Digenes Akrites, known in folksongs as Digenes Akritas and transliterated as Digenis Akritis, is the most famous of the Acritic Songs. The epic details the life of the hero, whose epithet Digenes Akritas refers to his mixed Byzantine-Cappadocian Greek and Arab blood; the first part of the epic details the lives of his parents, how they met, how his father, an Emir, converted to Christianity after abducting and marrying Digenes' mother. The remainder of the epic discusses from a first-person point of view, Basil's acts of heroism on the Byzantine border; the Digenes Akrites is an extensive narrative text. No fewer than six manuscripts have been found dedicated to stories about him; the oldest two are the Escorial and Grottaferrata versions, from the names of the libraries in which the respective manuscripts are held. While the form in which it has survived is not the product of oral composition, it has retained a considerable number of features of its oral origins; the common core of the two versions preserved in the E and G manuscripts goes back to the twelfth century.
The text of E appears to be closer to the original composition while G represents a version, marked by learned reworking. Both texts give enchanting descriptions of the life of the martial societies of the border regions of the empire, while in the figure of Digenes are concentrated the legends that had accumulated around local heroes; the Escorial version is the superior of the two in respect of the power and immediacy of the battle scenes and austerity of style. The epic descriptions of the mounted knights and battles are marked by drama, a swift pace and lively visual detail; the Byzantine-Arab conflicts that lasted from the 7th century to the early 11th century provide the context for Byzantine heroic poetry written in the vernacular Greek language. The Akritai of the Byzantine Empire of this period were a military class responsible for safeguarding the frontier regions of the imperial territory from external enemies and freebooting adventurers who operated on the fringes of the empire.
The work comprises two parts. In the first, the "Lay of the Emir", which bears more the characteristics of epic poetry, an Arab emir invades Cappadocia and carries off the daughter of a Byzantine general; the emir agrees to convert to Christianity for the sake of the daughter and resettle in Romania together with his people. The issue of their union is Digenes Akritas; the second part of the work relates the development of the young hero and his superhuman feats of bravery and strength. As a boy, he goes hunting with his father and kills two bears unarmed, strangling the first to death and breaking the second one's spine, he tears a hind in half with his bare hands, slays a lion in the same manner. Like his father, he carries off the daughter of another Byzantine general and marries her. No one, not the amazingly strong female warrior Maximu, with whom he commits the sin of adultery, can match him. Having defeated all his enemies Digenes builds a luxurious palace by the Euphrates, where he ends his days peacefully.
Cypriot legend has it that he grabbed hold of the Pentadaktylos mountain range north of Nicosia in order to leap to Asia Minor. The mountain range, as the name suggests, resembles five knuckles sprouting from the ground; the tale of Digenes continued to be read and enjoyed in centuries, as the text survives in various versions dating to as late as the 17th century. The epic tale of Digenes Akritas corresponds in many ways to a cycle of much shorter Acritic songs from Asia Minor and Crete, some of which survive until the present day. In the tradition Digenes is defeated only by Death, in the figure of Thanatos/Charon, after fierce single combat on "the marble threshing floors". Thanatos had already wrestled with Heracles; the Greek-Canadian composer Christos Hatzis has used this text as the basis for a portion of his "Constantinople". The story of Digenes Akritas, defeated by Death was used as a basis of a Russian bylina about Anika the Warrior; the Digenes Akritas is written in Early Demotic Greek and is composed in fifteen syllable blank verse.
