Biên Hòa is a city in Đồng Nai Province, about 30 kilometres east of Hồ Chí Minh City, to which Biên Hòa is linked by Vietnam Highway 1. In 1989 the estimated population was 273,879. In 1999, the population was 435,400. 701,194 in 2009. In December 2012, the population of the city crossed the one million mark; the area around Biên Hòa was part of small kingdom prior to being annexed by Chenla. It was fishing region; the capture of Biên Hòa on December 16, 1861 was an important allied victory in the Cochinchina Campaign. This campaign, fought between the French and the Spanish on the one side and the Vietnamese on the other, began as a limited punitive expedition and ended as a French war of conquest; the war concluded with the establishment of the French colony of Cochinchina, a development that inaugurated nearly a century of French colonial dominance in Vietnam. Biên Hòa grew into a major suburb of Saigon. Following the First Indochina War, tens of thousands of refugees from the northern and central regions of Vietnam—a large portion of whom were Roman Catholics — resettled in Biên Hòa as part of Operation Passage to Freedom.
During the Vietnam War, the United States Air Force operated Bien Hoa Air Base near the city. Mortar attacks on U. S. and ARVN targets were staged from residential districts in Biên Hòa. Two of the better-known attacks took place during Tet of 1968 as well as 1969. Like most other areas of Vietnam, post-war Biên Hòa suffered a period of severe economic decline between 1975 and the second half of the 1980s. In part, because of its high concentration of former refugees and their descendants who had fled the Communist government of North Vietnam in the mid-1950s, Biên Hòa was the site of small-scale resistance to the Communist government in the months following the fall of the Republic of Vietnam. In the 1980s, the government of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam initiated the economic reform policy of Đổi Mới and Biên Hòa experienced an economic resurgence. Biên Hòa and the surrounding areas received large amounts of foreign investment capital, the area industrialized; as of 2005, Biên Hòa is now an industrial center of southern Vietnam, many factories and warehouses operate in the area surrounding the city.
Bien Hoa Sugar is located near the city. With regard to entertainment, the city includes several amusement parks and restaurants lining the Đồng Nai River. Construction has increased and the real estate market has experienced a series of boom cycles since the mid-1990s. Biên Hòa is the location of the Biên Hòa Military Cemetery, a large national cemetery for fallen soldiers and military officials of the former Republic of Vietnam; the cemetery today is now neglected by the current communist regime, many sections of the cemetery are either vandalized, or demolished for the construction of various building projects. Most of the time there was no proper reburial for the skeletal remains, this caused an outcry by Overseas Vietnamese, most of whom came from the South; the Vietnamese America Foundation, its program called "The Returning Casualty" are attempting to restore the cemetery and excavate a nearby mass grave. Bien Hoa is the central of Industry in South Viet Nam. About 6 industrial Zone Bien Hoa I Industrial Zone 335 ha Bien Hoa II Industrial Zone 365 ha Amata industrial park 674 ha The Long Binh Industrial Zone Development Agtex Long Binh Industrial Park - AGTEX 28: 43 ha Tam Phuoc Industrial Park 323 ha Hồ Chí Minh Bridge leads out of the south of the city.
Biên Hòa Railway Station on the North–South Railway is available. Vinh Trấn Biên Literature Temple Bien Hoa Air Base Đồng Nai Bridge HOABINHMINH
Da Nang is one of the five largest cities in Vietnam including Ho Chi Minh City, Haiphong, Cần Thơ in terms of urbanization and economy. Located on the coast of the South China Sea at the mouth of the Han River, it is one of Vietnam's most important port cities; as one of the country's five direct-controlled municipalities, it is under the direct administration of the central government. Da Nang is the commercial and educational centre of Central Vietnam, as well as being the largest city in the region. In addition to its well-sheltered accessible port, Da Nang's location on the path of National Route 1A and the North–South Railway makes it a hub for transportation, it is located within 100 km of several UNESCO World Heritage Sites, including the Imperial City of Hue, the Old Town of Hoi An, the My Son ruins. The city was known as Cửa Hàn during early Đại Việt settlement, as Tourane during French colonial rule. Before 1997, the city was part of Quang Nam-Da Nang Province. On 1 January 1997, Da Nang was separated from Quảng Nam Province to become one of four independent municipalities in Vietnam.
