click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Tallapoosa County, Alabama

Tallapoosa County is a county located in the east central portion of the U. S. state of Alabama. As of the 2010 census, the population was 41,616, its county seat is Dadeville. The name Tallapoosa is of Creek origin. Tallapoosa County was established by European Americans on December 18, 1832. A southwest strip of the county was detached to become a portion of Elmore County when it was established on February 15, 1866. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 766 square miles, of which 717 square miles is land and 50 square miles is water; the county is intersected by the Tallapoosa River. U. S. Highway 280 State Route 14 State Route 22 State Route 49 State Route 50 State Route 63 State Route 120 State Route 128 State Route 259 Clay County Randolph County Chambers County Lee County Macon County Elmore County Coosa County Horseshoe Bend National Military Park As of the census of 2000, there were 41,475 people, 16,656 households, 11,809 families living in the county; the population density was 58 people per square mile.

There were 20,510 housing units at an average density of 29 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 73.48% White, 25.36% Black or African American, 0.26% Native American, 0.18% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.17% from other races, 0.54% from two or more races. Nearly 0.58% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 16,656 households, out of which 29.90% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.00% were married couples living together, 14.30% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.10% were non-families. Nearly 26.50% of all households were made up of individuals, 11.60% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.44, the average family size was 2.94. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.20% under the age of 18, 7.60% from 18 to 24, 26.70% from 25 to 44, 24.90% from 45 to 64, 16.60% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.50 males.

For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 86.10 males. The median income for a household in the county was $30,745, the median income for a family was $38,148. Males had a median income of $28,557 versus $19,885 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,909. About 13.50% of families and 16.60% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.30% of those under age 18 and 15.60% of those age 65 or over. As of the census of 2010, there were 41,616 people, 16,985 households, 11,762 families living in the county; the population density was 58 people per square mile. There were 22,111 housing units at an average density of 31 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 69.9% White, 26.6% Black or African American, 0.3% Native American, 0.5% Asian, 0% Pacific Islander, 1.7% from other races, 1.0% from two or more races. Nearly 2.5 % of the population were Latino of any race. There were 16,985 households, out of which 25.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.4% were married couples living together, 15.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.8% were non-families.

Nearly 27.2% of all households were made up of individuals, 11.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.42, the average family size was 2.91. In the county, the population was spread out with 22.2% under the age of 18, 8.0% from 18 to 24, 23.3% from 25 to 44, 29.2% from 45 to 64, 17.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42.4 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.8 males. The median income for a household in the county was $36,904, the median income for a family was $47,918. Males had a median income of $34,625 versus $28,616 for females; the per capita income for the county was $22,542. About 13.4% of families and 17.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 27.8% of those under age 18 and 9.1% of those age 65 or over. Alexander City Dadeville Tallassee Camp Hill Daviston Goldville Jackson's Gap New Site Hackneyville Our Town Reeltown Andrew Jackson Bulgers Cherokee Bluffs Church Hill Dudleyville Equality Fosheeton Frog Eye National Register of Historic Places listings in Tallapoosa County, Alabama Properties on the Alabama Register of Landmarks and Heritage in Tallapoosa County, Alabama Tallapoosa County map of roads/towns

Jacques-Louis Monod

Jacques-Louis Monod is a French composer and conductor of 20th century and contemporary music in the advancement of the music of Charles Ives, Edgard Varèse, Arnold Schoenberg, Anton Webern and uptown music. Monod was born in Asnières, a northwestern suburb of Paris, to an affluent family of privilege and of French Protestant affiliation, his musical prowess was detected early when he enrolled in 1935 at the Paris Conservatoire National Supérieur de Musique as a child prodigy, below the official minimum age of nine. Monod attended the Paris Conservatoire intermittently but remained registered for nearly 20 years, obtaining his Certificat de Récompense in 1958. Monod's teachers at the Conservatoire were Olivier Messiaen. A decisive turning point for Monod occurred in 1944 at the age of 17, when he took private lessons in composition and theory for five years, subsequently remaining a lifelong supporter and president of an association promoting the music of the French composer and conductor René Leibowitz, a Webern disciple and émigré from Warsaw, Poland.

