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Tamborine National Park

Tamborine is a national park in the Gold Coast hinterland and is a part of the Scenic Rim Regional Council of South East Queensland, Australia, 45 km south of Brisbane. It covers 11.60 km ² around its foothills. The plateau is 8 km long, 5 km wide and rises to an altitude of 525 m; the elevation of the plateau keeps the temperature down a little in summer although December to April is the wettest time to visit. Winter is drier but cooler; the protected area is scattered across 14 separate reserves which make up the National Park, interspersed with villages. There are a number of picnic areas as well as scenic drives and many bushwalks to lookouts, cliffs, rainforest areas, wet eucalypt forest, open forest and woodlands. Wildlife in the park includes Lyrebirds, the elusive platypus, brush-turkeys, eastern whipbirds and satin bowerbirds; the significance of the park is underscored by the fact that it provides habitat for 85% of all fauna species and 65% of all flora species in the Scenic Rim Regional Council area.

Camping is not permitted in any part of the park. A range of small-scale cottages, bed-and-breakfast style accommodation and motels is available; the main areas to visit in the park are Joalah, Cedar Creek, The Knoll, MacDonald Park, Niche's Corner, Palm Grove and Witches Falls. All have walking tracks. All but Cedar Creek have information centres; the Witches Falls section, on the eastern side of Mount Tamborine village, became Queensland's first national park in 1908. The main walk here is the Witches Falls Circuit which snakes down a steep slope through closed in forest into rainforest with cycad groves, seasonal lagoons, enormous strangler figs and palm groves, en route to the falls. An alternative way of seeing the falls is via the Beacon Road Track. Access is off Main Western Road. Subtropical rainforest containing large red cedar trees and strangler figs is the predominate vegetation here. On the western side of Tamborine Mountain village is the Palm Grove section of the park; the Curtis Road Track links Palm Grove Avenue.

The Palm Grove Circuit passes through rainforest and palm groves. Curtis Road runs off Tambourine Mountain Road and Palm Grove Avenue runs off Central Avenue in Eagle Heights; the section is named after the piccabeen palms flourishing in the area. In between, to the north of Witches Falls and Palm Grove, is the Joalah section of the park which features the 1.5 km Curtis Falls Walk. It descends to a rock pool at the base of the falls. Brush-turkeys can be seen along the Joalah Circuit. Access is off Eagle Heights Road. In Eagle Heights, adjacent to the Tamborine Mountain Botanic Gardens, is the MacDonald Park section, it has a rainforest circuit. Access is off Wangawallan Road; the Knoll section of the park is located in the north-west of North Tamborine. It contains the Cameron Falls Circuit which offers fine views, rainforest environs, open forest and the occasional black skink sunbathing on the rocks. Knoll Road runs off Main Street; the Tamborine Mountains Natural History Association Information Centre is located in the village of North Tamborine.

Stands of forest she-oak are found at the Knoll as well as the lacebark, an Australian native flowering tree. Heading north from North Tamborine, via Tamborine Mountain Road, there is a turnoff into Cedar Creek Falls Road. One of the most delightful walks in the whole Tamborine area is the Cedar Creek Circuit which explores the creek's various cascades, rock pools and plant communities, such as open and dry rainforest and hoop pines; the falls tumble down into a gully. The 1.5 km Rock Scree Walk intersects for a potential detour. Located 20 km north of the Knoll and main section of Tamborine Mountain, Niches corner sits looking towards the Gold Coast and delivers expansive views. One of the best walks in the whole Tamborine area is the Niches Lookout Circuit which explores the Niches Corners various cascades, rock pools and plant communities, such as open and dry rainforest and hoop pines. Protected areas of Queensland Media related to Tamborine National Park at Wikimedia Commons

Farmer's Daughter (band)