Da Nang is listed as a first class city, has a higher urbanization ratio than any of Vietnam's other provinces or centrally governed cities. Most of the names by which Da Nang has been known make reference to its position at the Hàn River estuary; the city's present name is agreed to be a Vietnamese adaptation of the Cham word da nak, translated as "opening of a large river". Other Chamic sources, with similar definitions, have been proposed. Inrasara, a researcher specializing in Champa, suggests Da Nang is a variation of the Cham word daknan. Another name given to Da Nang was Cửa Hàn; the name used by the French, Tourane, is said to derive from this name, by way of a rough transliteration. Notably, this name appears on maps of the area drafted by Alexandre de Rhodes in 1650; the name Kean was another name purportedly used during the 17th century to refer to the land situated at the foot of the Hải Vân Pass. Other names referring to Da Nang include: a colloquial name which survives in folklore.
Trà Úc, Trà Áo, Trà Sơn and Đồng Long Loan, literary names used by Confucian scholars. In Chữ Nôm, used until 1945, "Đà Nẵng" is written as 沱灢. Thái Phiên, a name used after the 1945 August Revolution, commemorating Thái Phiên, the leader of popular revolts during the 1916 Duy Tân Resistance; the city's origins date back to the ancient kingdom of Champa, established in 192 AD. At its peak, the Chams' sphere of influence stretched from Huế to Vũng Tàu; the city of Indrapura, at the site of the modern village of Dong Duong in Quảng Nam Province, was the capital of Champa from about 875 to about 1000 AD. In the region of Da Nang were the ancient Cham city of Singhapura, the location of, identified with an archeological site in the modern village of Trà Kiệu, the valley of Mỹ Sơn, where a number of ruined temples and towers can still be viewed. In the latter half of the 10th century, the kings of Indrapura came into conflict with the Đại Việt, who were based at Hoa Lư near modern Hanoi. In 982, three ambassadors sent to Champa by emperor Lê Hoàn of the Đại Việt were detained in Indrapura.
Lê Hoàn decided to go on the offensive, sacking Indrapura and killing the Cham King Parameshvaravarman I. As a result of these setbacks, the Cham abandoned Indrapura around 1000 AD; the Đại Việt campaign against Champa continued into the late 11th century, when the Cham were forced to cede their three northern provinces to the rulers of the Lý Dynasty. Soon afterwards, Vietnamese peasants began moving into the untilled former Cham lands, turning them into rice fields and moving relentlessly southward, delta by delta, along the narrow coastal plain; the southward expansion of Đại Việt continued for several centuries, culminating in the annexation of most of the Cham territories by the end of the 15th century. One of the first Europeans to visit Da Nang was Portuguese explorer António de Faria, who anchored in Da Nang in 1535. Faria was one of the first Westerners to write about the area and, through his influence, Portuguese ships began to call at Hội An, a much more important port than Da Nang.
Throughout the 17th and 18th centuries and Spanish traders and missionaries made landfall at Hội An, just south of Đà Nẵng. An American, John White, arrived at Da Nang on 18 June 1819 in the brig Franklin of Salem and was advised that the country was recovering from devastating wars, that what little produce there had been promised. Other American ships arriving shortly after were the Marmion of Boston, the Aurora and Beverly of Salem. Conditions were such that they were unable to conduct trade, the subsequent missions of British East India Company agent John Crawfurd in 1823 and the two missions of Andrew Jackson's agent, diplomatist Edmund Roberts, in 1833 and 1836 were unable to secure trade agreements. Following the edict of Emperor Minh Mạng in 1835, prohibiting European vessels from making landfall or pursuing trade except at Hàn Port, Da Nang surpassed Hội An, becoming the largest commercial port in the central region. In 1847, French vessels dispatched by Admiral Cécille bombarded Đà Nẵng, ostensibly on the grounds of alleged persecution of Roman Catholic missionaries.
