Greek folk music
Greek folk music includes a variety of Greek styles played by ethnic Greeks in Greece, Australia, the United States and elsewhere. Apart from the common music found all-around Greece, there are distinct types of folk music, sometimes related to the history or the taste of the specific places; the Greek folk music, in Greek Demotiko or Paradosiako, refers to the traditional Greek popular songs and music of mainland Greece and islands dated to the Byzantine times. It was the sole popular musical genre of the Greek people until the spread of rebetiko and laiko in the early 20th century, spread by the Greek refugees from Asia Minor; this kind of music evolved from the ancient and the medieval Greek era and was established until the present day. The lyrics are based on Demotiki poetry and popular themes are love, humor, nature, sea, about klephts, various war fighters or battles etc The songs are played in the following tempos: Syrtos, Tsamiko and Pentozali; some notable folk songs include "Itia", "Milo mou kokkino", "Kontoula lemonia", "Mou parigile to aidoni", "Enas aetos", "Kira Vangelio", "Gerakina", "Saranta palikaria" and from nisiotika "Ikariotikos", "Samiotisa", "Thalassaki", "Armenaki", "Amorgos Sousta", "Dirlada", "Lygaria", "Psaropoula", such as "Tilirkiotissa" and "Psintri Vasilitsia mou".
The Greek islands of Kárpathos, Khálki, Kássos and Crete form an arc where the Cretan lyra is the dominant instrument. Kostas Mountakis is the most respected master of the lyra, accompanied by the laouto which resembles a mandolin. Bagpipes are played on Kárpathos. Crete has a well known folk dance tradition, which comes from ancient Greece and includes swift dances like pentozalis and other like sousta, trizali, chaniotikos, pidichtos Lasithou, tsiniaris and laziotikos; the Aegean islands of Greece are known for Nisiótika songs. Although the basis of the sound is characteristically secular-Byzantine, the relative isolation of the islands allowed the separate development of island-specific Greek music. Most of the nisiótika songs are accompanied by lyra, clarinet and violin. Notable singers include the Konitopouloi. Folk dances include the ballos, sousta, kalymniotikos, lerikos, michanikos, trata and ikariotikos. In the Aegean Cyclades, the violin is more popular than Cretan lyra, has produced several respected musicians, including Nikos Oikonomidis, Leonidas Klados and Stathis Koukoularis.
Folk dances in Cyclades include lerikos, syrtos Serifou, syrtos Naxou, syrtos Kythnou, Amorgos dance and ballos. One of the most famous singers of cycladic music is Domna Samiou. In Dodacanese there are prominent elements of Cretan music. Dodecanese folk dances include the trata, syrtos, issos, syrtos Rodou and kalymnikos, with origin from the island of Kalymnos. In central Greece many folk songs make references to the klephts and their role during the Greek war of independence. Folk dances in central Greece include: antikrystos, kalamatianos, kamilierikos choros, syrtos, choros tis tratas and syrtokalamatianos; the musical tradition of the region is influenced by the Arvanites. In Epirus, folk songs are polyphonic, sung by both male and female singers. Distinctive songs include vocals with skáros accompaniment and tis távlas; the clarinet is the most prominent folk instrument in Epirus, used to accompany dances slow and heavy, like the tsamikos, menousis, podia, sta dio, sta tria, kentimeni and iatros.
Folk dances from the Peloponnese include the kalamatianos, monodiplos, syrtos, Ai Georgis and diplos horos. In the songs there are references to the klephts. In Mani there is the tradition of the "μοιρολόγια" mirolóyia, sung by the old women of Mani; the Ionian Islands were never under Ottoman control and their songs and kantadhes are based a lot on the western European style. Greek kantadhes are performed by three male singers accompanied by guitar; these romantic songs developed in Kefalonia in the early 19th century but spread throughout Greece after the liberation of Greece. An Athenian form of kantadhes arose accompanied by violin and laouto; however the style is accepted as uniquely Heptanesean. The island of Zakynthos has a diverse musical history with influences from Crete. Folk dances include the tsirigotikos, ballos, syrtos, Ai Georgis, Kerkyraikos. Notable songs are "Kato sto yialo", "S'ena paporo mesa", "Apopse tin kithara mou"; the Church music of the islands is different from the rest of Greece, with a lot of western and Catholic influences on the Orthodox rite.