Rhyming occurs rarely. The poem does not diverge from the standard political verse of popular Byzantine literature; each line holds its own and every hemistich is balanced. The poem flows, is cadential, with no cacophonies with scarce sound repetitions. Below is an excerpt from the translation of the Escorial manuscript, lines 32-55, by E. M. Jeffreys: Delhemma, the Arab analogue to the Akritic songs Cappadocian Greeks Karbeas Umar al-Aqta Daredevils of Sassoun Jeffreys, Elizabeth. Digenis Akritis: the Grottaferrata and Escorial Versions. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-39472-7. Mavrogordato, John. Digenes Akrites. Oxford, 1956; the Grottaferrata version with parallel English translation. Beaton and David Ricks. Digenes Akrites: New Approaches to Byzantine Heroic Poetry. Aldershot: King's College London, 1993. ISBN 0-86078-395-2. Articles by Magdalino, Jeffreys and others. Beaton, Roderick; the Medieval Greek Romance. London: CUP, 1996. ISBN 0-415-12032-2, 0415120330. Much improved 2nd ed. Good discussion of the Di
It seems that Byzantine music is the music of the Byzantine Empire, but political history is rather complicated and the heritage of Byzantine music developed and continued outside its territory. It consisted of songs and hymns composed to Greek texts used for courtly ceremonials, during festivals, or as paraliturgical and liturgical music; the ecclesiastical forms of Byzantine music are the best known forms today, because different Orthodox traditions still identify with the heritage of Byzantine music, when their cantors sing monodic chant out of the traditional chant books such as sticherarion, which in fact consisted of five books, the heirmologion. Byzantine music did not disappear after the fall of Constantinople, its traditions continued under the Patriarchate of Constantinople, which after the Ottoman conquest in 1453 was granted administrative responsibilities over all Orthodox Christians. During the decline of the Ottoman Empire in the 19th century, burgeoning splinter nations in the Balkans declared autonomy or "autocephaly" against the Ecumenical Patriarchate.
The new self-declared patriarchates were independent nations defined by their religion. In this context, Christian religious chant practiced in the Ottoman empire, Bulgaria and Greece among other nations, was based on the historical roots of the art tracing back to the Byzantine Empire, while the music of the Patriarchate created during the Ottoman period was regarded as "post-Byzantine"; this explains why Byzantine music refers to several Orthodox Christian chant traditions of the Mediterranean and of the Caucasus practiced in recent history and today, this article cannot be limited to the music culture of the Byzantine past. The tradition of eastern liturgical chant, encompassing the Greek-speaking world, developed in the Byzantine Empire from the establishment of its capital, Constantinople, in 330 until its fall in 1453, it is undeniably of composite origin, drawing on the artistic and technical productions of the classical Greek age and inspired by the monophonic vocal music that evolved in the early Greek Christian cities of Alexandria, Jerusalem and Ephesus.
It was imitated by musicians of the 7th century to create Arab music as a synthesis of Byzantine and Persian music, these exchanges were continued through the Ottoman Empire until Istanbul today. The term Byzantine music is sometimes associated with the medieval sacred chant of Christian Churches following the Constantinopolitan Rite. There is an identification of "Byzantine music" with "Eastern Christian liturgical chant", due to certain monastic reforms, such as the Octoechos reform of the Quinisext Council and the reforms of the Stoudios Monastery under its abbots Sabas and Theodore; the triodion created during the reform of Theodore was soon translated into Slavonic, which required the adaption of melodic models to the prosody of the language. After the Patriarchate and Court had returned to Constantinople in 1261, the former cathedral rite was not continued, but replaced by a mixed rite, which used the Byzantine Round notation to integrate the former notations of the former chant books.
This notation had developed within the book sticherarion created by the Stoudios Monastery, but it was used for the books of the cathedral rites written in a period after the fourth crusade, when the cathedral rite was abandoned at Constantinople. It is being discussed that in the Narthex of the Hagia Sophia an organ was placed for use in processions of the Emperor’s entourage. According to the chant manual "Hagiopolites", the earliest that has survived until today, chanters of the Hagia Sophia used a system 16 church tones, while the author of this treatise introduces to a tonal system of 10 echoi. Both schools have in common a set of 4 octaves, each of them had a kyrios echos with the finalis on the degree V of the mode, a plagios echos with the final note on the degree I. According to Latin theory, the resulting eight tones had been identified with the seven modes and tropes; the names of the tropes like “Dorian” etc. had been used in Greek chant manuals, but the names Lydian and Phrygian for the octaves of devteros and tritos had been sometimes exchanged.
The Ancient Greek harmonikai was a Hellenist reception of the Pythagorean education programme defined as mathemata. Harmonikai was one of them. Today, chanters of the Christian Orthodox churches identify with the heritage of Byzantine music whose earliest composers are remembered by name since the 5th century. Compositions had been related to them, but they must be reconstructed by notated sources which date centuries later; the melodic neume notation of Byzantine music developed late since the 10th century, with the exception of an earlier ekphonetic notation, interpunction signs used in lectionaries, but modal signatures for the eight echoi can be found in fragments of monastic hymn books dating back to the 6th century. Amid the rise of Christian civilization within Hellenism, many concepts of knowledge and education survived during the imperial age, when Christianity became the official religion; the Pythagorean sect and music as part of the four "cyclical exercises" that preceded the Latin quadrivium and science today based on mathematics, established among Greeks in southern Italy.