Farmer's Daughter is a Canadian country music group. Farmer's Daughter recorded three studio albums and charted sixteen singles on the Canadian country music charts, their highest charting single was the Number One song "Cornfields or Cadillacs". Although sometimes referred to as a band, they do not play musical instruments as part of their act. In the spring of 1992, Saskatchewan's Jake Leiske talked Alberta's Shauna Rae Samograd into forming a country music group. Jake and Shauna Rae had toured together before with their family's gospel group when they were 5 and 2 years old, respectively. By the fall of that same year, they joined forces with Manitoba's Angela Kelman, to form Farmer's Daughter. In 1993, the Vancouver-based group independently released their debut album, Girls Will Be Girls, on Stubble Jumper Music; the album generated seven hits, including "Borderline Angel", "Family Love", "I Wanna Hold You" and a cover of the Dusty Springfield hit "Son of a Preacher Man". Girls Will Be Girls was named Album of the Year by the British Columbia Country Music Association in 1994, the group won the Vista Rising Star Award from the Canadian Country Music Association the following year.

They swept the 1996 British Columbia Country Music Awards, winning Entertainer of the Year, Group of the Year, as well as Song and Single of the Year awards for "Borderline Angel". In 1996, Farmer's Daughter signed to Universal Music Canada and released their second album, Makin' Hay, in September; the album went gold in Canada and produced five more hit singles, including "Lonely Gypsy Wind", "Now That I'm On My Own", "You Said" and the top 5 "Cornfields or Cadillacs". They were named Group of the Year by the CCMA in 1997, Best Country Group or Duo at the Juno Awards in 1998, both Group and Entertainer of the Year by the BCCMA in 1997 and 1998. In 1997, at WWE's In Your House 16: Canadian Stampede, Farmer's Daughter performed the Canadian National Anthem prior to the Main Event, their third album, This Is the Life, was released in October 1998 by UMG Canada. They took a more hands-on approach. Two singles from the CD reached the Canadian Top 10, "Freeway" and "Blue Horizon". Farmer's Daughter continued their domination at the BCCMA Awards in 1999, winning Entertainer of the Year, Group of the Year, Song of the Year, Single of the Year and Album of the Year.

The group released their greatest hits album, The Best of Farmer's Daughter, in 1999. The CD included 11 of Farmer's Daughter's biggest hits, along with two new songs, "Walkin' In The Sunshine" and "You And Only You", they were once again named Entertainer of the Year and Group of the Year by the BCCMA, along with Single of the Year for "Walkin' In The Sunshine". The original three group members did their last tour in 2001, did not go public with any information as to why they decided to stop playing together. All three women have been working on personal goals. On June 16, 2008, Farmer's Daughter played an exclusive reunion show at the Winspear Center in Edmonton, Canada. There is speculation that they may be recording together again, however there has been no official statement from the band. Farmer's Daughter - Lonely Gypsy Wind Farmer's Daughter - Now That I'm On My Own Farmer's Daughter - Freeway Farmer's Daughter - Walkin' in the Sunshine Farmer's Daughter - Blue Horizon 1995 Vista Rising Star1997 Group or Duo of the Year 1998 Best Country Group or Duo 1994 Album of the Year, Girls Will Be Girls1996 Entertainer of the Year Group of the Year Song of the Year, "Borderline Angel" Single of the Year, "Borderline Angel"1997 Entertainer of the Year Group of the Year Single of the Year, "Cornfields or Cadillacs"1998 Entertainer of the Year Group of the Year1999 Entertainer of the Year Group of the Year Song of the Year, "Blue Horizon" Single of the Year, "Blue Horizon" Album of the Year, This Is the Life2000 Entertainer of the Year Group of the Year Single of the Year, "Walkin' In The Sunshine"2002 Group of the Year