The region is notable for the birth of the first School of modern Greek classical music, established in 1815. Folk dances in Macedonia include Makedonia, leventikos, endeka Kozanis, stankena, baidouska, Macedonikos antikristos, mikri Eleni, kleftikos Makedonikos, kastorianos, tromakton, o Nikolos, sirtos Macedonias and Kapitan Louka. There are folk songs which make references to the Macedonian Struggle, while it is notable the use of trumpet
In Greek mythology, maenads were the female followers of Dionysus and the most significant members of the Thiasus, the god's retinue. Their name translates as "raving ones". Maenads were known as Bassarids, Bacchae, or Bacchantes in Roman mythology after the penchant of the equivalent Roman god, Bacchus, to wear a bassaris or fox skin; the maenads were portrayed as inspired by Dionysus into a state of ecstatic frenzy through a combination of dancing and intoxication. During these rites, the maenads would dress in fawn skins and carry a thyrsus, a long stick wrapped in ivy or vine leaves and tipped with a pine cone, they would weave ivy-wreaths around their heads or wear a bull helmet in honor of their god, handle or wear snakes. These women were mythologized as the "mad women". Lycurgus "chased the Nurses of the frenzied Dionysus through the holy hills of Nysa, the sacred implements dropped to the ground from the hands of one and all, as the murderous Lycurgus struck them down with his ox-goad".
They practiced strange rites. According to Plutarch's Life of Alexander, maenads were called Mimallones and Klodones in Macedon, epithets derived from the feminine art of spinning wool; these warlike parthenoi from the hills, associated with a Dionysios pseudanor "fake male Dionysus", routed an invading enemy. In southern Greece they were described with Bacchae, Thyiades and other epithets; the term maenad has come to be associated with a wide variety of women, supernatural and historical, associated with the god Dionysus and his worship. In Euripides' play The Bacchae, maenads of Thebes murder King Pentheus after he bans the worship of Dionysus. Dionysus, Pentheus' cousin, himself lures Pentheus to the woods, his corpse is mutilated by his own mother, who tears off his head, believing it to be that of a lion. A group of maenads kill Orpheus. In ceramic art, the frolicking of Maenads and Dionysus is a theme depicted on kraters, used to mix water and wine; these scenes show the maenads in their frenzy running in the forests tearing to pieces any animal they happen to come across.
German philologist Walter Friedrich Otto writes: The Bacchae of Euripides gives us the most vital picture of the wonderful circumstance in which, as Plato says in the Ion, the god-intoxicated celebrants draw milk and honey from the streams. They strike rocks with the thyrsus, water gushes forth, they lower the thyrsus to the earth, a spring of wine bubbles up. If they want milk, they draw up the milky fluid. Honey trickles down from the thyrsus made of the wood of the ivy, they gird themselves with snakes and give suck to fawns and wolf cubs as if they were infants at the breast. Fire does not burn them. No weapon of iron can wound them, the snakes harmlessly lick up the sweat from their heated cheeks. Fierce bulls fall to the ground, victims to numberless, tearing female hands, sturdy trees are torn up by the roots with their combined efforts. Cultist rites associated with worship of the Greek god of wine, were characterized by maniacal dancing to the sound of loud music and crashing cymbals, in which the revelers, called Bacchantes, screamed, became drunk and incited one another to greater and greater ecstasy.
The goal was to achieve a state of enthusiasm in which the celebrants’ souls were temporarily freed from their earthly bodies and were able to commune with Bacchus/Dionysus and gain a glimpse of and a preparation for what they would someday experience in eternity. The rite climaxed in a performance of frenzied feats of strength and madness, such as uprooting trees, tearing a bull apart with their bare hands, an act called sparagmos, eating its flesh raw, an act called omophagia; this latter rite was a sacrament akin to communion in which the participants assumed the strength and character of the god by symbolically eating the raw flesh and drinking the blood of his symbolic incarnation. Having symbolically eaten his body and drunk his blood, the celebrants became possessed by Dionysus. "Maenads" are found in references as priestesses of the Dionysian cult. In the third century BC, when an Asia Minor city wanted to create a maenadic cult of Dionysus, the Delphic Oracle bid them to send to Thebes for both instruction and three professional maenads, stating, "Go to the holy plain of Thebes so that you may get maenads who are from the family of Ino, daughter of Cadmus.
