Llandecwyn is a hamlet near Penrhyndeudraeth in Gwynedd, Wales. The bulk of the population is now located around Cilfor close to the A496 road and served by Llandecwyn railway station, with a cluster of under ten houses around the road junction at Capel Brontecwyn half a mile up the hill to the south-east, other isolated houses and farms scattered across the hillsides. There was a sizeable population closer to the Anglican church of Saint Tecwyn and the lakes: Llyn Tecwyn Isaf and Llyn Tecwyn Uchaf; the church now stands alone, three-quarters of a mile due east of Cilfor. There is a children's play area at Cilfor; the former parish of Llandecwyn stretched from the estuary of the Afon Dwyryd at Pont Briwet to the hills of the Rhinogs. It included the Bryn Bwbach road from Capel Brontecwyn to Eisingrug, a section of the main A496 road between Llandecwyn and Talsarnau, a section of the main A496 road between Llandecwyn and Maentwrog, it included land across the River Dwyryd: the area of Cefn Coch and around Rhiw Goch and the road to Llanfrothen.
Most of the former parish is now part of the Bro Ardudwy ministry area, which includes Harlech, a few kilometres to the southwest, Barmouth. Pen Llandecwyn, the small hill between Saint Tecwyn's church and Llyn Tecwyn Uchaf, is a humble 203m in height, making it Wales' 2,033rd highest peak! The church, dedicated to Saint Tecwyn, lies at an altitude of a little over 150 m, is the only ancient church in Meirionnydd not on the coast, it has views over the large Dwyryd estuary towards Portmerion. The church only operates for a few services each year, but as part of the national Small Pilgrimage Places network, it marks the end of the 7km pilgrimage route, Saint Tecwyn's Way; this starts at the church of Llanfihangel-y-traethau to the southwest, which has a window depicting the saint coming ashore in his coracle. Within Llandecwyn, there is a Welsh Presbyterian chapel called Bryn Tecwyn which had weekly services until December 2017; this is down on the A496, is where the bus stop and the village war memorial are located.
Llandecwyn had other churches. Llenyrch Methodist Chapel was open until the 1920s, it is now a private house. Brontecwyn Chapel was the home of the Llandecwyn Revolt School; the chapel is now a holiday rental cottage. Capel Bach, Brontecwyn, is now a woodstore for a larger house. Capel Newydd, is now a ruin. Llandecwyn was the focus for a power struggle between the UK Government, Conservative and Anglican, the local Merionethshire County Council, Liberal and non-conformist; the 1902 Education Act forced local councils to pay for all schools, including church schools. The council was loathed to support the school at St Tecwyn's church, so tried to close it down. A government inquiry followed; the council in response opened a school, the'Revolt School', at Brontecwyn Chapel, which grew larger than the'National School' at the church. A Liberal landslide in the 1906 general election swept the Conservatives from power, the Revolt School was deemed a success, the county was given permission to build a new council school at Llandecwyn.
The local landowners were the Wynn family of Maes y Neuadd, who were descended from the 13th Century Osbwrn Wyddel. They were related to the Oakleys of Tan y Bwlch and the Vaughns of Cors y Gedol; these family members were Sheriffs of Merioneth: Maurice Wynn, Robert Wynn, William Wynn, Robert Wynn, William Wynne, John Nanney, David William Kirkby Other notable residents of Llandecwyn have included: Lewis Anwyl and author, born in the parish to the rector of Llanfrothen. Evan Evans and poet and cleric, curate at St. Tecwyn's for a year. Lewis Roberts, well-known harpist and crwth player, considered the best singer in the land to the accompaniment of the harp. Edmund Evans, born at Aberdeunant, Wesleyan preacher known as Utgorn Meirion. Ann Harriet Hughes, born at Bryn-y-felin and educated at Llandecwyn School. Sir William Nicholson, landscape painter, was a tenant of Maes y Neuadd. Nicholson painted The Hill above Harlech in about 1917; the picture is in the collection of the Tate Gallery. David Tecwyn Evans, Methodist preacher and hymn writer, was born at Aberdeunant Uchaf in the parish and attended a National School at the church.