The Woolf Institute

The Woolf Institute is an academic institute in Cambridge, dedicated to the study of relations between Jews and Muslims. The aim of the Woolf Institute is to use research and education to explore the relationship between religion and society and foster greater understanding and tolerance; the Woolf Institute is named in honour of Lord Harry Woolf and was founded by Dr Edward Kessler MBE and the Revd Professor Martin Forward. Beginning as the Centre for Jewish-Christian Relations, the Institute expanded to include the Centre for the Study of Muslim-Jewish Relations – the first and only centre in Europe dedicated to fostering a better understanding of relations between Muslim and Jews – and the Centre for Policy and Public Education. In 2010, these Centres were amalgamated under the designation "Woolf Institute", in honour of Lord Harry Woolf, former Lord Chief Justice of England and Wales; the Woolf Institute is an associate member of the Cambridge Theological Federation which brings together eleven institutions through which people of different denominations, including Anglican, Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic, train for various forms of Christian ministry and service.

The Woolf Institute is located in central Cambridge on Cambridge Site. The Woolf Institute works together with the Cambridge Commonwealth Trust and the Cambridge Overseas Trust to offer the Woolf Institute Cambridge Scholarship, a PhD scholarship for the study of relations between Jews and Muslims; the Woolf Institute contributes to the newly reconstituted MPhil in Middle East Studies at the University of Cambridge and offers a Professional Doctorate in collaboration with the Cambridge Theological Federation and Anglia Ruskin University. The Rt Hon Lord Harry Woolf, CH, PC The Rt Hon Justin Welby, Archbishop of Canterbury Rabbi Ephraim Mirvis, Chief Rabbi of the United Hebrew Congregations of the Commonwealth Cardinal Vincent Nichols, Archbishop of Westminster HRH Prince Hassan of Jordan Archbishop Gregorios, Archbishop of Thyateira and Great Britain Rev Dr Hugh Osgood, Free Church Moderator Rabbi Baroness Julia Neuberger DBE Rabbi Joseph Dweck, Senior Rabbi S&P Congregation Rabbi Lord Jonathan Sacks Baroness Elizabeth Butler-Sloss GBE Dr Richard Stone OBE Rev Dominic Fenton Mr John Pickering Lord Khalid Hameed CBE Commission on Religion and Belief in British Public Life Religion in the United Kingdom Cambridge Theological Federation

Speed of sound

The speed of sound is the distance travelled per unit time by a sound wave as it propagates through an elastic medium. At 20 °C, the speed of sound in air is about 343 metres per second, or a kilometre in 2.9 s or a mile in 4.7 s. It depends on temperature as well as the medium through which a soundwave is propagating; the speed of sound in an ideal gas depends only on its composition. The speed has a weak dependence on frequency and pressure in ordinary air, deviating from ideal behavior. In common everyday speech, speed of sound refers to the speed of sound waves in air. However, the speed of sound varies from substance to substance: sound travels most in gases. For example, sound travels at 343 m/s in air. In an exceptionally stiff material such as diamond, sound travels at 12,000 metres per second —about 35 times as fast as in air—which is around the maximum speed that sound will travel under normal conditions. Sound waves in solids are composed of compression waves, a different type of sound wave called a shear wave, which occurs only in solids.

Shear waves in solids travel at different speeds, as exhibited in seismology. The speed of compression waves in solids is determined by the medium's compressibility, shear modulus and density; the speed of shear waves is determined only by the solid material's shear modulus and density. In fluid dynamics, the speed of sound in a fluid medium is used as a relative measure for the speed of an object moving through the medium; the ratio of the speed of an object to the speed of sound in the fluid is called the object's Mach number. Objects moving at speeds greater than Mach1 are said to be traveling at supersonic speeds. Sir Isaac Newton's 1687 Principia includes a computation of the speed of sound in air as 979 feet per second; this is too low by about 15%. The discrepancy is due to neglecting the effect of rapidly-fluctuating temperature in a sound wave; this error was rectified by Laplace. During the 17th century there were several attempts to measure the speed of sound including attempts by Marin Mersenne in 1630, Pierre Gassendi in 1635 and Robert Boyle.

