. Through conquest and assimilation, it came to dominate the Mediterranean region and Western Europe, Asia Minor, North Africa and it is often grouped into classical antiquity together with ancient Greece, and their similar cultures and societies are known as the Greco-Roman world. Ancient Roman civilisation has contributed to modern government, politics, art, architecture, warfare, religion and society. Rome professionalised and expanded its military and created a system of government called res publica, the inspiration for modern republics such as the United States and France. By the end of the Republic, Rome had conquered the lands around the Mediterranean and beyond, its domain extended from the Atlantic to Arabia, the Roman Empire emerged with the end of the Republic and the dictatorship of Augustus Caesar. 721 years of Roman-Persian Wars started in 92 BC with their first war against Parthia and it would become the longest conflict in human history, and have major lasting effects and consequences for both empires.
Under Trajan, the Empire reached its territorial peak, Republican mores and traditions started to decline during the imperial period, with civil wars becoming a prelude common to the rise of a new emperor. Splinter states, such as the Palmyrene Empire, would divide the Empire during the crisis of the 3rd century. Plagued by internal instability and attacked by various migrating peoples, the part of the empire broke up into independent kingdoms in the 5th century. This splintering is a landmark historians use to divide the ancient period of history from the pre-medieval Dark Ages of Europe. King Numitor was deposed from his throne by his brother, while Numitors daughter, Rhea Silvia, because Rhea Silvia was raped and impregnated by Mars, the Roman god of war, the twins were considered half-divine. The new king, feared Romulus and Remus would take back the throne, a she-wolf saved and raised them, and when they were old enough, they returned the throne of Alba Longa to Numitor. Romulus became the source of the citys name, in order to attract people to the city, Rome became a sanctuary for the indigent and unwanted.
This caused a problem for Rome, which had a large workforce but was bereft of women, Romulus traveled to the neighboring towns and tribes and attempted to secure marriage rights, but as Rome was so full of undesirables they all refused. Legend says that the Latins invited the Sabines to a festival and stole their unmarried maidens, leading to the integration of the Latins, after a long time in rough seas, they landed at the banks of the Tiber River. Not long after they landed, the men wanted to take to the sea again, one woman, named Roma, suggested that the women burn the ships out at sea to prevent them from leaving. At first, the men were angry with Roma, but they realized that they were in the ideal place to settle. They named the settlement after the woman who torched their ships, the Roman poet Virgil recounted this legend in his classical epic poem the Aeneid
An Albarrana tower is a defensive tower detached from the curtain wall and connected to it by a bridge or an arcade. In Spanish, they are called torre albarrana, the towers of typical appearance, with a square section, were built several meters in front of the curtain wall. They were accessible by a walkway from the curtain wall. More often, the bridge had a removable wooden section allowing the tower to be isolated from the wall if the tower is occupied by attacking forces, the earliest Albarrana towers were often pentagonal or octagonal in plan but a more rectangular plan became the norm. In France and the north of Europe, flanking towers remained a part of the wall, even the keep were sometimes built as a part of the wall instead of inside the yard at the center of the castle. The main albarrana towers are, Torre de Espantaperros in Badajoz, probably the first albarrana tower, built by Abu Yaqub Yusuf in 1170. In the other parts of the medieval Muslim world this defensive feature seems not to be used, possibly the only example of a true Albarrana tower in England can be found at Pontefract Castle.
The castle now lies in ruins, but one Albarrana tower called Swillington Tower is visible on the models of the castle and the remains of the tower itself can be seen to the north of the castle
Livy and Augustuss wife, were from the same clan in different locations, although not related by blood. Livy was born as Titus Livius in Patavium in northern Italy, there is a debate about the year of Titus Livius birth,64 BC or more likely 59 BC. At the time of his birth, his city of Patavium was the second wealthiest on the Italian peninsula. Patavium was a part of the province of Cisalpine Gaul at the time, in his works, Livy often expressed his deep affection and pride for Patavium, and the city was well known for its conservative values in morality and politics. Livy’s teen years were during the 40s BC, a time that coincided with the wars that were occurring throughout the Roman world. The governor of Cisalpine Gaul at the time, a man called Asinius Pollio, had tried to bring Patavium into the camp of Marcus Antonius, the wealthier citizens of Patavium refused to contribute money and arms to Asinius Pollio, and went into hiding. Therefore and the residents of Patavium did not end up supporting Marcus Antonius in his campaign for control over Rome.