Sa Đéc is a District-level city in Đồng Tháp Province in the Mekong Delta of southern Vietnam. It is a river port and agricultural and industrial trading center, The Sa Dec economic zone consists of Chau Thanh, Lai Vung and Lap Vo districts; as of January 2018, the city has a population of 202,046. There are three industrial zones in this city, designated by the codes A, C1, C, they attract a large number of businessmen from the Mekong Delta region. During the Republic of Vietnam, it was the site of Sa Đéc Base in 1966 and 1967, an American PBR base during the Vietnam War. On, it became a Swift Boat base, as well. Before the nineteenth century, it was the capital of Dong Khau Dao, it was known as one of the largest cities in the Mekong Delta. Sa Dec has 9 subordinate administrative units, her mother ran a school on the corner of Hùng Vương and Hồ Xuân Hương, where a school still exists today. Duras met Huynh Thuy Le, the son of a wealthy Chinese family, the two became involved in a love affair that became the basis for Duras's 1984 Prix Goncourt-winning novel, The Lover.
The house of Huynh Thuy Le, at 255A Nguyen Hue Street, for many years an office for a government agency, has from 2007 been open to the public, with guides offering tours in French and Vietnamese. Sa Dec Encyclopædia Britannica Citypopulation.de entry Swift Boat Coastal Base 13 page, with photos Article in Viet News Online about the Huynh Thuy Le house
Vinh is the biggest city and economic and cultural center of central Vietnam. Vinh is the capital of Nghệ An Province, is a key point in the East–West economic corridor linking Myanmar, Thailand and Vietnam; the city is situated in the south-east of the province, alongside the Lam River and is located on the main north-south transportation route of Vietnam accessible by highway, railroad and air. The expanded Vinh International Airport is served daily by three carriers: Vietnam Airlines, VietJet Air, Jetstar Pacific. On September 5, 2008, it was upgraded from Grade-II city to Grade-I city, the fifth Grade-I city of Vietnam after Hai Phong, Đà Nẵng and Huế. Vinh is the most populous city in the North Central Coastal region, with over 490,000 residents; the city is bordered by Nghi Loc district to the north and east, Hung Nguyen district to the west, Nghi Xuan district in Hà Tĩnh Province to the south. Vinh is 1,400 kilometres north of Ho Chi Minh City; the total area of Vinh city is 104.97 square kilometres, includes 16 urban wards and 9 suburban communes.
The service sector comprises the largest part of Vinh's economy, with around 55% of the working population being employed in this area. This is followed by the industrial sector and the agriculture and fishing sectors. Vinh is an important transportation hub, having a key position on the route between the northern and southern parts of the country, is a notable port. Vinh was known as Ke Van; this successively became Ke Vinh, Vinh Giang, Vinh Doanh, Vinh Thi. In 1789, the official name became Vinh under European influence; the name has remained the same since. At various times, Vinh has been of political significance; the Vietnamese nation began in the north, only expanded to cover its current territories – as such, Vinh was sometimes seen as a "gateway to the south". The Tây Sơn dynasty is believed to have considered Vinh as a possible capital of Vietnam, but the short duration of the dynasty meant that any plans did not come to fruition. Tây Sơn interest in the city did, result in considerable construction and development there.
Under French rule of Vietnam, Vinh was further developed as an industrial center, became well known for its factories. Vinh and its surrounding areas have been important centers of rebellion and revolutionary activity. In the 19th century and the early 20th century, the city was the center of several prominent uprisings against the French. In addition, a number of notable revolutionary figures were born in or near the city of Vinh, including Nguyễn Du, Phan Bội Châu, Trần Trọng Kim, Nguyễn Thị Minh Khai, Hồ Chí Minh; the city of Vinh was once the site of a number of significant historic sites an ancient citadel. Over the years, Vinh has been extensively damaged in a number of wars. In the 1950s, fighting between the French colonial powers and the Việt Minh resistance forces destroyed much of the city, further damage was done by United States bombing in the Vietnam War; as such, little of the original city remains today. The reconstruction of Vinh borrowed on Soviet and East German ideas about town planning – the city is noted for its wide streets and its rows of concrete apartment blocks.
Vinh and Nghe An province are growing tourist destinations on the North Central Coast of Vietnam, are home to various attractions. The city features several unique sites including Song Lam, Ho Chi Minh Square, Phuong Hoang Trung Do, Dung Quyet Mountain with picturesque and breathtaking scenery of the Lam River, Hong Linh Mountain Rank and East Vietnam Sea. President Ho Chi Minh's hometown, Kim Lien, is 10 kilometres west of Vinh in Nam Dan district. Cửa Lò beach is 15 kilometres east of the center of the city, it is one of the most beautiful beaches in Vietnam. Tourists can visit Hon Ngu island, the island is 4 km offshore, it consists of 2 islands: the larger stands at 133 metres above sea level and the smaller at 88 metres. Pù Mát National Park, one of the largest and most well-preserved national parks in Vietnam, is located 120 kilometres west of Vinh. A local tour company offers guided tours of Pu Mat in English or Vietnamese, with the chance to explore Khe Kem Waterfall, Giang River boat trip, Pha Lai Dam, “Sang Le” Forest.