They will give to you both the rites and good practices and they will establish dance groups of Bacchus in your city." Dionysus came to his birthplace, where neither Pentheus, his cousin, now king, nor Pentheus’ mother Agave, Dionysus’ aunt acknowledged his divinity. Dionysus punished Agave by driving her insane, in that condition, she killed her son and tore him to pieces. From Thebes, Dionysus went to Argos where all the women except the daughters of King Proetus joined in his worship. Dionysus punished them by driving them mad, they killed the infants who were nursing at their breasts, he did the same to the daughters of Minyas, King of Orchomenos in Boetia, turned them into bats. According to Opian, Dionysus delighted, as a child, in tearing kids into pieces and bringing them back to life again, he is characterized as "the raging one" and "the mad one" and the nature of the maenads, from which they get their name, is, his nature. Once during a war in the middle of the third century BC, the entranced Thyiades lost their way and arrived in Amphissa, a city ne
Black-figure pottery painting known as the black-figure style or black-figure ceramic is one of the styles of painting on antique Greek vases. It was common between the 7th and 5th centuries BC, although there are specimens dating as late as the 2nd century BC. Stylistically it can be distinguished from the preceding orientalizing period and the subsequent red-figure pottery style. Figures and ornaments were painted on the body of the vessel using shapes and colors reminiscent of silhouettes. Delicate contours were incised into the paint before firing, details could be reinforced and highlighted with opaque colors white and red; the principal centers for this style were the commercial hub Corinth, Athens. Other important production sites are known to have been in Laconia, eastern Greece, Italy. In Italy individual styles developed which were at least in part intended for the Etruscan market. Greek black-figure vases were popular with the Etruscans, as is evident from frequent imports. Greek artists created customized goods for the Etruscan market which differed in form and decor from their normal products.
The Etruscans developed their own black-figure ceramic industry oriented on Greek models. Black-figure painting on vases was the first art style to give rise to a significant number of identifiable artists; some are known by their true names, others only by the pragmatic names they were given in the scientific literature. Attica was the home of well-known artists; some potters introduced a variety of innovations which influenced the work of the painters. Red- as well as black-figure vases are one of the most important sources of mythology and iconography, sometimes for researching day-to-day ancient Greek life. Since the 19th century at the latest, these vases have been the subject of intensive investigation; the foundation for pottery painting is the image carrier, in other words the vase onto which an image is painted. Popular shapes alternated with passing fashions. Whereas many recurred after intervals, others were replaced over time, but they all had a common method of manufacture: after the vase was made, it was first dried before being painted.
The workshops were under the control of the potters, who as owners of businesses had an elevated social position. The extent to which potters and painters were identical is uncertain, it is that many master potters themselves made their main contribution in the production process as vase painters, while employing additional painters. It is, not easy to reconstruct links between potters and painters. In many cases, such as Tleson and the Tleson Painter and the Amasis Painter or Nikosthenes and Painter N, it is impossible to make unambiguous attributions, although in much of the scientific literature these painters and potters are assumed to be the same person, but such attributions can only be made with confidence if the signatures of potter and painter are at hand. The painters, who were either slaves or craftsmen paid as pottery painters, worked on unfired, leather-dry vases. In the case of black-figure production the subject was painted on the vase with a clay slurry which turned black and glossy after firing.
This was not "paint" in the usual sense, since this surface slip was made from the same clay material as the vase itself, only differing in the size of the component particles, achieved during refining the clay before potting began. The area for the figures was first painted with a brush-like implement; the internal outlines and structural details were incised into the slip so that the underlying clay could be seen through the scratches. Two other earth-based pigments giving red and white were used to add details such as ornaments, clothing or parts of clothing, animal manes, parts of weapons and other equipment. White was frequently used to represent women’s skin; the success of all this effort could only be judged after a complicated, three-phase firing process which generated the red color of the body clay and the black of the applied slip. The vessel was fired in a kiln at a temperature of about 800 °C, with the resultant oxidization turning the vase a reddish-orange color; the temperature was raised to about 950 °C with the kiln's vents closed and green wood added to remove the oxygen.