Greek anachoretes of the early Middle Ages did still follow this education. The Calabrian Cassiodorus founded Vivarium where he translated Greek texts, John of Damascus who learnt Greek from a Ca
The chelys, was a stringed musical instrument, the common lyre of the ancient Greeks, which had a convex back of tortoiseshell or of wood shaped like the shell. The word chelys was used in allusion to the oldest lyre of the Greeks, said to have been invented by Hermes. According to the Homeric Hymn to Hermes, he came across a tortoise near the threshold of his mother's home and decided to hollow out the shell to make the soundbox of an instrument with seven strings; the word has been applied arbitrarily since classic times to various stringed instruments, some bowed and some plucked owing to the back being much vaulted. Athanasius Kircher applied the name of chelys to a kind of viol with eight strings. Numerous representations of the chelys lyre or testudo occur on Greek vases, in which the actual tortoiseshell is depicted. A good illustration is given in Le Antichità di Ercolano. Propertius calls the instrument the lyra testudinea. Joseph Justus Scaliger was the first writer to draw attention to the difference between the chelys and the kithara.
The acoustics of an authentically reconstructed ancient Greek tortoise-shell lyre, known as chelys, was investigated recently. Modern experimental methods were employed, such as electronic speckle pattern laser interferometry and impulse response, to extract the vibrational behavior of the instrument and its main parts. Additionally, the emitted sound from the instrument was recorded, under controlled conditions, spectrally analyzed. Major findings include the concentration of the emitted sound between 400 Hz and 800 Hz, with an amplitude modified in a manner consistent with the experimentally measured vibrational characteristics of the instrument’s sound box and bridge; the experimental results validate the historical evidence that chelys was used in Greek antiquity as an accompaniment instrument to the human voice. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Kathleen. "Chelys". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. 6. Cambridge University Press. P. 26. Chelys-Lyra, Greece, 400 BCE
The panduri is a traditional Georgian three-string plucked instrument common in all regions of Eastern Georgia: such as Pshav-Khevsureti, Tusheti and Kartli. The panduri is used to accompany solo heroic and love songs, as well as dance; the frets on panduris are made of wood inlaid in the fingerboard seven frets to an octave, but chromatic fretting can be found. The body of the panduri is made more in the shape of a spade, less with a parallel sided endblock, it is traditionally carved from a single block of wood, but a staved construction was common. Three-stringed panduri: G-A–C# or E-B-A# or A-C#-E Two-stringed panduri: D-C# The panduri is a three-stringed lute from the highland and lowland regions of eastern Georgia played by strumming, for choral and rhythmic support of vocal melody. There are two kinds of panduri in Georgia: one is the traditional "folk" panduri, which has seven frets and more approximates the scale divisions in the non-Western Georgian scale system; the second kind is the "chromatic" panduri, which has the same tonal divisions as a guitar and is capable of reproducing all the half-steps of the tempered Western scale.
It is sometimes found in Western Georgia. The two-stringed panduri survives in Khevsureti. Sometimes the panduri is mistakenly called a "chonguri" - but the chonguri is a different instrument which comes from western Georgia. A similar instrument is found in Chechnya, where it is known as: phandar, ponder, pandir, or pandur, or dechig pondur, adkhoku pondur or dakhch pandr, or merz ponder. Pandura
The Latin or Roman alphabet is the writing system used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language. Due to its use in writing Germanic and other languages first in Europe and in other parts of the world, due to its use in Romanizing writing of other languages, it has become widespread, it is used in China and has been adopted by Baltic and some Slavic states. The Latin alphabet evolved from the visually similar Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, itself descended from the Phoenician abjad, which in turn derived from Egyptian hieroglyphics; the Etruscans, who ruled early Rome, adopted the Cumaean Greek alphabet, modified over time to become the Etruscan alphabet, in turn adopted and further modified by the Romans to produce the Latin alphabet. During the Middle Ages, the Latin alphabet was used for writing Romance languages, which are direct descendants of Latin, as well as Celtic, Germanic and some Slavic languages. With the age of colonialism and Christian evangelism, the Latin script spread beyond Europe, coming into use for writing indigenous American, Austronesian and African languages.