In 1709, the Reverend William Derham, Rector of Upminster, published a more accurate measure of the speed of sound, at 1,072 Parisian feet per second. Derham used a telescope from the tower of the church of St Laurence, Upminster to observe the flash of a distant shotgun being fired, measured the time until he heard the gunshot with a half-second pendulum. Measurements were made of gunshots from a number of local landmarks, including North Ockendon church; the distance was known by triangulation, thus the speed that the sound had travelled was calculated. The transmission of sound can be illustrated by using a model consisting of an array of spherical objects interconnected by springs. In real material terms, the spheres represent the material's molecules and the springs represent the bonds between them. Sound passes through the system by compressing and expanding the springs, transmitting the acoustic energy to neighboring spheres; this helps transmit the energy in-turn to the neighboring sphere's springs, so on.

The speed of sound through the model depends on the stiffness/rigidity of the springs, the mass of the spheres. As long as the spacing of the spheres remains constant, stiffer springs/bonds transmit energy quicker, while larger spheres transmit the energy slower. In a real material, the stiffness of the springs is known as the "elastic modulus", the mass corresponds to the material density. Given that all other things being equal, sound will travel slower in spongy materials, faster in stiffer ones. Effects like dispersion and reflection can be understood using this model. For instance, sound will travel 1.59 times faster in nickel than in bronze, due to the greater stiffness of nickel at about the same density. Sound travels about 1.41 times faster in light hydrogen gas than in heavy hydrogen gas, since deuterium has similar properties but twice the density. At the same time, "compression-type" sound will travel faster in solids than in liquids, faster in liquids than in gases, because the solids are more difficult to compress than liquids, while liquids in turn are more difficult to compress than gases.

Some textbooks mistakenly state. This notion is illustrated by presenting data for three materials, such as air and steel, they each have vastly different compressibility, which more than makes up for the density differences. An illustrative example of the two effects is that sound travels only 4.3 times faster in water than air, despite enormous differences in compressibility of the two media. The reason is that the larger density of water, which works to slow sound in water relative to air, nearly makes up for the compressibility differences in the two media. A practical example can be observed in Edinburgh when the "One o' Clock Gun" is fired at the eastern end of Edinburgh Castle. Standing at the base of the western end of the Castle Rock, the sou

Friedrich Bassler

Friedrich Bassler was a German hydraulic engineer. From 1961 to 1977 he was director of the Institut für Wasserbau und Wasserwirtschaft at the Technische Hochschule Darmstadt. From 1964 till 1973 Bassler helped to develop the hydro-solar energy project at the Qattara Depression further, he directed the "Board of Advisers", responsible for the planning and financing of the project. For the Egyptian government he served as an advisor on the project. Friedrich Bassler descended from Alemannic-Swiss forefathers paternally. However, his mother's family originated from Neumark, his father, Fritz Bassler, was an employee with the local newspaper, while his mother took on the role of housewife. In World War II he was conscripted into the Wehrmacht and was stationed in Egypt in 1941 and 1942. During the German North Africa Campaign he served as a Luftwaffe officer under Field Marshall Rommel in the Western Desert near the Qattara Depression, he was captured by the Americans. He returned to Karlsruhe in 1947, where he became the founder of an engineering company and started working for Schluchseewerk AG at Freiburg.

For twelve years he was in charge of planning activities and oversaw construction of tunnels and power plants. He took up the position of Operating Director of a three-stage pumped-storage hydroelectricity plant in the Black Forest. During this Freiburg period, he married Janine in 1951, they had two children: Michael and Sibylle. From 1927, Bassler studied electrical engineering at the Technischen Hochschule Karlsruhe for two semesters, before switching to civil engineering. After the 1932 exams, he became a research fellow, he completed the subsequent traineeship in late 1936. A water management exploration expedition took him to Liberia. In 1956, he received his doctorate at the'Technischen Universität Berlin' with his dissertation on „Gesichtspunkte bei der Wahl einer Talsperren-Bauart“ or "Considerations when choosing a dam design". In 1961, he became a professor at the Technische Hochschule Darmstadt; as holder of the new chair he became director of the "Institut für Wasserbau und Wasserwirtschaft".