The vessel turned an overall black. The final stage required the vents to be re-opened to allow oxygen into the kiln, allowed to cool down; the vessel returned to its reddish-orange colour due to renewed oxidization, while the now-sintered painted layer remained the glossy black color, created in the second stage. Although scoring is one of the main stylistic indicators, some pieces do without. For these, the form is technically similar to the orientalizing style, but the image repertoire no longer reflects orientalizing practice; the evolution of black-figure pottery painting is traditionally described in terms of various regional styles and schools. Using Corinth as the hub, there were basic differences in the productions of the individual regions if they did influence each other. In Attica, although not there, the best and most influential artists of their time characterized classical Greek pottery painting; the further development and quality of the vessels as image carrier are the subjects of this section.
The black-figure technique was developed around 700 BC in Corinth and used for the first time in the early 7th century BC by Proto-Corinthian pottery painters, who were still painting in the orientalizing style. The new technique was reminiscent
Louis F. Budenz
Louis Francis Budenz was an American activist and writer, as well as a Soviet espionage agent and head of the Buben group of spies. He began as a labor activist and became a member of the Communist Party USA. In 1945 Budenz renounced Communism and became a vocal anti-Communist, appearing as an expert witness at various governmental hearings and authoring a series of books on his experiences. Budenz was born on July 17, 1891 in Indianapolis, grandson of German and Irish immigrants, grew up on the Southside in a German and Irish Catholic neighborhood around Fountain Square, he attended St. John's Catholic High School in Indianapolis, Xavier University in Cincinnati, St. Mary's College in Topeka, Kansas before receiving his LL. B. from Indianapolis Law School in 1912. Budenz's role in the labor movement began from a Catholic perspective. In 1915, working with the Central Bureau of the Roman Catholic Central Verein, a reform-minded and social justice-oriented organization in St. Louis, he published A List of Books for the Study of the Social Question: Being an Introduction to Catholic Social Literature.
In 1920, Budenz moved to New Jersey, where he worked for the ACLU as publicity director. In 1924 and into the early 1930s, Budenz was managing editor of the monthly magazine Labor Age, he advised striking workers at a hosiery mill in Kenosha, Wisconsin, in 1928. He taught labor strike management at Brookwood Labor College outside New York City. In 1934, he served as national secretary for A. J. Muste's Conference for Progressive Labor Action. In 1935, Budenz joined the Communist Party, continued to organize labor strikes, became managing editor of the Party's Daily Worker newspaper, he became a member of the National Committee of the Party. By 1938, he had been arrested more than 20 times; that same year, he became editor of a new Communist daily in Chicago, the Midwest Daily Record, part of a "cross-country alliance of Communist dailies, between the San Francisco People's World... and New York City's... Daily Worker", at a time. In 1945, Budenz renounced Communism, returned to the Roman Catholic Church under the guidance of the popular television and radio personality Fulton Sheen, became an anti-communist advocate.
The author of numerous articles and pamphlets in support of Communist causes, after 1945 Budenz wrote several books about the dangers and evils of Communism. He became a professor of economics at the University of Notre Dame and taught at Fordham University, in addition to working as a syndicated columnist and lecturer. In 1947, he wrote an autobiography, This Is My Story; as early as 1946, Budenz started testifying about other commununists like Gerhart Eisler. Budenz became a paid informant for the FBI like Elizabeth Bentley, he testified as an expert witness at various trials of Communists and before many of the Senate and House committees that were formed to investigate Communists. He voluntarily confessed that he had participated in espionage and other efforts on behalf of the Soviet Union, including discussion of the assassination of Leon Trotsky with CPUSA chairman Earl Browder. A day after "Confrontation Day" in the Hiss Case, Budenz testified before HUAC that the Communist Party "regarded him always" as a party member and "under Communist discipline."