More linguists have tended to prefer the Latin script or the International Phonetic Alphabet when transcribing or creating written standards for non-European languages, such as the African reference alphabet. The term Latin alphabet may refer to either the alphabet used to write Latin, or other alphabets based on the Latin script, the basic set of letters common to the various alphabets descended from the classical Latin alphabet, such as the English alphabet; these Latin-script alphabets may discard letters, like the Rotokas alphabet, or add new letters, like the Danish and Norwegian alphabets. Letter shapes have evolved over the centuries, including the development in Medieval Latin of lower-case, forms which did not exist in the Classical period alphabet. English is the only major modern European language requiring no diacritics for native words, it is believed that the Romans adopted the Cumae alphabet, a variant of the Greek alphabet, in the 7th century BC from Cumae, a Greek colony in Southern Italy.
The Ancient Greek alphabet was in turn based upon the Phoenician abjad. From the Cumae alphabet, the Etruscan alphabet was derived and the Romans adopted 21 of the original 27 Etruscan letters: Latin included 21 different characters; the letter ⟨C⟩ was the western form of the Greek gamma, but it was used for the sounds /ɡ/ and /k/ alike under the influence of Etruscan, which might have lacked any voiced plosives. During the 3rd century BC, the letter ⟨Z⟩ – unneeded to write Latin properly – was replaced with the new letter ⟨G⟩, a ⟨C⟩ modified with a small vertical stroke, which took its place in the alphabet. From on, ⟨G⟩ represented the voiced plosive /ɡ/, while ⟨C⟩ was reserved for the voiceless plosive /k/; the letter ⟨K⟩ was used only in a small number of words such as Kalendae interchangeably with ⟨C⟩. After the Roman conquest of Greece in the 1st century BC, Latin adopted the Greek letters ⟨Y⟩ and ⟨Z⟩ to write Greek loanwords, placing them at the end of the alphabet. An attempt by the emperor Claudius to introduce three additional letters.
Thus it was during the classical Latin period that the Latin alphabet contained 23 letters: The Latin names of some of these letters are disputed. In general the Romans did not use the traditional names as in Greek: the names of the plosives were formed by adding /eː/ to their sound and the names of the continuants consisted either of the bare sound, or the sound preceded by /e/; the letter ⟨Y⟩ when introduced was called "hy" /hyː/ as in Greek, the name upsilon not being in use yet, but this was changed to "i Graeca" as Latin speakers had difficulty distinguishing its foreign sound /y/ from /i/. ⟨ Z ⟩ was given zeta. This scheme has continued to be used by most modern European languages that have adopted the Latin alphabet. For the Latin sounds represented by the various letters see Latin pronunciation. Diacritics were not used, but they did occur sometimes, the most common being the apex used to mark long vowels, which had sometimes been written doubled. However, in place of taking an apex, the letter i was written taller: ⟨á é ꟾ ó v́⟩.
For example, what is today transcribed Lūciī a fīliī was written ⟨lv́ciꟾ·a·fꟾliꟾ⟩ in the inscription depicted. The primary mark of punctuation was the interpunct, used as a word divider, though it fell out of use after 200 AD. Old Roman cursive script called majuscule cursive and capitalis cursive, was the everyday form of handwriting used for writing letters, by merchants writing business accounts, by schoolchildren learning the Latin alphabet, emperors issuing commands. A more formal style of writing was based on Roman square capitals, but cursive was used for quicker, informal writing, it was most c
The cithara or kithara was an ancient Greek musical instrument in the lyre or lyra family. In modern Greek the word kithara has come to mean "guitar", a word which etymologically stems from kithara; the kithara was a professional version of the two-stringed lyre. As opposed to the simpler lyre, a folk-instrument, the kithara was used by professional musicians, called kitharodes; the kithara's origins are Anatolian. The barbiton was a bass version of the kithara popular in ancient Anatolia. In the Middle Ages, cythara was used generically for stringed instruments including lyres, but including lute-like instruments; the use of the name throughout the Middle Ages looked back to the original Greek kithara, its abilities to sway people's emotions. The kithara had a deep, wooden sounding box composed of two resonating tables, either flat or arched, connected by ribs or sides of equal width. At the top, its strings were knotted around the crossbar or yoke or to rings threaded over the bar, or wound around pegs.
