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Talmud

The Talmud is the central text of Rabbinic Judaism and the primary source of Jewish religious law and Jewish theology. Until the advent of modernity, in nearly all Jewish communities, the Talmud was the centerpiece of Jewish cultural life and was foundational to "all Jewish thought and aspirations", serving as "the guide for the daily life" of Jews; the term "Talmud" refers to the collection of writings named the Babylonian Talmud, although there is an earlier collection known as the Jerusalem Talmud. It may traditionally be called Shas, a Hebrew abbreviation of shisha sedarim, or the "six orders" of the Mishnah; the Talmud has two components. The term "Talmud" may refer to either the Gemara alone; the entire Talmud consists of 63 tractates, in the standard print, called the Vilna Shas, it is 2,711 double-sided folios. It is written in Mishnaic Hebrew and Jewish Babylonian Aramaic and contains the teachings and opinions of thousands of rabbis on a variety of subjects, including halakha, Jewish ethics, customs and folklore, many other topics.

The Talmud is the basis for all codes of Jewish law, is quoted in rabbinic literature. Talmud translates as "instruction, learning", from the Semitic root LMD, meaning "teach, study". Jewish scholarship was oral and transferred from one generation to the next. Rabbis expounded and debated the Torah and discussed the Tanakh without the benefit of written works, though some may have made private notes, for example, of court decisions; this situation changed drastically as the result of the destruction of the Jewish commonwealth and the Second Temple in the year 70 and the consequent upheaval of Jewish social and legal norms. As the rabbis were required to face a new reality—mainly Judaism without a Temple and Judea, the Roman province, without at least partial autonomy—there was a flurry of legal discourse and the old system of oral scholarship could not be maintained, it is during this period. The oldest full manuscript of the Talmud, known as the Munich Talmud, dates from 1342 and is available online.

The process of "Gemara" proceeded in what were the two major centers of Jewish scholarship and Babylonia. Correspondingly, two bodies of analysis developed, two works of Talmud were created; the older compilation is called the Talmud Yerushalmi. It was compiled in the 4th century in Galilee; the Babylonian Talmud was compiled about the year 500. The word "Talmud", when used without qualification refers to the Babylonian Talmud. While the editors of Jerusalem Talmud and Babylonian Talmud each mention the other community, most scholars believe these documents were written independently. Here the argument from silence is convincing." The Jerusalem Talmud known as the Palestinian Talmud, or Talmuda de-Eretz Yisrael, was one of the two compilations of Jewish religious teachings and commentary, transmitted orally for centuries prior to its compilation by Jewish scholars in the Land of Israel. It is a compilation of teachings of the schools of Tiberias and Caesarea, it is written in Jewish Palestinian Aramaic, a Western Aramaic language that differs from its Babylonian counterpart.

This Talmud is a synopsis of the analysis of the Mishnah, developed over the course of nearly 200 years by the Academies in Galilee Because of their location, the sages of these Academies devoted considerable attention to analysis of the agricultural laws of the Land of Israel. Traditionally, this Talmud was thought to have been redacted in about the year 350 by Rav Muna and Rav Yossi in the Land of Israel, it is traditionally known as the Talmud Yerushalmi, but the name is a misnomer, as it was not prepared in Jerusalem. It has more been called "The Talmud of the Land of Israel", its final redaction belongs to the end of the 4th century, but the individual scholars who brought it to its present form cannot be fixed with assurance. By this time Christianity had become the state religion of the Roman Empire and Jerusalem the holy city of Christendom. In 325 Constantine the Great, the first Christian emperor, said "let us have nothing in common with the detestable Jewish crowd." This policy made a Jew an pauper.

The compilers of the Jerusalem Talmud lacked the time to produce a work of the quality they had intended. The text is not easy to follow; the apparent cessation of work on the Jerusalem Talmud in the 5th century has been associated with the decision of Theodosius II in 425 to suppress the Patriarchate and put an end to the practice of semikhah, formal scholarly ordination. Some modern scholars have questioned this connection. Despite its incomplete state, the Jerusalem Talmud remains an indispensable source of knowledge of the dev

Self-organizing network

A self-organizing network is an automation technology designed to make the planning, management and healing of mobile radio access networks simpler and faster. SON functionality and behavior has been defined and specified in accepted mobile industry recommendations produced by organizations such as 3GPP and the NGMN. SON has been codified within 3GPP Release 8 and subsequent specifications in a series of standards including 36.902, as well as public white papers outlining use cases from the NGMN. The first technology making use of SON features will be Long Term Evolution, but the technology has been retro-fitted to older radio access technologies such as Universal Mobile Telecommunications System; the LTE specification inherently supports SON features like Automatic Neighbor Relation detection, the 3GPP LTE Rel. 8 flagship feature. Newly added base stations should be self-configured in line with a "plug-and-play" paradigm while all operational base stations will self-optimize parameters and algorithmic behavior in response to observed network performance and radio conditions.