From 1964 onward, he committed himself to the "Qattara Depression Project" in Egypt. In 1966, he founded the scientific journal Darmstädter Wasserbau-Mitteilungen or, in short, Wasserbau-Mitteilungen. Apart from that he was a member of the planning committee for six years, chairman from 1967 till 1971. Besides his activities for the university and his numerous publications and consultancies, he assumed various offices at research and industrial institutes, e.g. at the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft. Guest lectureships took him to Berlin, Madras and Cairo. Additionally he worked on regional models and water management of water-rich and water-poor countries such as Peru, Ecuador, Saudi Arabia and Egypt. For the OECD and the European Communities he produced studies on the reserves and future needs of water. In 1977, he still kept working as a consultant; this project envisaged bringing water from the Mediterranean Sea near El Alamein into the Qattara Depression to generate hydroelectricity. The power plant was to have more output than the Aswan High Dam.

Bassler led from 1964 onward the international "Board of Advisers", responsible for planning and financing activities of the project. He advised the Egyptian government on the matter from 1975 onward, he was appointed to make a first preliminary feasibility study by the German Federal Ministry of Economics in Bonn. Bassler was the driving force behind the Qattara Project for nearly a decade. Halfway through the seventies a team of eight German scientists and technicians was working on the planning of the first hydro-solar depression power station in the world; the first "Bassler-study" of 1973 laid the basis for the Egyptian government to commission a study of its own. It decided in 1975 that Bassler and a group of companies known as "Joint Venture Qattara" should conduct a feasibility study of the project; the project concept was: Mediterranean water should be channelled through a canal or tunnel towards the Qattara Depression which lies below sea level. This water would fall into the depression through penstocks for electricity generation.

The water would evaporate because of the dry and hot weather once in the depression. This would allow for more water to enter the depression and would create a continuous source of electricity. A canal of 60 meters deep would connect the Mediterranean with the depressions edge at this narrow isthmus; this canal would deliver water to the depression as well as being a shipping route towards the Qattara lake with a harbour and fishing grounds in the depression. The depression was to be filled to a height of 60 m below sealevel, it would take a total of 10 years to fill to that level. After that the incoming flow would balance out against the outgoing evaporation and the lake level would stop changing. In the first phase of the project the Qattara 1 station was to generate 670 Megawatt; the second phase was to generate an additional 1.200 Megawatt. A pumped-storage hydroelectricity facility would increase the peak production capacity with another 4.000 Megawatts, totalling about 6.800 Megawatts. The core problem of the entire project was the water supply to the depression.

Calculations showed that digging a tunnel would be too expensive. Bassler decided to use peaceful nuclear explosions to excavate the canal. 213 boreholes would each have a nuclear explosive charge of 1,5 Megatons. Everyone of these bombs would have an explosive yield fifty times that of the ato

Mieke Offeciers

Mieke Offeciers-Van De Wiele is a Belgian businesswoman. From 7 March 1992 to 5 September 1993, she was Belgium's Minister of Budget. Mieke Offeciers has a law degree, she started her career at the engineering department of the VEV in 1975. Since 1986, she was head of the study department of the VEV lobbying against the shady financial flows between Flanders and Wallonia. From 7 March 1992 to 5 September 1993, she was Belgium's Minister of Budget for the CVP party. After a tenure of 18 months, she returned succeeding to René De Feyter, she left the VEV in June 2000 to work for KPMG. Since 2004, she has been working for Interel, a public affairs and strategic communications consulting firm. In 2004, she set up a small business to renovate and furnish houses. In 2008, she received a remuneration as board member of Infrabel through a proxy company, bvba MVD Consulting. Former member of the Coudenberg group, a Belgian federalist think tank. Director of the board of Infrabel She is married to a doctor.

Official biography