He corroborated Chambers's claim that Lee Pressman, John Abt, Nathan Witt as party members. By his own estimate, Budenz spent some 3,000 hours explaining the Party's "inner workings" to the FBI, as well as testifying on 33 occasions to various committees. By 1957 he estimated he had earned $70,000 for his expert testimony. Budenz was a witness at the 1949 First Amendment case Dennis v. United States, brought by Eugene Dennis, General Secretary of CPUSA, he was a key witness in the 1950 hearings before the Tydings Committee, called to investigate charges made by Senator Joseph McCarthy that the State Department had numerous Soviet moles in its employ. In the 1950 Tydings Committee hearings, Budenz testified that Owen Lattimore, one of the so-called "China Hands," was a member of a Communist cell within the Institute of Pacific Relations but not a Soviet agent; the reliability of his testimony came under question because, in all of his 3,000 hours of debriefing before the FBI, Budenz had never mentioned Lattimore's name.
In 1951, Budenz again testified against Lattimore, this time before the hearings of the Senate Internal Security Subcommittee, headed by Senator Pat McCarran. During this second testimony against Lattimore, Budenz claimed Lattimore was both Soviet agent and secret Communist. At one point in the late 1940s he testified, according to one account, "that the fact that a man denied he was a Communist might prove he was a communist since all Communists had instructions to deny it." In 1952, Senator McCarthy praised Budenz for having "testified in every case in which Communists were either convicted or deported over the past three years. Communist leaders." Budenz married Gizella Geiss in 1916 in Indiana. Louis and Gizella adopted a daughter in 1919 named Louise. Louis, wife Gizella and daughter Louise, moved to Rahway, NJ in 1920 where Louis worked for the ACLU. Louis and Gizella were separated in 1931 and divorced in 1938. Budenz married his second wife Margare
An idiophone is any musical instrument that creates sound by the instrument as a whole vibrating—without the use of strings or membranes. It is the first of the four main divisions in the original Hornbostel–Sachs scheme of musical instrument classification; the early classification of Victor-Charles Mahillon called this group of instruments autophones. The most common are struck idiophones, or concussion idiophones, which are made to vibrate by being struck, either directly with a stick or hand or indirectly, by way of a scraping or shaking motion. Various types of bells fall into both categories. A common plucked idiophone is the Jew's harp; the word is from Ancient Greek, a combination of idio- meaning own, personal, or distinct, -phone, meaning voice or sound. Most percussion instruments that are not drums are idiophones. Hornbostel–Sachs divides idiophones into four main sub-categories; the first division is the struck idiophones. This includes most of the non-drum percussion instruments familiar in the West.
They include all idiophones made to vibrate by being struck, either directly with a stick or hand or indirectly, by way of a scraping or shaking motion. Various types of bells fall into both categories; the other three subdivisions are rarer. They are plucked idiophones, such as the Jew's harp, amplified cactus, dan moi, music box and mbira. Other classifications use six main sub-categories: Concussion idiophones are instruments that produce sound by being struck against one another. Percussion idiophones produce sound by being struck with a non-vibrating foreign object. Examples of non-vibrating objects are mallets and sticks. Rattle idiophones are shaken. Scraper idiophones are instruments that are scraped with a stick or other foreign objects to give off a sound. Plucked idiophones produce sound by plucking a flexible tongue from within the instrument itself. Friction idiophones are rubbed to increase vibration and sound intensity. Idiophones are made of materials; the majority of idiophones are made out of glass, metal and wood.
Idiophones are considered part of the percussion section in an orchestra. A number of idiophones that are struck, such as vibraphone bars and cymbals, can be bowed. Pitched percussion instrument https://web.archive.org/web/20130115040826/http://www.music.vt.edu/musicdictionary/texti/Idiophone.html
Tympanum (hand drum)
In ancient Greece and Rome, the tympanum or tympanon, was a type of frame drum or tambourine. It was circular and beaten with the palm of the hand or a stick; some representations show zill-like objects around the rim. The instrument was played by worshippers in the rites of Dionysus and Sabazius; the instrument came to Rome from Greece and the Near East in association with the cult of Cybele. The first depiction in Greek art appears in the 8th century BC, on a bronze votive disc found in a cave on Crete, a cult site for Zeus; the tympanum is one of the objects carried in the thiasos, the retinue of Dionysus. The instrument is played by a maenad, while wind instruments such as pipes or the aulos are played by satyrs; the performance of frenzied music contributed to achieving the ecstatic state that Dionysian worshippers desired. The tympanum was the most common of the musical instruments associated with the rites of Cybele in the art and literature of Greece and Rome, but does not appear in representations from Anatolia, where the goddess originated.