Jim Cotter, priest and liturgist, vicar 2001-2008. Ella Wynne Jones of Ty'n y Bonc, High Sheriff of Gwynedd 1997 - 1998. Mary Evans, was a mystic and cult leader, known as'y Fantell Wen', she was either a servant at Maentwrog rectory, or lived at Breichiau between Llys Tecwyn Uchaf and Ceunant Llennyrch.. She claimed to be betrothed to Christ, led a group of followers in ceremonies on Manod Mawr and other hills, her cult spread to Ffestiniog and Harlech. She died at Talsarnau despite having stated that she would never die, was buried in Llanfihangel churchyard. Although her followers preserved scraps of her clothing as relics, the sect soon died out; the impressive ring cairn of Bryn Cader Faner is one of several ancient sites in the hills within the parish: M
Bangor is a city and community in Gwynedd, northwest Wales. It is the oldest city in Wales, one of the smallest cities in the United Kingdom. In Caernarfonshire, it is a university city with a population of 18,808 at the 2011 census, including around 10,500 students at Bangor University, it is one of only six places classed as a city in Wales, although it is only the 25th-largest urban area by population. At the 2001 census, 46.6% of the non-student resident population spoke Welsh. The origins of the city date back to the founding of a monastic establishment on the site of Bangor Cathedral by the Celtic saint Deiniol in the early 6th century AD. Bangor itself is an old Welsh word for a wattled enclosure, such as the one that surrounded the cathedral site; the present cathedral is a somewhat more recent building and has been extensively modified throughout the centuries. While the building itself is not the oldest, not the biggest, the bishopric of Bangor is one of the oldest in the UK. Another claim to fame is that Bangor has the longest High Street in Wales and the United Kingdom.
Friars School was founded as a free grammar school in 1557, the University College of North Wales was founded in 1884. In 1877, the former HMS Clio became a school ship, moored on the Menai Strait at Bangor, had 260 pupils. Closed after the end of hostilities of World War I, she was sold for scrap and broken up in 1919. During World War II, parts of the BBC evacuated to Bangor during the worst of the Blitz. In June 2012 Bangor was the first city in the UK to impose a city centre wide night time curfew on under-16s; the six-month trial was brought in by Gwynedd Council and North Wales police, but opposed by civil rights groups. Bangor has been unique outside of England in using the title of'city' by ancient prescriptive right, due to its long-standing cathedral. However, city status was conferred on it by the Queen in 1974. By means of various measures, it is one of the smallest cities in the UK. Using 2011 statistics, comparing Bangor to: Population of city council areas in Wales, is third with St Davids and St Asaph City council area size within Wales, is the second smallest city behind St Asaph Urban areas within Wales, is third placed behind St Davids and St Asaph City council area size within the UK, is fourth after the City of London, Wells and St Asaph Urban areas within the UK, is fifth placed Population of city council areas within the UK, is sixth.
Bangor lies on the coast of North Wales near the Menai Strait which separates the island of Anglesey from Gwynedd unitary authority, the town of Menai Bridge lying just over the strait. The combined population of the two amounts to 22,184 people as of the 2011 census. Bangor Mountain lies to the east of the main part of the city, but the large housing estate of Maesgeirchen built as council housing, is to the east of the mountain near Port Penrhyn. Bangor Mountain casts a shadow across the High Street, Glan Adda and Hirael areas, so that from November to March some parts of the High Street in particular receive no direct sunlight. Another ridge rises to the north of the High Street, dividing the city centre from the south shore of the Menai Strait. Bangor has two rivers within its boundaries; the River Adda is a culverted watercourse which only appears above ground at its western extremities near the Faenol estate, whilst the River Cegin enters Port Penrhyn at the eastern edge of the city. Port Penrhyn was an important port in the 19th century, exporting the slates produced at the Penrhyn Quarry.
