Tamil is a Dravidian language predominantly spoken by the Tamil people of India and Sri Lanka, by the Tamil diaspora, Sri Lankan Moors and Douglas. Tamil is an official language in three countries: Sri Lanka and Singapore. In India, it is the official language of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu and the Union Territory of Puducherry. Furthermore, Tamil is used as one of the languages of education in Malaysia, along with English and Mandarin. Tamil is spoken by significant minorities in the four other South Indian states of Kerala, Andhra Pradesh and Telangana and the Union Territory of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, it is one of the 22 scheduled languages of India. Tamil is one of the longest-surviving classical languages in the world. A. K. Ramanujan described it as "the only language of contemporary India, recognizably continuous with a classical past." The variety and quality of classical Tamil literature has led to it being described as "one of the great classical traditions and literatures of the world".
A recorded Tamil literature has been documented for over 2000 years. The earliest period of Tamil literature, Sangam literature, is dated from ca. 300 BC – AD 300. It has the oldest extant literature among Dravidian languages; the earliest epigraphic records found on rock edicts and'hero stones' date from around the 3rd century BC. More than 55% of the epigraphical inscriptions found by the Archaeological Survey of India are in the Tamil language. Tamil language inscriptions written in Brahmi script have been discovered in Sri Lanka and on trade goods in Thailand and Egypt; the two earliest manuscripts from India and registered by the UNESCO Memory of the World register in 1997 and 2005, were written in Tamil. In 1578, Portuguese Christian missionaries published a Tamil prayer book in old Tamil script named Thambiran Vanakkam, thus making Tamil the first Indian language to be printed and published; the Tamil Lexicon, published by the University of Madras, was one of the earliest dictionaries published in the Indian languages.
According to a 2001 survey, there were 1,863 newspapers published in Tamil, of which 353 were dailies. Tamil belongs to the southern branch of the Dravidian languages, a family of around 26 languages native to the Indian subcontinent, it is classified as being part of a Tamil language family that, alongside Tamil proper, includes the languages of about 35 ethno-linguistic groups such as the Irula and Yerukula languages. The closest major relative of Tamil is Malayalam. Although many of the differences between Tamil and Malayalam demonstrate a pre-historic split of the western dialect, the process of separation into a distinct language, was not completed until sometime in the 13th or 14th century. According to linguists like Bhadriraju Krishnamurti, Tamil, as a Dravidian language, descends from Proto-Dravidian, a proto-language. Linguistic reconstruction suggests that Proto-Dravidian was spoken around the third millennium BC in the region around the lower Godavari river basin in peninsular India.
The material evidence suggests that the speakers of Proto-Dravidian were of the culture associated with the Neolithic complexes of South India. The earliest epigraphic attestations of Tamil are taken to have been written from the 2nd century BC. Among Indian languages, Tamil has the most ancient non-Sanskritic Indian literature. Scholars categorise the attested history of the language into three periods: Old Tamil, Middle Tamil and Modern Tamil. In November 2007, an excavation at Quseir-al-Qadim revealed Egyptian pottery dating back to first century BC with ancient Tamil Brahmi inscriptions. John Guy states. According to Hindu legend, Tamil or in personification form Tamil Thāi was created by Lord Shiva. Murugan, revered as the Tamil God, along with sage Agastya, brought it to the people; the earliest extant Tamil literary works and their commentaries celebrate the Pandiyan Kings for the organization of long-termed Tamil Sangams, which researched and made amendments in Tamil language. Though the name of the language, developed by these Tamil Sangams is mentioned as Tamil, the period when the name "Tamil" came to be applied to the language is unclear, as is the precise etymology of the name.
The earliest attested use of the name is found in Tholkappiyam, dated as early as 1st century BC. Southworth suggests that the name comes from tam-miḻ > tam-iḻ "self-speak", or "one's own speech". Kamil Zvelebil suggests an etymology of tam-iḻ, with tam meaning "self" or "one's self", "-iḻ" having the connotation of "unfolding sound". Alternatively, he suggests a derivation of tamiḻ < tam-iḻ < *tav-iḻ < *tak-iḻ, meaning in origin "the proper process". The Tamil Lexicon of University of Madras defines the word "Tamil" as "sweetness". S. V. Subramanian suggests the meaning "sweet sound" from tam — "sweet" and il — "sound". Old Tamil is the period of the Tamil language spanning the 3rd century BC to the 8th century AD; the earliest records in Old Tamil are short inscriptions from between the 3rd and 2nd century BC in caves and on pottery. These inscriptions are written in a variant of the Brahmi script called Tamil-Brahmi; the earliest long text in Old Tamil is the Tolkāppiyam, an early work on Tamil grammar and poetics, whose oldest layers could be as old as the 1st century BC.