Nguyễn Du' homeland is 5 kilometres South of Vinh. He was a famous poem in the world with The Tale of Kieu. Quyet Mountain is 5 km South East from centre. Which is bold cultural-historical-Nghe An. Quyet Mountain Park was built on the basis of preserving a cultural heritage-historical over 200 years, it was Phuong Hoang Trung Do of Quang Trung King. Mường Thanh Safari Land, Mường Thanh Water Park are located in Dien Lam, Dien Chau about 60 km North from Vinh city centre. There are many wild animals from every part of the world, such as rhinos, white tigers, yellow tigers, elephants, zebras and jaguars. Bai Lu Resort is located in Nghi Loc about 20 km North East from Vinh centre. Tourists can enjoy views beach by climing to the top of Heaven Gate mountain, it can be said "Da Lat on the sea". Sunflower field in Nghia Dan, about 100 km North West from Vinh city, 80 hetares wide; those flowers are in full bloom from late March to mid-December yearly. Huong Tich pagoda, about 20 km south from Vinh city.
The pagoda was built during the Tran kings attached t
Ho Chi Minh City
Ho Chi Minh City known by its former name of Saigon, or Prey Nokor in Khmer name, is the most populous city in Vietnam with a population of 8.4 million as of 2017. Located in southeast Vietnam, the metropolis surrounds the Saigon River and covers about 2,061 square kilometres. Under the name Saigon, it was the capital of French Indochina from 1887 to 1902 and again from 1945 to 1954. Saigon would become the capital of South Vietnam from 1955 until its fall in 1975. On 2 July 1976, Saigon merged with the surrounding Gia Định Province and was renamed Ho Chi Minh City after revolutionary leader Hồ Chí Minh. Ho Chi Minh City is the financial centre of Vietnam and is classified as a Beta+ World City by Globalization and World Cities Research Network, it is home to the Ho Chi Minh City Stock Exchange, the largest stock exchange by total market capitalization in Vietnam and the headquarters of many national and international banks and companies. Ho Chi Minh City is the most visited city in Vietnam, with 6.3 million visitors in 2017.
Many of the city's landmarks which are well known to international visitors include the Bến Thành Market, Ho Chi Minh City Hall, Notre-Dame Cathedral Basilica of Saigon, Independence Palace and the Municipal Theatre. The main passenger airport serving the metropolitan area is Tan Son Nhat International Airport, it is the busiest airport in Vietnam handling 36 million passengers in 2017. Ho Chi Minh City has gone by several different names during its history, reflecting settlement by different ethnic and political groups. In 1623, Khmer king Chey Chettha II allowed Vietnamese refugees fleeing the Trịnh–Nguyễn War further to the north to settle in the area, which they colloquially referred to as Sài Gòn, to set up a custom house at the city known as Prey Nôkôr. In the 1690s, Nguyễn Hữu Cảnh, a Vietnamese noble, was sent by the Nguyễn rulers of Huế to establish Vietnamese administrative structures in the Mekong Delta and its surroundings. Control of the city and the area passed to the Vietnamese, who gave the city the official name of Gia Định.
This name remained until the time of French conquest in the 1860s, when the occupying force adopted the name Saïgon for the city, a westernized form of the traditional name, although the city was still indicated as 嘉 定 on Vietnamese maps written in Chữ Hán until at least 1891. After the communist takeover of South Vietnam in 1975, a provisional government renamed the city after Hồ Chí Minh, the late North Vietnamese leader. Today, the informal name of Sài Gòn/Saigon remains in daily speech both domestically and internationally among the Vietnamese diaspora. However, there is a technical difference between the two terms: Sài Gòn is used to refer to the city center in District 1 and the adjacent areas, while Ho Chi Minh City is referred more to the entire modern city with all its urban and rural districts. An etymology of Saigon is that Sài is a Sino-Vietnamese word meaning "firewood, twigs; this name may refer to the many kapok plants that the Khmer people had planted around Prey Nokor, which can still be seen at Cây Mai temple and surrounding areas.