Leibowitz, an outsider among the French musical establishment, a major catalyst in the promotion of Schoenberg's music and in the subsequent development of serial music in Paris after WW II, became Monod's principal teacher and mentor within a circle of devoted pupils, including Jean Prodromidès, Antoine Duhamel, Pierre Chan, Michel Philippot, Serge Nigg, André Casanova, Claude Helffer, for a brief period, Pierre Boulez. Monod's debut as a pianist took place in Paris at a concert organized by Leibowitz for Schoenberg's 75th birthday, his performance in the European premiere of Schoenberg's Phantasy for Violin and Piano Accompaniment, Op. 47, missed being the world premiere by only a few hours. Soon after Leibowitz's earliest travels to the United States, Monod followed, accompanying Leibowitz to New York City in 1950. Whereas, the noted pianist Charles Rosen claims to have heard Monod perform Milton Babbitt's The Widow's Lament in Springtime as early as 1945 or 1946 at Princeton —and yet the work was not composed until 1951.

At a time when the musics of Schoenberg and Webern were least performed in America, Monod was among their earliest champions. He spent much of the 1950s as a pianist, performing works of the Second Viennese School for piano and voice, similar to the careers of pianists E. Steuermann. Helffer. Under the direction of Leibowitz, Monod performed and recorded the piano part of Berg's Chamber Concerto and Schoenberg's Ode to Napoleon Bonaparte, Op. 41. On 18 December 1950, Monod performed in a special concert of Alban Berg's chamber music at Juilliard, featuring the American premiere of Berg's Two Songs with Ms. Beardslee; the duo performed Berg's Seven Early Songs and Four Songs, Op. 2. Monod promoted other musics in addition to the music of the Second Viennese School on 24 January 1954, the Three Japanese Lyrics, composed by Igor Stravinsky in 1912–13, received their Carnegie Hall premiere in Carnegie Recital Hall with Ms. Beardslee, soprano. Evident during Monod's residency in the USA was his extraordinary analytical ability: while attending a Columbia graduate 20th-century-music seminar taught by the Varèse disciple Chou Wen-chung, Monod's cogent analysis of Varèse's Ionisation led to his teaching the remainder of the course.

Monod's studies at Columbia University during the 1950s would lead by the early 1970s to an Associate Professorship position at Columbia's music department, wherein Monod with the former Schoenberg pupil and specialist in medieval music theory, Patricia Carpenter, were instrumental in establishing the department's undergraduate and graduate core curricula. Beginning in the early 1950s and concurrently at the International Summer Course for New Music in Darmstadt, Germany wherein the music of Anton Webern was performed and promoted among the "new" avant-garde, Monod directed American premieres of many works of Webern, assisting Richard Franko Goldman in directing the first all-Webern concert in the USA, which took place in New York City on 8 May 1951, included the world premier

Lakes Plain languages

The Lakes Plain languages are a family of Papuan languages. They are notable for being tonal and for their lack of nasal consonants; the Lakes Plain languages were tentatively grouped by Stephen Wurm with the Tor languages in his Trans–New Guinea proposal. Clouse rejected this connection to the Tor languages and grouped them with the Geelvink Bay languages. Malcolm Ross classifies the languages as an independent family, a position confirmed by Timothy Usher; because of the apparent phonological similarities and sharing of stable basic words such as ‘louse’, William A. Foley speculates the potential likelihood of a distant relationship shared between the Skou and Lakes Plain families, but no formal proposals linking the two families have been made due to insufficient evidence. Additionally according to Foley, based on some lexical and phonological similarities, the Keuw language may possibly share a deep relationship with the Lakes Plain languages. Like the East Cenderawasih Bay, Trans-New Guinea, South Bougainville language families, Lakes Plain languages have ergative case marking systems.

In contrast, most languages of northern Papua New Guinea have accusative case marking systems. Clouse internally classifies the Lakes Plain family as: Lakes Plain superstockRasawa stock Rasawa-Saponi family: Rasawa, Saponi Awera Tariku stock Tause family: Tause, Deirate West Tariku family Fayu: Fayu, Sehudate Kirikiri: Kirikiri, Faia Central Tariku family Edopi Turu: Iau, Turu Duvle East Tariku family: Doutai, Kai, Obokuitai, Sikaritai, Papasena East Lakes Plain family: Foau, DabraClouse considers the East Geelvink Bay languages to be most related to the Lakes Plain languages, forming a wider Geelvink Bay phylum with it; the Lakes Plain languages as classified by Usher are as follows: Not included in the above classification, Kwerisa and Waritai are also Central Lakes Plain. Clouse had placed them closest to Papasena and to Eritai and they might form dialect clusters with those languages. There are particular questions about the inclusion of Saponi and Tause; the pronouns Ross reconstructs for proto-Tariku are, The corresponding "I" and "thou" pronouns are proto–East Lake Plain *a, *do, Awera yai and Rasawa e-, de-.