From the 6th century BC, the iconography of Cybele as Meter may show her with the tympanum balanced on her left arm seated and with a lion on her lap or in attendance. The Homeric Hymn to the Great Mother says; the drum continued to feature as an attribute of Cybele into the Roman Imperial era. VROMA Project: Tympanum
Classical music is art music produced or rooted in the traditions of Western culture, including both liturgical and secular music. While a more precise term is used to refer to the period from 1750 to 1820, this article is about the broad span of time from before the 6th century AD to the present day, which includes the Classical period and various other periods; the central norms of this tradition became codified between 1550 and 1900, known as the common-practice period. The major time divisions of Western art music are as follows: the ancient music period, before 500 AD the early music period, which includes the Medieval including the ars antiqua the ars nova the ars subtilior the Renaissance eras. Baroque the galant music period the common-practice period, which includes Baroque the galant music period Classical Romantic eras the 20th and 21st centuries which includes: the modern that overlaps from the late-19th century, impressionism that overlaps from the late-19th century neoclassicism, predominantly in the inter-war period the high modern the postmodern eras the experimental contemporary European art music is distinguished from many other non-European classical and some popular musical forms by its system of staff notation, in use since about the 11th century.
Catholic monks developed the first forms of modern European musical notation in order to standardize liturgy throughout the worldwide Church. Western staff notation is used by composers to indicate to the performer the pitches, tempo and rhythms for a piece of music; this can leave less room for practices such as improvisation and ad libitum ornamentation, which are heard in non-European art music and in popular-music styles such as jazz and blues. Another difference is that whereas most popular styles adopt the song form or a derivation of this form, classical music has been noted for its development of sophisticated forms of instrumental music such as the symphony, fugue and mixed vocal and instrumental styles such as opera and mass; the term "classical music" did not appear until the early 19th century, in an attempt to distinctly canonize the period from Johann Sebastian Bach to Ludwig van Beethoven as a golden age. The earliest reference to "classical music" recorded by the Oxford English Dictionary is from about 1829.
Given the wide range of styles in European classical music, from Medieval plainchant sung by monks to Classical and Romantic symphonies for orchestra from the 1700s and 1800s to avant-garde atonal compositions for solo piano from the 1900s, it is difficult to list characteristics that can be attributed to all works of that type. However, there are characteristics that classical music contains that few or no other genres of music contain, such as the use of music notation and the performance of complex forms of solo instrumental works. Furthermore, while the symphony did not exist prior to the late 18th century, the symphony ensemble—and the works written for it—have become a defining feature of classical music; the key characteristic of European classical music that distinguishes it from popular music and folk music is that the repertoire tends to be written down in musical notation, creating a musical part or score. This score determines details of rhythm, and, where two or more musicians are involved, how the various parts are coordinated.
The written quality of the music has enabled a high level of complexity within them: fugues, for instance, achieve a remarkable marriage of boldly distinctive melodic lines weaving in counterpoint yet creating a coherent harmonic logic that would be difficult to achieve in the heat of live improvisation. The use of written notation preserves a record of the works and enables Classical musicians to perform music from many centuries ago. Musical notation enables 2000s-era performers to sing a choral work from the 1300s Renaissance era or a 1700s Baroque concerto with many of the features of the music being reproduced; that said, the score does allow the interpreter to make choices on. For example, if the tempo is written with an Italian instruction, it is not known how fast the piece should be played; as well, in the Baroque era, many works that were designed for basso continuo accompaniment do not specify which instruments should play the accompaniment or how the chordal instrument should play the chords, which are not notated in the part.
The performer and the conductor have a range of options for musical expression and interpretation of a scored piece, including the phrasing of melodies, the time taken during fermatas or pauses, the use of effects such as vibrato or glissando. Although Classical music in the 2000s has lost most of its tradition for musical improvisation, from the Baroque era to the Romantic era, there are examples of performers who could improvise in the style of their era. In the Baroque era, organ performers would improvise preludes, keyboard performers playing harpsichord would improvise chords from the figured bass symbols beneath the bass notes of the basso continuo part and b