It may refer to the dense and tall forest that once existed around the city, a forest to which the Khmer name, Prey Nokor referred. Other proposed etymologies draw parallels from Tai-Ngon, the Cantonese name of Cholon, which means "embankment", Vietnamese Sai Côn, a translation of the Khmer Prey Nokor. Prey means forest or jungle, nokor is a Khmer word of Sanskrit origin meaning city or kingdom, related to the English word'Nation' – thus, "forest city" or "forest kingdom". Truong Mealy, says that, according to a Khmer Chronicle, The Collection of the Council of the Kingdom, Prey Nokor's proper name was Preah Reach Nokor, "Royal City"; the current official name, Thành phố Hồ Chí Minh, abbreviated Tp. HCM, is translated as Ho Chi Minh City, abbreviated HCMC, in French as Hô-Chi-Minh-Ville, abbreviated HCMV; the name commemorates the first leader of North Vietnam. This name, though not his given name, was one he favored throughout his years, it combines a common Vietnamese surname with a given name meaning "enlightened will", in essence, meaning "light bringer".
The earliest settlement in the area was a Funan temple at the location of the current Phung Son Pagoda, founded in the 4th century AD. A settlement called; when the Cham Empire was invaded by the Khmer people, Baigaur was renamed Prey Nokor. This meant "Forest City". An alternative name was Preah Reach Nokor which, according to a Khmer Chronicle meant "Royal City", it was succeeded a small fishing village known as the area that the city now occupies was forested, was inhabited by Khmer people for centuries before the arrival of the Vietnames
Hạ Long is the capital city and 1st-class provincial city of Quảng Ninh Province, Vietnam. The name Hạ Long means "descending dragon"; the city was created in 1993, when the old capital, Hòn Gai, was merged with Bãi Cháy – the main tourist area. The city lies on Hạ Long Bay, it is located at about 178 km east of Hanoi. The population in 2013 was 227,000; the city's economy has switched from coal mining to tourism, due to the large number of visitors drawn by the Hạ Long Islets every year. At present, Hạ Long is experiencing rapid growth not only in tourism sphere, but as a place upon the main road to southern China. In 2007 Vietnam-China Business Forum, a $400 million deal was signed to build a highway linking Hạ Long, Móng Cái and Quảng Ninh. Hạ Long city is divided into two parts: West Hạ Long; the eastern part, Hòn Gai, where most of the official buildings and industry are concentrated, is connected by bridge with the western part, Bãi Cháy, considered to be more of a tourism attraction. There are several good quality hotels in Hạ Long city and plenty of budget accommodation, two hospitals and several private medical centers.
The biggest hotel in Vietnam is planned to be built on the bay, beginning from 2007. The name Hạ Long is derived from the Sino-Vietnamese 下龍, meaning "descending dragon". For more about the origin of this name, see Hạ Long Bay. Being a coastal city, it has unique potentials of tourism and seaport due to its land lies along the shore of Hạ Long Bay of 50 km, is 160 km to the north-east from Ha Noi, 60 km to the west from Hai Phong, 180 km to the east from Móng Cái international border gate, bounded by the Gulf of Tonkin to the south. Hạ Long has strategic location of security of the region and the country. In the south of the city there is Bai Tho Mountain with its vertical seaward face, used by some famous local poets; the limestone peak offers attractive views of the bay. There are such places of interest as Cua Van Fishing Village, Hoang Gia Park, Hạ Long Market, Bãi Cháy Trading Center, Quảng Ninh Museum, Vietnam-Japan Cultural House, Children's Cultural House. Hạ Long city has an active Roman Catholic church in its eastern part, Hòn Gai, on the hill near the main post office, which holds the services on Sunday evenings and on Christian holidays.