Saponi shares no pronouns with the Lakes Plain family. However, Saponi shares half its basic lexical vocabulary with Rasawa, Ross left it in the Lakes Plain family pending further investigation; the Tause language was previously grouped amongst the Tariku group of Lakes Plain languages. Ross transferred it to the East Bird's Head – Sentani languages on the basis of pronoun similarities in hopes that this would promote further research. Below are pronouns in selected Lakes Plain languages as given by Foley: Lakes Plain languages have remarkably small phonemic inventories, rivaling those of Polynesian languages. Clouse and Clouse note many of the Lakes Plain languages share several unusual phonological features. While Papuan languages have at least two nasal phonemes, this is not the case for Lakes Plain languages. Although phonetic nasals do exist in most Lakes Plain languages, they do not contrast with the corresponding voiced stops. Doutai, Sikaritai and Foau lack phonetic nasals. Additionally, no Lakes Plain language has a liquid phoneme.

Clouse reconstructs a typologically remarkable consonant inventory for the ancestor of Lakes Plain, consisting of only five stops: This results in Lakes Plain languages having high functional load. Many of the languages have high constricted vowels; the fricativised vowels seem to have developed from deletion of a following consonant. Clouse reconstructs a five-vowel system for proto-Lakes Plain, not unlike Japanese or Spanish: Lakes Plain languages are all tonal. Clouse and Clouse reconstruct tone in proto-Lakes Plain. Duvle and Sikaritai have only two tones and low, but all other Lakes Plain languages have more than two tones. All West Tariku languages have falling tones. Iau is the most tonally complex Lakes Plain language. Unlike other Lakes Plain languages which can be disyllabic or trisyllabic, Iau word structure is predominantly monosyllabic. Iau has eight phonemic tones, transcribed by Bateman using numerical Chao tones: high, high-rising, low-rising, high-to-low-falling, high-to-mid-falling, mid-to-low-falling, falling-rising.

Four of the eight Iau tones occur on short vowels, while the remaining four occur on long vowels and correspond to disyllabic words in other Lakes Plain languages. Unlike most Papuan languages to the east, words in Lakes Plain languages do not have gender or inflection. Bauzi, an East Geelvink Bay language spoken to the northwest of the Lakes Plain family does not have gender; as analytic isolating languages, there is not much morphology. Basic vocabulary of the Lakes Plain languages listed in Foley: Clouse reconstructs basic vocabulary for proto-Lakes Plain and other lower branches. Lakes Plain reconstructions by Clouse List of districts of Papua for a list of districts and villages with respective languages Proto

Wichmann the Younger

Wichmann II the Younger was a member of the Saxon House of Billung. He was a son of Count Wichmann the Elder and his wife Frederuna a sister of Queen Matilda; the cousin of Emperor Otto I became known as a fierce enemy of the ruling Ottonian dynasty. Wichmann was born at present-day Wichmannsburg, part of Bienenbüttel, at the residence of his father. Wichmann I the Elder, though the first-born of three Billung brothers and by his marriage related to King Otto I, was ignored at the enfeoffment with the Saxon Billung March, which in 936 fell to his younger brother Hermann. Wichmann the Elder at first rebelled against the king, joining the uprising of Duke Eberhard of Franconia, but gave up soon afterwards. Upon his father's death in 944, Wichmann the Younger remained under the tutelage of his uncle Hermann; when he came of age, he was only able to succeed to the rank of a count in Angria, though his county is unknown. Raised at the court of King Otto I upon the early death of their mother, Wichmann made friends with the king's son Liudolf, duke of Swabia since 950.