Bangor railway station is located on the North Wales Coast Line from Chester to Holyhead. The A55 runs to the south of Bangor, providing a route to Holyhead and Chester; the nearest airport with international flights is 83 miles by road. Bangor lies at the western end of the North Wales Path, a 60 miles long-distance coastal walking route to Prestatyn. Bangor is on routes NCR 8 and NCR 85 of the National Cycle Network. Classical music is performed in Bangor, with concerts given in the Powis and Prichard-Jones Halls as part of the university's Music at Bangor concert series; the city is home to Storiel. A new arts centre complex, the replacement for Theatr Gwynedd, was scheduled for completion in the summer of 2014, but the opening was delayed until November 2015. Bangor hosted the National Eisteddfod in 1890, 1902, 1915, 1931, 1940, 1943, 1971 and 2005, as well as an unofficial National Eisteddfod event in 1874. Garth Pier is the second longest pier in Wales, the ninth longest in the British Isles, at 1,500 feet in length.
It was opened in 1893 and was a promenade pier, for the amusement of holiday-makers who could stroll among the pinnacle-roofed kiosks. In 1914 it was struck by a vessel; the damaged section was repaired temporarily by the Royal Engineers, but when in 1922, a permanent repair was contemplated, it was found that the damage was more severe than had been thought. The repairs were made at considerable cost and the pier remained open until 1974 when it was nearly condemned as being in poor condition, it was sold for a nominal price to Arfon Borough Council who proposed to demolish it, but the County Council, encouraged by local support, ensured that it survived by obtaining Grade II Listed building status for it. When it was listed that year, the British Listed Buildings inspector considered it to be "the best in Britain of t
Wales is a country, part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain. It is bordered by England to the east, the Irish Sea to the north and west, the Bristol Channel to the south, it had a population in 2011 of 3,063,456 and has a total area of 20,779 km2. Wales has over 1,680 miles of coastline and is mountainous, with its higher peaks in the north and central areas, including Snowdon, its highest summit; the country has a changeable, maritime climate. Welsh national identity emerged among the Britons after the Roman withdrawal from Britain in the 5th century, Wales is regarded as one of the modern Celtic nations. Llywelyn ap Gruffudd's death in 1282 marked the completion of Edward I of England's conquest of Wales, though Owain Glyndŵr restored independence to Wales in the early 15th century; the whole of Wales was annexed by England and incorporated within the English legal system under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. Distinctive Welsh politics developed in the 19th century. Welsh liberalism, exemplified in the early 20th century by Lloyd George, was displaced by the growth of socialism and the Labour Party.
Welsh national feeling grew over the century. Established under the Government of Wales Act 1998, the National Assembly for Wales holds responsibility for a range of devolved policy matters. At the dawn of the Industrial Revolution, development of the mining and metallurgical industries transformed the country from an agricultural society into an industrial nation. Two-thirds of the population live in South Wales, including Cardiff, Swansea and the nearby valleys. Now that the country's traditional extractive and heavy industries have gone or are in decline, Wales' economy depends on the public sector and service industries and tourism. Although Wales shares its political and social history with the rest of Great Britain, a majority of the population in most areas speaks English as a first language, the country has retained a distinct cultural identity and is bilingual. Over 560,000 Welsh language speakers live in Wales, the language is spoken by a majority of the population in parts of the north and west.
From the late 19th century onwards, Wales acquired its popular image as the "land of song", in part due to the eisteddfod tradition. At many international sporting events, such as the FIFA World Cup, Rugby World Cup and the Commonwealth Games, Wales has its own national teams, though at the Olympic Games, Welsh athletes compete as part of a Great Britain team. Rugby union is seen as an expression of national consciousness; the English words "Wales" and "Welsh" derive from the same Germanic root, itself derived from the name of the Gaulish people known to the Romans as Volcae and which came to refer indiscriminately to all non-Germanic peoples. The Old English-speaking Anglo-Saxons came to use the term Wælisc when referring to the Britons in particular, Wēalas when referring to their lands; the modern names for some Continental European lands and peoples have a similar etymology. In Britain, the words were not restricted to modern Wales or to the Welsh but were used to refer to anything that the Anglo-Saxons associated with the Britons, including other non-Germanic territories in Britain and places in Anglo-Saxon territory associated with Britons, as well as items associated with non-Germanic Europeans, such as the walnut.