Later on, Asinius Pollio made a jibe at Livys patavinity and his jibe at Livy and his patavinity, may have been said because the city of Patavium had rejected Asinius Pollio, and he still harboured harsh feelings toward the city as a whole. Titus Livius probably went to Rome in the 30s BC, and it is likely that he spent an amount of time in the city after this. During his time in Rome, he was never a senator nor held any other governmental position and his elementary mistakes in military matters show that he was never a soldier. However, he was educated in philosophy and rhetoric and it seems that Livy had the financial resources and means to live an independent life. He devoted a part of his life to his writings. Livy was known to give recitations to small audiences, but he was not heard of to engage in declamation and he was familiar with the emperor Augustus, formerly Octavian, and the imperial family. Octavian was one of the three men fighting for the control of Rome during the Civil Wars in the 40s BC, Octavian gained power after defeating Marcus Antonius and Cleopatra, and was given the honorary name of Augustus.
Considering that Augustus came to be known as the greatest Roman emperor in the eyes of the Romans and it is said that Livy was the one who encouraged the future emperor Claudius, who was born in 10 BC, to explore the writing of history during his childhood. Livy himself was married and had at least one daughter and one son, Livy’s most famous work was his history of Rome. In it he explains the history of the city of Rome. Because he was writing under the emperor Augustus, Livy’s history emphasizes the great triumphs of Rome and he wrote his history with embellished accounts of Roman heroism in order to promote the new type of government implemented by Augustus when he became emperor
The history of pre-Celtic Europe remains very uncertain. According to one theory, the root of the Celtic languages, the Proto-Celtic language, arose in the Late Bronze Age Urnfield culture of Central Europe. Thus this area is called the Celtic homeland. The earliest undisputed examples of a Celtic language are the Lepontic inscriptions beginning in the 6th century BC. Continental Celtic languages are attested almost exclusively through inscriptions and place-names, Insular Celtic languages are attested beginning around the 4th century in Ogham inscriptions, although it was clearly being spoken much earlier. Celtic literary tradition begins with Old Irish texts around the 8th century, coherent texts of Early Irish literature, such as the Táin Bó Cúailnge, survive in 12th century recensions. Between the 5th and 8th centuries, the Celtic-speaking communities in these Atlantic regions emerged as a cohesive cultural entity. They had a linguistic and artistic heritage that distinguished them from the culture of the surrounding polities.
By the 6th century, the Continental Celtic languages were no longer in wide use, Insular Celtic culture diversified into that of the Gaels and the Celtic Britons of the medieval and modern periods. A modern Celtic identity was constructed as part of the Romanticist Celtic Revival in Great Britain, today, Scottish Gaelic and Breton are still spoken in parts of their historical territories, and Cornish and Manx are undergoing a revival. The first recorded use of the name of Celts – as Κελτοί – to refer to a group was by Hecataeus of Miletus, the Greek geographer, in 517 BC. In the fifth century BC Herodotus referred to Keltoi living around the head of the Danube, the etymology of the term Keltoi is unclear. Possible roots include Indo-European *kʲel ‘to hide’, IE *kʲel ‘to heat’ or *kel ‘to impel’, several authors have supposed it to be Celtic in origin, while others view it as a name coined by Greeks. Linguist Patrizia De Bernardo Stempel falls in the group. Yet he reports Celtic peoples in Iberia, and uses the ethnic names Celtiberi and Celtici for peoples there, as distinct from Lusitani, pliny the Elder cited the use of Celtici in Lusitania as a tribal surname, which epigraphic findings have confirmed.
Latin Gallus might stem from a Celtic ethnic or tribal name originally and its root may be the Proto-Celtic *galno, meaning “power, strength”, hence Old Irish gal “boldness, ferocity” and Welsh gallu “to be able, power”. The tribal names of Gallaeci and the Greek Γαλάται most probably have the same origin, the suffix -atai might be an Ancient Greek inflection. Proto-Germanic *walha is derived ultimately from the name of the Volcae and this means that English Gaul, despite its superficial similarity, is not actually derived from Latin Gallia, though it does refer to the same ancient region
The Alberche is a river in the provinces of Ávila and Toledo, central Spain. It begins its course at 1,800 m in Fuente Alberche, San Martín de la Vega del Alberche municipal term and it forms the natural division between the Sierra de Gredos and the Sierra de Guadarrama, in the Sistema Central. The Alberche flows roughly from NW to SE and bends sharply midway in its course to flow from NE to SW and it meets the Tagus at Talavera de la Reina. This river has the following dams along its course, Charco del Cura, Alberche Beach is a sandy beach stretch on the banks of the Alberche River, a favorite spot for vacationers from Madrid
Province of Toledo
Toledo is a province of central Spain, in the western part of the autonomous community of Castile–La Mancha. It is bordered by the provinces of Madrid, Ciudad Real, Badajoz, Cáceres, of the provinces 711,228 people, only about 1/9 live in the capital, which is capital of the autonomous community. The most populated city in the province is Talavera de la Reina with 88,755 inhabitants, the smallest municipality in Spain, Illán de Vacas, with a population of 8, is in Toledo province. See List of municipalities in Toledo, the province shares the Parque Nacional de Cabañeros with Ciudad Real province. The eagle is flanked by the pillars of Hercules, kingdom of Toledo Toledo, Spain Media related to Province of Toledo at Wikimedia Commons
Ceramic art is art made from ceramic materials, including clay. It may take forms including art ware, figurines, Ceramic art is one of the arts, particularly the visual arts. Of these, it is one of the plastic arts, while some ceramics are considered fine art, some are considered to be decorative, industrial or applied art objects. Ceramics may be considered artefacts in archaeology, Ceramic art can be made by one person or by a group of people. In a pottery or ceramic factory, a group of people design, products from a pottery are sometimes referred to as art pottery. In a one-person pottery studio, ceramists or potters produce studio pottery, the word ceramics comes from the Greek keramikos, meaning pottery, which in turn comes from keramos meaning potters clay. Most traditional ceramic products were made from clay and subjected to heat, in modern ceramic engineering usage, ceramics is the art and science of making objects from inorganic, non-metallic materials by the action of heat. It excludes glass and mosaic made from glass tesserae, cultures especially noted for ceramics include the Chinese, Greek, Mayan and Korean cultures, as well as the modern Western cultures.