In 953 he participated in Liudolf's rebellion against King Otto, fighting the Saxon troops during the king's siege of Mainz, whereby he re-opened his father's feud with Hermann, his uncle, who meanwhile had been appointed princeps of Saxony. Wichmann was captured, he was released in 954, though he was not included in the general settlement that followed the revolt. Wichmann and his brother Egbert the One-Eyed, still feeling deprived of their heritage, marauded through Saxony and in 955 arrived in the lands of the Slavic Obotrites at Liubice, where they instigated a revolt under Prince Nako, suppressed by King Otto at the Battle of Recknitz; the young Billungs fled to the court of Duke Hugh the Great of France. When Hugh died the next year, Wichmann had to return to Germany, he remained an implacable opponent, attacking the lands of his uncle Hermann several times, until he had to retreat to the Slavic Lutici territories, where he was tolerated by Margrave Gero. In 963, Wichmann was an outlaw leading a band of West Slavs in battle against Duke Mieszko I of Poland, defeating him twice and exacting tribute.

For a brief interlude, he was allowed to return to Germany and his wife's estates, but he was exiled once more by his uncle Hermann during Otto's second Italian campaign. In 967, he and the western Pomeranians were defeated at Wolin by an alliance of Mieszko and Duke Boleslaus I of Bohemia and Wichmann was killed in action. Wichmann's lands were confiscated by Otto and divided in two, half going to the monastery of Saint Michael founded by Hermann Billung at Lüneburg, half going to found the convent of Keminada on the Weser. According to the Res gestae saxonicae, Wichmann was married. Certain scholars have interpreted a clause in the foundation charter of the Corvey Abbey as referring to Wichmann, his wife Hathwig, his son Amelung, Count of Bikethop. Wichmann's daughters Imma and Frederuna were allowed to use their inheritance, on which Keminada was founded, throughout their lifetime. Reuter, Timothy. Germany in the Early Middle Ages 800–1056. New York: Longman, 1991. Bernhardt, John W. Itinerant Kingship and Royal Monasteries in Early Medieval Germany, c.

936–1075. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993

Halwes

Halwes was a Tasmanian pacer foaled in 1959 and is notable for his win in the 1968 Miracle Mile Pace, an Australian record time trial, his dramatic late scratching at the 1968 Inter Dominion. Halwes commenced racing at Carrick, Tasmania in November 1963 where he won by 30 yards after being backed from 5/1 to 1/2, he won three races and had a dead-heat for first before finishing second in the Novice Championship, his first defeat. He won 8 consecutive races before finishing second to Stormy Bruce in the Tasmanian Pacing Championship, his first races on the mainland were at the Melbourne Showgrounds where he won twice in January 1965 and three times in April 1965 without defeat. He did not race again until October 1966 following the disqualification of his trainer Aub Wesley. Halwes began the 1966/67 season with a series of wins in his native Tasmania and on 31 December 1966 he won the Tasmanian Pacing Championship from a 48 yard handicap over Victorian horse Future Intangible. Returning to Victoria he was first past the post in the New Year FFA at the Melbourne Showgrounds but lost the race on protest to Robin Dundee.

An injury prevented him from starting in the A G Hunter Cup. A trip to Perth for the Inter Dominion followed where he was second to Binshaw on the first two nights of the carnival, both times as favourite and both times from a 24 yard handicap. Halwes suffered quarter cracks in a hoof which prevented him from racing again in the series. In October 1967 Halwes raced in Sydney for the first time where he was beaten twice before winning the Spring Cup over Voice Derby beating First Lee after giving him a 24 yard start at the handicaps. After a short break he won two more races at Harold Park before being beaten by nine yards by Raiarmagh Pool in the Summer Cup; the 1968 Inter Dominion was contested at Auckland. On the first night of the championships Halwes won by four lengths in track record time, a mile rate of 2.05 2/5 for 13 furlongs. On night two Halwes won rating 2.04 1/5 for 11 furlongs, his second track record in as many starts in Auckland. His winning margin was two lengths. Halwes defeated another Australian pacer First Lee over two miles on the third night.

On the night of the Inter Dominion final Halwes was found to have a painful abscess in a quarter crack in his off foreleg and was scratched from the final won by First Lee. Veterinary advice was. Halwes returned to Australia for the second running of the Miracle Mile Pace at Harold Park, he dominated betting starting favourite at 4/9. Halwes took control of the event mid-race from New Zealand pacer Great Adios and won by 20 yards from First Lee with a further 10 yards to Great Adios, his time for the mile was 1.58.6 which broke the track record of Robin Dundee set the previous year and the Australian mile record held by Ribands. It was the first mile under two minutes by an Australian bred anywhere in the worldHalwes won the Easter Cup at Harold Park from a 36 yard handicap. At Harold Park he won an 11 ½ furlongs race in a track record mile rate of 2.02 1/5 and ran a 13 furlongs 98 yards furlong track record of 2.04 1/5 from a standing start. In 1967/68 he started. Halwes began the 1968 season winning in Tasmania before returning to Sydney.

