Tamil Nadu, is one of the 28 states of India. Its capital and largest city is Chennai. Tamil Nadu lies in the southernmost part of the Indian subcontinent and is bordered by the union territory of Puducherry and the South Indian states of Kerala and Andhra Pradesh, it is bounded by the Eastern Ghats on the north, by the Nilgiri Mountains, the Meghamalai Hills, Kerala on the west, by the Bay of Bengal in the east, by the Gulf of Mannar and the Palk Strait on the southeast, by the Indian Ocean on the south. The state shares a maritime border with the nation of Sri Lanka; the region was ruled by several empires, including the three great empires – Chera and Pandyan empires, which shape the region's cuisine and architecture. The British Colonial rule during the modern period led to the emergence of Chennai known as Madras, as a world-class city. Modern-day Tamil Nadu was formed in 1956 after the reorganisation of states on linguistic lines; the state is home to a number of historic buildings, multi-religious pilgrimage sites, hill stations and three World Heritage sites.
Tamil Nadu is the sixth largest by population. The economy of Tamil Nadu is the second-largest state economy in India with ₹16.64 lakh crore in gross domestic product with a per capita GDP of ₹194,000. Tamil Nadu has the 11th highest ranking among Indian states in human development index, it was ranked as one of the top seven developed states in India based on a "Multidimensional Development Index" in a 2013 report published by the Reserve Bank of India. Its official language is Tamil, one of the longest-surviving classical languages in the world. Archaeological evidence points to this area being one of the longest continuous habitations in the Indian peninsula. In Attirampakkam, archaeologists from the Sharma Centre for Heritage Education excavated ancient stone tools which suggests that a humanlike population existed in the Tamil Nadu region somewhere around 300,000 years before homo sapiens arrived from Africa. In Adichanallur, 24 km from Tirunelveli, archaeologists from the Archaeological Survey of India unearthed 169 clay urns containing human skulls, bones, grains of rice, charred rice and celts of the Neolithic period, 3,800 years ago.
The ASI archaeologists have proposed that the script used at that site is "very rudimentary" Tamil Brahmi. Adichanallur has been announced as an archaeological site for further excavation and studies. About 60 per cent of the total epigraphical inscriptions found by the ASI in India are from Tamil Nadu, most of these are in the Tamil language. A Neolithic stone celt with the Indus script on it was discovered at Sembian-Kandiyur near Mayiladuthurai in Tamil Nadu. According to epigraphist Iravatham Mahadevan, this was the first datable artefact bearing the Indus script to be found in Tamil Nadu. According to Mahadevan, the find was evidence of the use of the Harappan language, therefore that the "Neolithic people of the Tamil country spoke a Harappan language"; the date of the celt was estimated at between 1500 BCE and 2000 BCE. Though this finding remains contested, like the claim of historian Michel Danino who rubbishes the theory of the latter’s southward migration in a paper he presented at the International Symposium on Indus Civilisation and Tamil Language in 2007.
He wrote: ‘There is no archaeological evidence of a southward migration through the Deccan after the end of the urban phase of the Indus Valley Civilisation The only actual evidence of movements at that period is of Late Harappans migrating towards the Ganges plains and towards Gujarat... Migration apart, there is a complete absence of Harappan artefacts and features south of the Vindhyas: no Harappan designs on pottery, no Harappan seals and ornaments, no trace of Harappan urbanism… Cultural continuity from Harappan to historical times has been documented in North India, but not in the South… This means, in effect, that the south-bound Late Harappans would have reverted from an advanced urban bronze-age culture to a Neolithic one! Their migration to South would thus constitute a double “archaeological miracle”: apart from being undetectable on the ground, it implies that the migrants experienced a total break with all their traditions; such a phenomenon is unheard of.’ The early history of the people and rulers of Tamil Nadu is a topic in Tamil literary sources known as Sangam literature.
Numismatic and literary sources corroborate that the Sangam period lasted for about eight centuries, from 500 BC to AD 300. The recent excavations in Alagankulam archaeological site suggests that Alagankulam is one of the important trade centres or port cities of the Sangam Era. During the 4th to 8th centuries, Tamil Nadu saw the rise of the Pallava dynasty under Mahendravarman I and his son Mamalla Narasimhavarman I; the Pallavas ruled parts of South India with Kanchipuram as their capital. Tamil architecture reached its peak during Pallava rule. Narasimhavarman II built the Shore Temple, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Much the Pallavas were replaced by the Chola dynasty as the dominant kingdom in the 9th century and they in turn were replaced by the Pandyan Dynasty in the 13th century; the Pandyan capital Madurai was in the deep south away from the coast. They had extensive trade links with the south east Asian maritime empires of Srivijaya and their successors, as well as contacts formal diplomatic contacts, reaching as far as the Roman Empire.