Man has been present on Hạ Long Bay for a long time. Over the years, researchers concluded that during the application process of history, there were three cultures which called Soi Nhu, Hạ Long and Cai Beo culture, it shows that surrounding areas were one of the cradles of mankind. Heartland of today's Hạ Long City just a fishing village, called the Oyster Coast. By the beginning of the Nguyễn Dynasty, it was renamed to Mau Le; the east wards of the present city earlier belonged to Hoành Bồ District. In 1883, the French occupied the bay area, they carried out coal mining in the mines on the Gulf Coast; as on many islands there was lots of hemp so French called Ile des brouilles or a name translated from Hon Gai to Hon Gay renamed Hon Gai. According to the researchers, Hon Gai is calling deviation from the place of the French Red Sea at that time; the "H" in French is a silent sound. Be sure to read the Hongay or Hon Gai. At that time, Hon Gai was an administrative unit under Quảng Yên. After the August Revolution in 1945, this township became the capital town of the huge Hong Gai mine area.
Late in 1946, the French reconquest of Hon Gai. After Geneva Conference, Hong Gai town was the capital of the Hong Quang special district. October 30, 1963, the government combined Hai Ninh province and Hong Quang special district to create Quảng Ninh Province, Hong Gai which became the capital of Quảng Ninh, while expanding town to the east and west. Hong Gai town center provided coal for all industrial zones of North Vietnam, it was the gateway to connect with China so it was the focus of the U. S. raiding fierce in war. Bãi Cháy Ferry was the most important transportation hub, with American bombs destroyed many times, awarded Hero of the People's Armed Forces 3 times. In December 27, 1993, the government issued Decree No. 102/CP, Halong City was formally established on the basis of Hon Gai town. Hạ Long City is divided into 20 wards: As planned, the city comprises five economic areas: Area 1: Trading, services including wards Yet Kieu, Tran Hung Dao, Hong Gai, Bạch Đằng, Hong Hai, Hong Ha, Cao Xanh and Cao Thang Area 2: Industry, forestry including wards Ha Trung, Ha Tu, Ha Khanh, Ha Lam and Ha Phong Area 3: Industry, seaports including north-west of Bãi Cháy, North of Viet Hung, Gieng Day and Ha Khau Area 4: Tourism, trading including south of Bãi Cháy, Hung Thang ang Tuan Chau Area 5: Agriculture, fishery including Viet Hung and Dai YenThe economic structure of Hạ Long is: Industry-tourism, trading, agriculture and fishery.
In 2002, city's GDP increased up to VND 1,6669.7 billion, accounting for 38% of the whole province, of which industry and construction occupy 31%, tourism and services occupy 53%. Annual GDP growth rate is 11.4%. GDP per capital reached USD 1,070 in 2002, higher than per capita income of the country in that time. Halong City has 1,470 industry and handicrafts manufacturing units, including coal mining and processing, ship building, building materials, wood processing, food and garment. There are 3 industrial zones Dong Dang and Ha Khanh. Van Don International Airport is the airport of Ha Long, it is located about 50 km awa
Bắc Ninh is a city in the northern part of Vietnam and is the capital of Bắc Ninh Province. The city is the cultural and commercial center of the province; the city area is 82.60 square km, with a population of 501,199 in November 2017. In January 2006, the town of Bắc Ninh was upgraded to city; the city's name is derived from Sino-Vietnamese. In March 1884, Bac Ninh was the site of the decisive Bắc Ninh Campaign in the wars between France and assorted Black Flag Army forces; the town fell to the French in March 1884. Thereafter under French rule, the town was confirmed as the centre of all political, cultural offices of colonial administration in the province; the land of the Bắc Ninh Citadel, within Niem and Do Villages, was occupied by French troops. At this time Bắc Ninh became known in Europe for its lacquer work and mother-of-pearl inlaid black-wood screens, cabinets and boxes. Bắc Ninh Railway Station opened after 1904. An ambush of French troops by the Viet Minh occurred at Bắc Ninh while the 1946 Fontainebleau Conference was ongoing.
The city is home to the Banking Academy of Vietnam, Bắc Ninh campus, the Kinh Bac International School, the Military Academy of Politics main campus, Bắc Ninh Railway Station. There is a shrine to Bà Chúa Kho; the city is administratively divided into 19 units, including 16 urban wards - Đáp Cầu, Hap Linh, Khắc Niệm,Phong Khê, Khúc Xuyên, Thị Cầu, Vũ Ninh, Suối Hoa, Tiền An, Ninh Xá, Vân dương, Vạn An, Vệ An, Kinh Bắc, Đại Phúc, Võ Cường - and 3 rural communes - Hoà Long, Kim chân and Nam Sơn