Furthermore, self-healing mechanisms can be triggered to temporarily compensate for a detected equipment outage, while awaiting a more permanent solution. Self-organizing networks are divided into three major architectural types. In this type of SON, functions are distributed among the network elements at the edge of the network the ENodeB elements; this implies a certain degree of localization of functionality and is supplied by the network equipment vendor manufacturing the radio cell. In centralized SON, function is more concentrated closer to higher-order network nodes or the network OSS, to allow a broader overview of more edge elements and coordination of e.g. load across a wide geographic area. Due to the need to inter-work with cells supplied by different equipment vendors, C-SON systems are more supplied by 3rd parties. Hybrid SON is a mix of centralized and distributed SON, combining elements of each in a hybrid solution. Self-organizing network functionalities are divided into three major sub-functional groups, each containing a wide range of decomposed use cases.

Self-configuration strives towards the "plug-and-play" paradigm in the way that new base stations shall automatically be configured and integrated into the network. This means both connectivity establishment, download of configuration parameters are software. Self-configuration is supplied as part of the software delivery with each radio cell by equipment vendors; when a new base station is introduced into the network and powered on, it gets recognized and registered by the network. The neighboring base stations automatically adjust their technical parameters in order to provide the required coverage and capacity, and, in the same time, avoid the interference; every base station contains hundreds of configuration parameters that control various aspects of the cell site. Each of these can be altered to change network behavior, based on observations of both the base station itself and measurements at the mobile station or handset. One of the first SON features establishes neighbor relations automatically while others optimize random access parameters or mobility robustness in terms of handover oscillations.

A illustrative use case is the automatic switch-off of a percent of base stations during the night hours. The neighboring base station would re-configure their parameters in order to keep the entire area covered by the signal. In case of a sudden growth in connectivity demand for any reason, the "sleeping" base stations "wake up" instantaneously; this mechanism leads to significant energy savings for operators. When some nodes in the network become inoperative, self-healing mechanisms aim at reducing the impacts from the failure, for example by adjusting parameters and algorithms in adjacent cells so that other nodes can support the users that were supported by the failing node. In legacy networks, the failing base stations are at times hard to identify and a significant amount of time and resources is required to fix it; this function of SON permits to spot such a failing base stations in order to take further measures, ensure no or insignificant degradation of service for the users. It is a proactive approach of a system for defending itself from the penetration of any unauthorised user in the system and from any active or passive attack.

The main objectives of self-protection are to make the security of the system unbreakable and make the data confidential and secure. Self-organizing Networks features are being introduced with the arrival of new 4G systems in radio access networks, allowing for the impact of potential ‘teething troubles’ to be limited and increasing confidence. Self-optimization mechanisms in mobile radio access networks can be seen to have some similarities to automated trading algorithms in financial markets. SON has been retrofitted to existing 3G networks to help reduce cost and improve service reliability; the Mobile World Congress trade conference in 2009 saw the first major announcements of SON functionality for LTE mobile networks. First deployments occurred in Japan and USA during 2009/10. Among other benefits, SON deployments have enabled mobile operators to decrease network roll-out times, reduce dropped calls, improve throughput, lessen congestion and achieve other operational efficiencies including energy and cost savings.