The modern Welsh name for themselves is Cymry, Cymru is the Welsh name for Wales. These words are descended from the Brythonic word combrogi, meaning "fellow-countrymen"; the use of the word Cymry as a self-designation derives from the location in the post-Roman Era of the Welsh people in modern Wales as well as in northern England and southern Scotland. It emphasised that the Welsh in modern Wales and in the Hen Ogledd were one people, different from other peoples. In particular, the term was not applied to the Cornish or the Breton peoples, who are of similar heritage and language to the Welsh; the word came into use as a self-description before the 7th century. It is attested in a praise poem to Cadwallon ap Cadfan c. 633. In Welsh literature, the word Cymry was used throughout the Middle Ages to describe the Welsh, though the older, more generic term Brythoniaid continued to be used to describe any of the Britonnic peoples and was the more common literary term until c. 1200. Thereafter Cymry prevailed as a reference to the Welsh.
Until c. 1560 the word was spelt Kymry or Cymry, regardless of whether it referred to the people or their homeland. The Latinised forms of these names, Cambrian and Cambria, survive as lesser-used alternative names for Wales and the Welsh people. Examples include the Cambrian Mountains, the newspaper Cambrian News, the organisations Cambrian Airways, Cambrian Railways, Cambrian Archaeological Association and the Royal Cambrian Academy of Art. Outside Wales, a related form survives as the name Cumbria in North West England, once a part of Yr Hen Ogledd; the Cumbric language, thought to
Eisingrug is a rural hamlet near Harlech, Wales. It is located to the southeast of Porthmadog. At the edge of the parish of Llandecwyn, the hamlet was served by the church of Saint Tecwyn in the hills above Llandecwyn, a Weslyan Methodist chapel at the other end of the Bryn Bwbach to Esingrug road. A Methodist missionary visited Eisingrug in December 1845; the Cambrian Line railway passes close to the village. The nearest railway station is to the north at Talsarnau. In the northeast is the 14th century manor house, Maes-y-Neuadd home of the Wynn family - land owners, Sheriffs of Merioneth, descended from the 13th Century Osbwrn Wyddel -'Osborn the Irishman' - related to the Oakleys of Tan y Bwlch and the Vaughns of Cors y Gedol. To the southwest is The Glyn and Brogyntyn Estate and to the northwest is Black Wood, a conifer plantation on a steep east-facing hillside with alternating rows of 2 separate conifer species; the area affords good views over northern parts of Cardigan Bay
Aberdyfi is a village and community on the north side of the estuary of the River Dyfi in Gwynedd, on the west coast of Wales. The Community had a population of 878 as of the 2011 census; the electoral ward having a larger population of 1282. The village was founded around the harbour and shipbuilding industry, but is now best known as a seaside resort with a high quality beach; the town centre is on the river and seafront, around the original harbour and beach but it stretches back from the coast and up the steep hillside in the midst of typical Welsh coastal scenery of steep green hills and sheep farms. Penhelig, with its own railway station, is the eastern part of the town. Aberdyfi is a popular tourist attraction, with many returning holidaymakers from the metropolitan areas of England, such as the West Midlands, less than 100 miles to the east. A large proportion of houses in the village are now holiday homes, resulting in high house prices; the town is located within the Snowdonia National Park.
In the 2011 census, 38.5% of the population of Aberdyfi ward identified themselves as Welsh. An alternative, anglicised spelling of the village name is Aberdovey; this is historical but still used e.g. for the railway station. Local tradition suggests that the Romans established a track into Aberdyfi as part of the military occupation of Wales around AD78; the strategic location in mid-Wales was the site of several conferences between north and south Wales princes in 540, 1140, for the Council of Aberdyfi in 1216. The hill in the centre of Aberdyfi, Pen-y-Bryn, has been claimed to be the site of fortifications in the 1150s, which were soon destroyed; the site of Aberdyfi Castle however is said to be at the motte earthworks further up the river near Glandyfi. During the Spanish Armada of 1597, a Spanish ship, the Bear of Amsterdam missed her objective at Milford Haven and ended up having entered the Dyfi estuary, she was unable to leave for 10 days because of the wind and could not be boarded as no suitable boats were available.