During the 13th century, Marco Polo mentioned the Pandyas as the richest empire in existence. Temples such as the Meenakshi Amman Temple at Madurai and Nellaiappar Temple at Tirunelveli are the best examples of Pandyan temple
Matt Gorman is a former professional basketball player who last played for the Scranton/Wilkes-Barre Steamers. He played college basketball for Syracuse University during their first National Championship in 2003, he played three years of professional basketball in Europe. Matt's uncle is drummer for The Black Crowes rock band. In high school, he started 66 of 66 games while at Watertown High School. In three varsity seasons at Watertown he compiled career averages of 17 ppg. 10 rpg. 6 bpg. and shot 51 percent from the field and 78 percent from the foul line. As a senior in 2001-02, averaged 21.0 ppg. 10.0 rpg. 5.0 bpg. and shot 60 percent from the field, while helping lead Watertown to a 22-1 record and a No. 8 state ranking. His single game highs were 21 points, 12 rebounds and 10 blocked shots He was ranked 100th among the 2002 Senior Class by Hoop Scoop and 109th by All-Star Sports and was named All-Central New York first team. Archived 3 August 2007 at the Wayback Machine Gorman was named as one of 16 finalists for the 2002 USA Basketball Men's Junior World Championship Qualifying Team on June 2, 2002.
He participated in the 2001 USA Basketball Men's Youth Development Festival for the silver medalist East Team, averaging 4.2 ppg. 3.0 rpg. and 1.0 bpg. Archived 3 August 2007 at the Wayback Machine As a freshman, Gorman was part of a class that included Gerry McNamara and Carmelo Anthony. Still, Gorman was used sparingly in his freshman season, playing in just nine games while averaging 2.3 points and 2.1 rebounds in those games. Gorman didn't play much more in his sophomore year, he red-shirted in his third year at Syracuse. In his fourth year, Gorman played about 10 minutes a game as a backup forward and center, playing in 29 games and averaging 2.9 points and 1.6 rebounds. In his final year at Syracuse, Gorman continued to play a major bench role, he set career highs in points and field goal percentage, while displaying a good touch from long range. Gorman started five games early on in the year due to injuries to Darryl Watkins and Terrence Roberts. Overall, Gorman played 75 games spanning from 2002 -- 07.
He had 1.9 rebounds per game. Gorman signed with the Neptune Cork for the 2007-08 season, he averaged 12 rebounds, helping the Cork to the league semifinals. For the 2008-09 season, Gorman played with the Sheffield Sharks, he was named an All-Star in the British League. Gorman returned to the Sharks for the 2009-10 season. In January 2012, Gorman joined the Scranton/Wilkes-Barre Steamers of the Premiere Basketball League for their inaugural season. Orangehoops.org Profile Sheffield Sharks Profile
Yellowpages.com is a United States-based web site operated by YP Holdings that provides listings for local businesses. In 2013 it was re-branded as YP.com or "YP". It offers a broad range of marketing tools including online presence, local search, display ads and direct marketing, it was a wholly owned subsidiary of AT&T. YP's consumer brands include the YP mobile app and yp.com, which are used by nearly 60 million consumers each month in the U. S. and The Real Yellow Pages directory. In May 2016, YP entered into a partnership with the Better Business Bureau, displaying ratings for listings of businesses that have earned an A or A+ rating or BBB accreditation. Yellowpages.com was founded in 1996 during the dotcom boom, by multiple cofounders, including CEO Dane Madsen. Yellowpages.com became part of Globalgate, an ecommerce incubator and investment company in 1998, which sold the business to its largest investors in 2001. In late 2004, BellSouth Corp and SBC Communications Inc. purchased www. YellowPages.com Inc. for US$120 Million.
The companies formed a joint venture to run the business. The two companies had been working together on another joint venture called Cingular, a wireless carrier in the US; each company had its own Online Yellow Pages: BellSouth owned RealPages.com and SBC owned SmartPages.com. The two sites merged into the newly acquired YellowPages.com. In 2005, SBC took on the stronger AT&T brand. One year AT&T acquired Bellsouth for US$67 Billion. At this point, the YELLOWPAGES.com business was no longer a joint venture, instead, it became a wholly owned subsidiary of AT&T doing business as AT&T Interactive. In 2009, the YELLOWPAGES.com site was rebranded as YP.com. In May 8, 2012, Cerberus Capital Management acquired a majority share of YELLOWPAGES.com LLC, as well as the print Yellow Pages business from AT&T. The business is now operating under YP LLC. YP has expanded its offers to include digital marketing. In 2013, YP rebranded and position itself in the field of digital marketing, in 2015, its marketing operations has been rebranded to YP Marketing Solutions.
On July 31, 2012, YP was included in PaidContent50's list of "the world's most successful digital media companies" based on 2011 digital ad revenue. In July 2014, YP app was ranked #37 out of the top 100 applications downloaded for Apple's smartphone. In July 2017, YP Holdings was acquired by Dex Media which became DexYP. In September 2018, 13M users visited Yellowpages.com. This is a revision from its current claim of 60M monthly users to Yellowpages.com. Official website AT&T and BellSouth Join to Create a Premier Global Communications Company, AT&T News Room, December 29, 2006