C. Brunner, D. Flore: Generation of Pathloss and Interference Maps as SON Enabler in Deployed UMTS Networks. In: Proceedi

Moores School of Music

The Rebecca and John J. Moores School of Music is the music school of the University of Houston; the Moores School offers the Bachelor of Music, Bachelor of Arts in Music, Master of Music, Doctor of Musical Arts degrees in music performance, conducting and composition, music history and literature and music education and offers a Certificate of Music Performance. It is a component of the University of Houston College of the Arts; the Moores School is a accredited member of the National Association of Schools of Music. Its namesakes are UH his former wife Rebecca; as of 2019–2020, the Director of the Moores School is Courtney Crappell. The University of Houston was founded in 1927, the music department was formed in 1940. In 1969 the department was designated as the University of Houston School of Music. In 1972 the School of Music moved into the Fine Arts Building, a facility it shared with the Department of Art. A multimillion-dollar gift in 1991 by UH alumni John and Rebecca Moores led to renaming of the school in their honor and to the construction of the present facility, which began operation in 1997.

Artistic directors of the school have included Bruce Spencer King, Earl Moore, Robert Briggs, Milton Katims, David Tomatz, David Ashley White, Andrew Davis, Courtney Crappell. Enrollment in the Moores School stands at nearly 600 music majors, who are instructed by a faculty of 80. Since 1997 the school has been located at the Rebecca and John J. Moores School of Music Building on the University of Houston campus. A large and varied schedule of concerts and recitals featuring students and guest performers serves the concertgoing public of Houston throughout the year. Ensembles at the Moores School include the Wind Ensemble, the Moores School Symphony Orchestra, the Concert Chorale, AURA, the Jazz Orchestra, the Mariachi Pumas, the Spirit of Houston Cougar Marching Band, the Symphonic Winds, the Concert Band, the Cougar Brass, the Choral Artists, the Chamber Singers, the Concert Women's Chorus, the Houston Symphony Chorus, the University Men's Chorus, the University Women's Chorus, the Moores School Percussion Ensemble, Collegium Musicum.

The Edythe Bates Old Moores Opera Center presents productions lauded as being of professional quality. As a component of the Cynthia Woods Mitchell Center for the Arts, the Moores School collaborates for some events and productions with the School of Art, the Creative Writing Program, the School of Theatre and Dance, the Blaffer Gallery, the art museum of the University of Houston; the Houston Opera Studio has provided dozens of world-class opera singers with early professional training and experience. From its inception in 1977 until 1992, the Studio was a partnership between the University of Houston School of Music and Houston Grand Opera; the Moores School of Music Percussion Ensemble, under the direction of Dr. Blake Wilkins, has performed at three Percussive Arts Society International Conventions; these showcase concerts were the result of winning three PAS "Call for Tapes". The Moores School Percussion Ensemble is the second ensemble in history to achieve three PAS Showcase concerts; the group has recorded three commercially released compact discs: Surge, released in 2005.

Data indicate that some 80 percent of Moores School graduates stay in the Houston area following graduation, so that a large proportion of the community's professional musical performers and educators are University of Houston alumni. Moores School graduates in significant numbers can be found on concert stages, on college faculties, in other leading professional musical roles worldwide; the Moores School hosts a number of musical activities outside the scope of its basic program of university instruction. These include the following: a Division of Preparatory and Continuing Studies, which offers throughout the academic year private and classroom music instruction to the community at large geared to children and adults the Texas Music Festival, an annual month-long summer program of concerts with intensive instruction and coaching for young professionals and talented students the Cougar Band Camp, a week-long summer program the International Piano Festival, an annual weekend of concerts and master classes with world-renowned keyboard artists an annual Moores School of Music Jazz Festival Floot Fire, an annual five-day festival for flutistsIn addition, the Moores School of Music is home to chapters of four collegiate music fraternities and one honor society: The Beta Sigma chapter of Kappa Kappa Psi, honorary band fraternity, founded January 21, 1950 The Tau chapter of Tau Beta Sigma, honorary band sorority, founded March 25, 1950.

The Beta Pi chapter of Sigma Alpha Iota, music fraternity, chartered March 28, 1953. The Omicron Upsilon chapter of Phi Mu Alpha Sinfonia fraternity, chartered May 29, 1966; the Zeta Tau chapter of Pi Kappa Lambda, music honor society, chartered 1989. Located in the Arts District of the University of Houston campus, the centerpiece of the $24 million Rebecca and John J. Moores School of Music Building is the 800-seat Moores Opera House, which features a ceiling mural by Frank Stella, light fixtures by Isaac Maxwell, a green room displaying paintings by Ary Stillman; the building contains 50 teaching studios and 60 practice rooms, a large library, state-of-the-art listening and composition f