An attempt to burn her was frustrated by winds and when she did leave she ended up being captured by a waiting English fleet off the Cornish coast. In the 1700s, the village grew with the appearance of several of the inns still in current use. Copper was mined in the present Copperhill Street, lead in Penhelig. An electoral ward in the same name exists; this ward includes Pennal community. The total population of the ward taken at the 2011 census was 1,282. In the 1800s, Aberdyfi was at its peak as a port. Major exports were oak bark. Ship building was based in seven shipyards in Penhelig where 45 sailing ships were built between 1840 and 1880; the railway came to Aberdyfi in 1863 built by the Welsh Coast Railway. The first train was ferried across the River Dyfi, as the line to Dovey Junction and Machynlleth was not completed until 1867. Due to public demand, this section had to use a long tunnel behind Aberdyfi, further major earthworks and tunnels were needed along the bank of the river; this line, which became part of the Cambrian Railways, the Great Western Railway, is scenic.
A jetty was built with railway lines connecting it with the wharf and the main line. The Aberdyfi & Waterford Steamship Company imported livestock from Ireland which were taken further by the railway. Coal and timber were imported. Local coastal shipping links with Liverpool were strong, with many Aberdyfi men sailing on international voyages from Liverpool; the S. S. Dora was one of the last ships trading between Aberdyfi and Liverpool and was scuttled, with no loss of life, by a German submarine in 1917; the jetty and wharf continued in commercial use for coal until 1959. After prolonged negotiations, redevelopments from 1968–1971, including rebuilding the jetty, led to their present use for recreational purposes; some local fishing still occurs. The first Outward Bound centre was opened in Aberdyfi in 1941. Many of their activities involve the river and jetty; the first Aberdyfi lifeboat was bought in 1837. Run by the RNLI since 1853, it has taken part in many rescues, sometimes with loss of life of crew members.
The current lifeboat, an Atlantic 75, is housed in the boathouse by the jetty and is launched using a lifeboat tractor. It is averaging about 25 emergency launches each year. Chapels in Aberdyfi include the Welsh Calvinistic Methodist chapel, the English Presbyterian chapel, the Wesleyan Methodist chapel, the Welsh Independent congregational chapel; the Church in Wales is St Peter's. Road access to Aberdyfi is by the A493, with Tywyn four miles to the north and Machynlleth 11 miles to the east. Aberdyfi is on the Cambrian Coast railway line; the village of Aberdyfi has two railway stations and Penhelig. Trains on the Cambrian Line are operated by Transport for Wales; the local bus service is operated by Lloyds Coaches with services to Tywyn, where a connection can be made for Dolgellau, to Machynlleth, where connections are available to Aberystwyth. A ferry used to operate across the Dyfi river to Ynyslas; the last ferryman was Ellis Williams. Popular recreational activities focus on the beach and watersports, such as windsurfing, fishing, crabbing and canoeing on the estuary.
Activities in Aberdyfi The Dovey Yacht Club has a prominent position on the river front of the village. It was helped develop the popularity of the GP14 dinghy class, it organises races for dinghies throughout the season on the estuary of the River Dyfi. The Aberdovey Golf Club, founded in 1892, is a famous 18
Criccieth is a town and community on the Llyn peninsula in the Eifionydd area of Gwynedd in Wales. The town lies 5 miles west of Porthmadog, 9 miles east of Pwllheli and 17 miles south of Caernarfon, it had a population of 1,826 in 2001. The town is a seaside resort, popular with families. Attractions include the ruins of Criccieth Castle, which have extensive views over the town and surrounding countryside. Nearby on Ffordd Castell is Cadwalader's Ice Cream Parlour, opened in 1927, whilst Stryd Fawr has several bistro style restaurants. In the centre lies Y Maes, part of the original medieval town common; the town is noted for its fairs, held on 23 May and 29 June every year, when large numbers of people visit the fairground and the market which spreads through many of the streets of the town. Famous people associated with the town include the British prime minister, David Lloyd George, who grew up in the nearby village of Llanystumdwy, poet William George. Group Captain Leslie Bonnet, RAF officer and originator of the Welsh Harlequin Duck and his wife Joan Hutt, artist.