Different types of clay, when used with different minerals and firing conditions, are used to produce earthenware, porcelain, earthenware is pottery that has not been fired to vitrification and is thus permeable to water. Many types of pottery have been made from it from the earliest times, earthenware is often made from clay and feldspar. Terracotta, a type of earthenware, is a clay-based unglazed or glazed ceramic and its uses include vessels and waste water pipes and surface embellishment in building construction. Terracotta has been a medium for ceramic art. Stoneware is a vitreous or semi-vitreous ceramic made primarily from stoneware clay or non-refractory fire clay, stoneware is fired at high temperatures. Vitrified or not, it is nonporous, it may or may not be glazed and it may be vitreous or semi-vitreous. It is usually coloured grey or brownish because of impurities in the used for its manufacture. Porcelain is a material made by heating materials, generally including kaolin, in a kiln to temperatures between 1,200 and 1,400 °C.
Porcelain has been described as being completely vitrified, impermeable, white or artificially coloured, translucent and it has been defined as ware with a translucent body containing a minimum of 30% of phosphate derived from animal bone and calculated calcium phosphate. Developed by English potter Josiah Spode, bone china is known for its levels of whiteness and translucency
Albacete is a city and municipality in the Spanish autonomous community of Castilla-La Mancha, and capital of the province of Albacete. The municipality of Albacete is the seventh largest in Spain by area, Albacete is the economic and judicial capital of Castilla-La Mancha, being home to the regional High Court of Justice. The writer, novelist and literary critic Azorin described the city of Albacete in a poem as The New York of La Mancha. The city increased in prominence in the early 20th century during the Spanish Civil War due its importance as national headquarters of the International Brigades. At present, Albacete is a capital with large areas for pedestrians. Further its flat area and the elimination of barriers have led it to be one of the most accessible cities across the country, with better quality of life. Other of its attractions in this regard are the traditional Tascas de la Feria or the outdoor market of Los Invasores. Albacete is a commercial and industrial city par excellence, reflected in its commercial area that includes more than 556723 people from 154 municipalities.
The industry is one of the pillars of the city, Albacete is home to major multinationals and has five large industrial zones, including Campollano, which is the largest industrial area of Castilla-La Mancha and one of the largest in Spain. The aviation industry is one of the economic engines of the city. Albacete hosts the School of TLP NATO pilots, Los Llanos Air Base, Ala 14 and the Air Maestranza Albacete, in addition, the city houses the Air and Logistic Park of Albacete, home to major companies. Pascual Madoz in his famous Diccionario geográfico-estadístico-histórico de España y sus posesiones de Ultramar indicates that two hypotheses about the toponym of Albacete are probable. The second hypothesis states that its origin may be the Alaba of the Celtiberians, mentioned by Plinio y Ptolemy, which could result in Alba civitas and it is stamped with a Marquis crown, which is gold with stones and pearls, with eight rosettes. But the agreement contained a typo, and saying three towers well ordered in heraldry would mean two towers above and one below, or one above and two below, the descriptions should read three towers wrongly ordered.
The dimensions of the Shield are 40 cm high, excluding the Crown and 56 cm if included, with a width of 30 cm. The anthem was launched on September 8,1926, day of the Virgin of Los Llanos, in what was referred to as the Provincial Anthem feast, the Municipal Band of Albacete and Spanish Infantry Regiment, among others, performed at this event. On the night of San Juan in 1975, the song was re-released at the Teatro Circo de Albacete by the Albacete Municipal Band, Albacete is home to the High Court of Justice of Castilla-La Mancha, the highest court of the autonomous region. The president of the Superior Court is Vicente Manuel Rouco Rodríguez, the city hosts the Institute of Legal Medicine of Albacete and Guadalajara, whose scope corresponds to homonymous provinces