In the Spring Cup Halwes was faced with a handicap of 48 yards and finished third behind Oligarch before beating Oligarch a week later. In a time trial on November 22 Halwes recorded a mile in 1.57.3 breaking the Australian mile record by more than one second. Halwes suffered a minor injury and was retired following two unplaced performances at Harold Park in January 1969. In his last four years of racing his only defeated twice from level marks. Halwes died of a heart attack, aged 28, on 15 September 1987, at the Hagley property of his owner and trainer, Aub Wesley

Echium plantagineum in Australia

Paterson's curse is an invasive plant species in Australia. The name Salvation Jane originated from, is used in, South Australia due to its use as a source of food for grazing animals when the less drought-tolerant grazing pastures die off. Other names are blueweed, Lady Campbell weed, Riverina bluebell, purple viper's bugloss. Three other Echium species are of concern. Viper's bugloss is biennial, with a single unbranched flowering stem and smaller, more blue flowers, but is otherwise similar; this species is useful for honey production. Paterson's curse has positive uses. In the 1880s, it was introduced to Australia both as an accidental contaminant of pasture seed and as an ornamental plant. Both names for the plant derive from Jane Paterson or Patterson, an early settler of the country near Albury, she brought the first seeds from Europe to beautify a garden, could only watch helplessly as the weed infested productive pastures for many miles around. Paterson's curse is now a dominant broadleaf pasture weed through much of New South Wales, the Australian Capital Territory, South Australia, Tasmania and infests native grasslands and woodlands.

The plant has hairy, broadly oval rosette leaves to 30 cm long. The several seeding stems develop branches with age. Flowers develop in clusters, it has a fleshy taproot with smaller laterals. Although an autumn-germinating, spring-flowering annual, Paterson's curse has become adaptable to Australian erratic rainfall events, given suitable rainfall, some plants germinate at any time of year, but the plant never survives for more than one year, it is a prolific seed producer. Paterson's curse can germinate under a wide variety of temperature conditions, tolerates dry periods well, responds vigorously to fertiliser. If cut by a lawnmower, it recovers and sends out new shoots and flowers; the plant disperses by movement of seeds — on the wool or fur of animals, the alimentary tracts of grazing animals or birds, movement in water, most as a contaminant of hay or grain. This is most noticeable in times of drought, when considerable movement of fodder and livestock occurs, it can establish a large population on disturbed ground and competes vigorously with both smaller plants and the seedlings of regenerating overstorey species.

Its spread has been aided by human-induced habitat degradation the removal of perennial grasses through overgrazing by sheep and cattle and the introduction of the rabbit. Paterson's curse is able to establish itself in habitats where the native vegetation is healthy and undisturbed. Control of the plant is carried out by hand or with any of a variety of herbicides, must be continued over many years to reduce the seedbank. In the longer term, perennial grasses can outcompete Paterson's curse, any increase in perennial cover produces a direct decrease in it. However, the annual cost in control measures and lost production in Australia was estimated to be over $30 million, compared to $2 million per year in benefits; the Australian Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation has carried out research on numerous classical biological control solutions, of the 100-odd insects found feeding on Paterson's curse in the Mediterranean, judged six safe to release in Australia without endangering crops or native plants.

The leaf-mining moth Dialectica scalariella, the crown weevil Mogulones larvatus, root weevil Mogulones geographicus, flea beetle Longitarsus echii are now widely distributed in southern Australia and can be found on most large Paterson's curse plants encountered. The crown weevil and flea beetle are proving effective. While the CSIRO is cautiously optimistic, biological control agents are expected to take many years to be effective; the most recent economic analysis, suggests that biological control has brought nearly $1.2 B in benefits to Australia by reducing the amount of Paterson's curse in pastures. Investment into the biological control of Paterson's curse has reaped a benefit cost ratio of 52:1. E. plantagineum is poisonous. When eaten in large quantities, it causes reduced livestock weight or death. Paterson's curse can irritate the udders of dairy cows and the skin of humans. After the 2003 Canberra bushfires, over 40 horses were recorded. Invasive species in Australia Paterson's curse, Echium plantagineum Biological control research in CSIRO Entomology Echium plantagineum L. FloraBase - the Western Australian Flora