The other end of the strings was secured to a tail-piece after passing over a flat bridge, or the tail-piece and bridge were combined. Most vase paintings show kitharas with seven strings, in agreement with ancient authors, but these mention that a skillful kitharode would use more than the conventional seven strings, it was played with a rigid plectrum held in the right hand, with elbow outstretched and palm bent inwards, while the strings with undesired notes were damped with the straightened fingers of the left hand. The kithara was the virtuoso's instrument known as requiring a great deal of skill; the kithara was played to accompany dance, epic recitations, rhapsodies and lyric songs. It was played solo at the receptions, national games, trials of skill; the music from this instrument was said to be the lyre for drinking parties and is considered an invention of Terpander. Aristotle said that these string instruments were not for educational purposes but for pleasure only; the cithara is said to have been the god of music.
Apollo is seen playing a cithara instead of a lyre. Kitharoidos, or Citharoedus is an epithet given to Apollo, which means "lyre-singer" or "one who sings to the lyre". An Apollo Citharoedus or Apollo Citharede, is a statue or other image of Apollo with a cithara. Among the best-known examples is the Apollo Citharoedus of the Vatican Museums, a 2nd-century AD colossal marble statue by an unknown Roman sculptor. Sappho is associated with music string instruments like the kithara and the barbitos, she was a woman of high social composed songs that focused on the emotions. A Greek mythology story goes that she ascended the steep slopes of Mount Parnassus where she was welcomed by the Muses, she wandered through the laurel grove and came upon the cave of Apollo, where she bathed in the Castalian Spring and took Phoebus' plectrum to play skilful music. The sacred nymphs danced while she stroked the strings with much talent to bring forth sweet musical melodies from the resonant kithara; the cithara is mentioned a number of times in the Bible.
Psalm 42 in the Latin Vulgate, says, "Confitebor tibi in cithara, Deus meus,", translated in the Douay-Rheims version as "To thee, O God my God, I will give praise upon the harp." The King James version renders this verse as "Yea, upon the harp will I praise thee, O God my God." The cithara is mentioned in other places in the Latin Vulgate version of the Bible, including Genesis 4:21, 1Kings16:16, 1Paralipomenon25:3, Job 30:31, Psalms 32:2, Psalms 56:9, Psalms 70:22, Psalms 80:3, Psalms 91:4, Psalms 97:5, Psalms 107:3, Psalms 146:7, Psalms 150:3, Isaiah 5:12, Isaiah 16:11, 1 Machabees 3:45, 1 Corinthians 14:7. Barbiton Cythara Citharede Gittern, instrument with etymological connection to Kithara Guitar Harp Kinnor Lyre Phorminx Pandura Zither Ancient Greece Ancient Rome Music of ancient Greece Maas, Martha. Stringed Instruments of Ancient Greece. New Haven: Yale University Press. Bundrick, Sheramy D.. Music and Image in Classical Athens. New York: Cambridge University Press. Schlesinger, Kathleen.
"Cithara". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. 6. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 395–397. "The Kithara in Ancient Greece | Thematic Essay". Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History; the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved 2016-10-25. Hagel, Stefan. "Ancient Greek Music". Vienna, Austria: Österreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften. Retrieved 2016-10-25. Peter Pringle demonstrates how a kithara worked "Ensemble Kérylos". A music group directed by scholar Annie Bélis, dedicated to the recreation of ancient Greek and Roman music and playing instruments rebuilt on archaeological reference. In its recording D'Euripide aux premiers chretiens: musique de l'antiquité grecque et romaine, the band plays both Roman and Greek Kitharas. Pictures of its instruments can be seen on their website: Ensemble Kérylos. "Photos"
Tamburica or Tamboura refers to a family of long-necked lutes popular in Southern Europe and Central Europe Croatia and Herzegovina, Serbia and Hungary. It is known in Burgenland. All took their name and some characteristics from the Persian tanbur but resemble the mandolin and guitar in the sense that its strings are plucked and paired; the frets may be moveable to allow the playing of various modes. The variety of tamburica shapes known today were developed in Croatia and Serbia by a number of indigenous contributors near the end of the 19th century. There is little reliable data showing, it existed during Byzantine Empire, the Greeks and Slavs used to call "pandouras" or "tambouras" the ancestor of modern bouzouki. The instrument was thambourin in the Byzantine Empire, it is said it was brought by the Turks to Bosnia, from where the instrument spread further with migrations of Šokci and Bunjevci above the Sava River to all parts of Croatia and further, although this theory is not consistent with the accepted view that the ancestor of the tamboura is the ancient Greek pandouris.