Criccieth hosted the National Eisteddfod in 2003 was granted Fairtrade Town status. It won the Wales in Bloom competition each year from 1999 to 2004; the town styles itself the "Pearl of Wales on the Shores of Snowdonia". The earliest recorded form of the place name Criccieth in Welsh is found in Brut y Tywysogion where reference is made to the imprisonment of Gruffudd ap Llywelyn in the'castle of Cruceith'; the form Cruciaith was used by Iolo Goch in a famous 14th century poem addressed to Sir Hywel y Fwyall, custodian of the castle. There are a number of theories as to the meaning, but the most popular is that it comes from Crug Caeth: caeth may mean'prisoner' and thus the name could mean prisoner's rock, a reference to the imprisonment of one of Llywelyn ab Iorwerth's sons in the castle by his brother. However, caeth has the primary meaning in Middle Welsh of'serf' and the name could refer to a bond community nearby. In medieval times the settlement was known as Treferthyr a reference to Saint Catherine, after whom the parish church is named.
The spelling of Criccieth remains controversial today. Many regard this version as an anglicism, arguing that the Welsh form Cricieth should be used instead. Others argue that Criccieth is an anomaly in the Welsh language, in which there is no double C, that the spelling should be preserved; the dispute has resulted in the vandalising of road signs at the entrance to the town. The area around Criccieth was settled during the Bronze Age, a chambered tomb, Cae Dyni, survives on the coast to the east of the town. Evidence from other sites on the Llŷn Peninsula suggests that the area was colonised by a wave of Celtic settlers, who explored the Irish Sea around the 4th century BC. Ptolemy calls the peninsula Ganganorum Promontorium. Although it is thought that Criccieth Castle was built around 1230 by Llywelyn ab Iorwerth, who had controlled the area since 1202, the first record of the building was in 1239, when the administrative centre of Eifionydd was moved from Dolbenmaen. In the years of his life, Llywelyn turned his attention to his successor.
Welsh law stipulated. On Llywelyn's death in 1240, Dafydd sought to secure his position. Dafydd was half English and feared that his pure Welsh half-brother would be able to gather support to overthrow him. Gruffydd was held prisoner in Criccieth Castle, until he was handed over to Henry III of England in 1241, moved to the Tower of London. Dafydd ap Llywelyn died in 1246, without leaving an heir, was succeeded by Llywelyn ap Gruffudd, his nephew. Edward I had inherited the English throne in 1272, in 1276 declared Llywelyn a rebel. By 1277, Edward's armies had captured the Isle of Anglesey, were encamped at Deganwy. Dafydd ap Gruffydd, Llywelyn's younger brother, attacked the English forces at Hawarden in 1282, setting off a widespread rebellion throughout Wales. With the final defeat of Gwynedd, Edward set about consolidating his rule in Wales. Criccieth Castle was extended and reshaped, becoming one of a ring of castles surrounding Edward's newly conquered territories. A township developed to support the garrison and a charter was granted in 1284.
Weekly markets were held on Thursdays and there were annual fairs on 25 April and 18 October, the evangelical feasts of Saint Mark and Saint Luke. The new administration soon proved unpopular among the native Welsh, in 1294, Madog ap Llywelyn led a national revolt against English rule. Criccieth was besieged for several months over the winter.
Tywyn spelled to Towyn, is a town and seaside resort on the Cardigan Bay coast of southern Gwynedd, Wales. It was in the historic county of Merionethshire, it is famous as the location of the Cadfan Stone, a stone cross with the earliest known example of written Welsh, the home of the Talyllyn Railway. The name derives from the Welsh tywyn: extensive sand dunes are still to be found to the north and south of the town. In Middle Welsh, the spelling was Tywyn. In the Early Modern period, the spelling Towyn became common in order to reflect a slight change in pronunciation at that time; the modern spelling Tywyn better reflects the current pronunciation in modern Welsh as spoken in north Wales. With the standardisation of the orthography of the Welsh language in the first part of the 20th century, the spelling Tywyn came to dominate, was accepted as the official name of the town in both languages in the 1970s. In Welsh, the town is sometimes referred to as Tywyn Meirionnydd. In origin, this usage refers to the cantref of Meirionnydd, but is now understood as referring to the historical county of the same name.