Until the Great Migration of the Serbs at the end of the 17th century, the type of tamboura most used in Croatia and Serbia had a long neck and two or three strings. Similar string instruments are the Czech bratsche, Turkish saz and the sargija, çiftelia and bouzouki; the oldest of the drum so far known, still kept in a museum in Osijek, dates from 1847 and was owned by Pajo Kolarić of Osijek, the founder of the first amateur orchestra. According to him, today the festival called tamburitzan, held every year in Osijek; the development process of the modern tamburica was initiated by several Croatian citizens over a period of time. The original long neck, pear shaped tamburica was called the samica and it came in a small or larger size; the kontra, 4 strings tuned in an upper A chord and used only as an accompaniment, originated in Dalmatia. In the fall of 1875. After a rebellion in Bosnia had broken out, many refugees arrived in Sremski Karlovci. Among these refugees was a man named Marko Capkun.
He called the larger one sarkija. These tambura did not use wire strings but rather gut strings pulled through little holes on the neck and tied behind. A woodworker, Josif, in Sremski Karlovci began to make Marko's tamburas but instead of the traditional pear shape, he made them into a shape of a tiny guitar. A bird catcher named Joza built a large tambura-much bigger than a guitar in 1877 or 1878, it stretched two thicker and two thinner strings on it and Joza called it the bas or berdon. They developed and orchestra with a little tambura called the prima, 5 kontra and 1 bas. Dual-fifths system bears the name by Milutin Farkas' Farkas system "; this system consisted of the first and second bisernom, three brača, two of bugaria and berde. They have an čelović and čelo; this two-part note fifths system was widespread in Croatia and Herzegovina, Slovenia and Western countries. In the second half of the nineteenth century in Backa and Srem there was a two-part note fourths system, but it grew into a Triple.
Three-note fourths system developed in Backa late nineteenth century. It consisted of a first and second tamburitza and fourth tambura, the first and second brothers and the bass; this composition of the drum, with the name changed instruments and additional forehead, was common in Srem. All are tamburitzas were pear-shaped, except for the bass, which had a shape similar to the double bass, less as the guitar. Triple-fifths system was first introduced Pera Z. Ilic 1897; these consisted of the first and second tamburitza, the first and second brothers, cello and counter attacks. All tamburitzas were pear-shaped; this system is in Croatia first applied Alfons Gucci, by little perfected. In 1930 this system became the leading system in Croatia, in 1939 it was accepted by the Croatian tamburitza association, since 1945, a member of the tambura orchestra of Radio Zagreb; the three-fifths tamburitzas are dry suction two-part, who remained only in some Croatian regions. Four quart system developed from three quart, in the early twentieth century in Backa and Srem and hence his name "Srem" system.
It consists of a first receiving and tercprima and basprim thirds, E-basprim, celovic and bass. In some orchestras there is A-cons, as well as H-cons. In Slavonia is accepted Srijemski system, but the instruments are tuned to tone down, to give the so-called" d-tuning" instead of" e-wrong", leading in. There was a tendency to and Triple fifths system converts the four-fifths system, which is, with little success, argued Joseph Rorbaher from Osijek; the first conference tamburitza experts held in 1958 in Novi Sad, the conditions for the unity of all tamburitza system accepted the unique scores and hence unique names. In this unique musical score are represented: the first and second bisernica and second brac, E-brac, cello and Bulgaria and čelović; the number of strings on a tamburica varies and it may have single or double-coursed strings or a mixture of both. Double-coursed strings are tuned in unison. The