In English, during the late 19th century and until the middle of the 20th century, the town was sometimes called Towyn-on-Sea. The place-name element tywyn is found in many other parts of Wales, most notably Towyn near Abergele. Tywyn was the location of the first religious community administered by the Breton saint Cadfan upon his arrival in Gwynedd, prior to his departure to found a monastery on Bardsey Island off the Llyn Peninsula; the church contains some early material. The town's historic centre lies around the church of St Cadfan's. In the second half of the 19th century the town expanded mainly towards the sea. To the north of the town lie the reclaimed salt marshes of Morfa Tywyn and Morfa Gwyllt, beyond which lie the Broad Water lagoon and the mouth of the Afon Dysynni. To the north-east lie the rich farmland of Bro Dysynni and the village of Bryncrug, to the east the hills of Craig y Barcud and Craig Fach Goch. To the south towards Aberdyfi is the mouth of the Afon Dyffryn Gwyn and Penllyn Marshes.
The Tywyn coastal defence scheme, a £7.6m civil engineering project, to provide a new rock breakwater above the low-tide level, rock groynes, rock revetment to protect 80 sea-front properties was unveiled by Jane Davidson, the Minister for Environment and Housing in the Welsh Assembly Government, on 24 March 2011. At the time of the 2001 census, 40.5% of the population were recorded as Welsh speakers. By the 2011 census this had decreased to 37.5%. These high figures reflect the use of both Welsh and English as the medium of instruction in Ysgol Penybryn, the town's primary school. An Estyn inspection report in 2010 noted that about 11% of the children at the school came from homes where Welsh was the main language; the town's Welsh dialect has several notable features, with one Victorian observer stating that three languages were spoken there: English, Welsh and'Tywynaeg'. During the 1860s, in the town's British School, a'Welsh stick' was used to punish children who were caught speaking Welsh.
Yet Welsh was the dominant language in Tywyn until the middle of the 20th century. Tywyn is now a anglicised town, with the majority of its population having been born in England according to the 2011 census. More respondents claimed an English-only identity than a Welsh-only identity; the church is of interest for two medieval effigies, for a stone inscribed with what is believed to be the oldest known writing in the Welsh language, dating back to the 8th century AD, rescued from a local gateway in the 18th century. Improved transport links during the 19th century increased Tywyn's appeal as a tourist destination. In the early decades of thatcentury, a creek of the river Dysynni allowed ships to approach the town's northern fringes, where there was a shipbuilding yard; the draining of the salt marsh and the channelling of the river brought this industry to an end, but during the early part of that century the town was made more accessible by building new roads along the coast to Aberdyfi and Llwyngwril.
The railway arrived in the mid-1860s, had a significant effect on the town. Tywyn railway station opened in 1863; the station is still open, is served by the Cambrian Line. Slate-quarrying in the Abergynolwyn area led to the building in 1865 of the Talyllyn Railway, a narrow-gauge line designed to carry slates to Tywyn. Two stations were opened in the town. Tywyn Wharf railway station was opened to enable slates to be unloaded onto a wharf adjacent to the main railway line, it is now the Talyllyn's western terminus and principal station. Pendre railway station was the passenger station, now houses the locomotive and carriage sheds and works. Notable visitors who stayed at Tywyn in the 19th century include: Thomas Love Peacock Thomas Fremantle, 1st Baron Cottesloe Ignatius Spencer Charles Darwin William Morris Elizabeth Blackwell The beach and its extensive promenade have long been key attractions. In 1877, a pier was built at Tywyn; the street called'Pier Road', which leads from the town to the beach, offers a suggestion as to its location.
The promenade was completed in 1889 at the cost of some £30,000, paid for by John Corbett of Ynysymaengwyn. There has been extensive bungalow