Many literary works in Old Tamil have survived. These include a corpus of 2,381 poems collectively known as Sangam literature; these poems a
John de Bourchier was an English Judge of the Common Pleas and the earliest ancestor, about whose life substantial details are known, of the noble and prolific Bourchier family, which in its various branches held the titles Barons Bourchier, Counts of Eu, Viscounts Bourchier, Earls of Essex, Barons Berners, Barons FitzWarin and Earls of Bath. There is no evidence which confirms this family to have originated in France, it was of ancient English origin, its name was however Latinised by scribes to de Burgo Caro, "from the costly town", from a Gallicisation of the name to le Bourg Cher. Bouchier is first mentioned as deputed by Robert de Vere, 6th Earl of Oxford to represent him in the parliament summoned in 1306 for the purpose of granting an aid on the occasion of the Prince of Wales receiving knighthood. In 1312 he was permitted to postpone for three years the assumption of his own knighthood, an expensive and burdensome honour, on paying a fine of 100 shillings. In 1314–1315 his name is recorded as one of the Justices of Assize for the counties of Kent and Sussex, on various commissions for the years 1317, 1319, 1320.
On 15 May 1321 he was summoned as a justice to parliament at Westminster for the first time, on 31 May 1321 he was appointed a Justice of the Common Pleas. In 1322 Bouchier presided over the trial of certain persons charged with making forcible entry upon the manors of Hugh le Despenser, Lord of Glamorgan, in Glamorganshire and elsewhere, in investigating a charge of malversation against certain commissioners of forfeited estates in Kent and Sussex, trying cases of extortion by sheriffs, commissioners of array, other officers in Essex and Middlesex. In the same year of 1322 he sat on a special commission for the trial of persons accused of complicity in the fabrication of miracles in the neighbourhood of the gallows on which Henry de Montfort and Henry de Wylyngton had been hanged at Bristol. In February 1326 Bouchier was placed at the head of a commission to try a charge of poaching brought by the Bishop of London and the dean and chapter of St Paul's against a number of persons alleged to have taken a large fish, qui dicitur cete, from the manor of Walton, in violation of a charter of King Henry III.
The chapter claimed the exclusive right to all large fish found on their estates, the tongue only being reserved to the king. In the same year of 1326 he was engaged in trying cases of extortion by legal officials in Suffolk and Derbyshire, persons indicted before the conservators of the peace in Lincolnshire. In December of this year Bourchier was summoned to parliament for the last time, he was reappointed Justice of the Common Pleas shortly after the accession of King Edward III, the patent being dated 24 March 1327. The last fine was levied before him on Ascension Day 1329, he married Helen of Colchester and heir of Walter of Colchester, by which means he inherited the estate of Stanstead, in the parish of Halstead, which adjoined an estate which he had purchased in 1312. He made his seat here at Stanstead Hall, of which in 1848 only one wing was reported as surviving used as a farm house, situated 1 mile S. S. E. of the town of Halstead. It is shown on the Ordnance Survey map as "Stanstead Hall Moated Site", with remains of an ancient chapel, adjacent to the surviving large 16th-century mansion called "Stanstead Hall", in the modern parish of Greenstead Green and Halstead Rural the residence of the statesman Lord Butler of Saffron Walden.
His progeny included: Robert Bourchier, 1st Baron Bourchier, Lord Chancellor He died shortly after Ascension Day 1329 as is deduced from the fact that in the following year his son and heir, Robert Bourchier, was put in possession of his estates by the king. According to Rigg he was buried in Stanstead Church, yet it is more held that his burial was in St Andrew's Church, where a pair of granite recumbent effigies are believed to represent himself and his wife. Rigg, James McMullen, biography of Sir John de Bourchier published in Dictionary of National Biography, 1885–1900, Vol.6 Morant's Essex, ii. 253 Foss's Lives of the Judges This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: "Bourchier, John de". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900
Geevarghese Mar Philoxenos aka Puthencavil Kochu Thirumeni was an administrator, orator and an advocate of Orthodox and the Catholicate of the Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church of India. He served as Metropolitan of Thumpamon Diocese from 1930 to 1951. Geevarghese was born 10 June 1897 at Puthencavu, a village on the banks of the River Pamba, as the second son of Thoma Kathanar of Kizhakethallekal family and Rahelamma of Chungathil family of Koipuram, he was the second of 4 brothers and 1 sister. He completed his primary education in Puthencavu, middle school education at Mavelikara and high school education at Chengannur, he obtained his Intermediate certificate from Calcutta, went on to complete his BD at Serampore College, where he had traveled to, along with Fr P T Geevarghese. After completing his Bachelor of Divinity degree, he joined the MD Seminary School as a teacher in 1921, he went on to complete his MA in Literature from the Calcutta University in 1926. He was ordained as a Deacon and Priest in 1929 by St. Mar Dionysious, his mentor.
He was ordained as Ramban on 6 November 1929 and consecrated as Bishop with the name Geevarghese Mar Philoxenos, Metropolitan of Thumpamon, at the Parumala Seminary on 3 November 1930 by HH Baselios Geevarghese II. As he was the youngest bishop at the time, he was referred to as'Kochu Thirumeni'. Following his consecration he served as the Metropolitan of the Thumpamon diocese from 1931–1951. During his lifetime, Kochu Thirumeni headed many organizations and established many educational institutions: Catholicate High School, Pathanamthitta Metropolitan High School, which counts among its alumni eminent personalities such as Justice J B Koshy, among others Teachers Training College, Pathanamthitta Catholicate College, Pathanamthitta He served as the President of the Sunday School, Gospel Team. Other institutions that he set up include: Othera Dayara Bethel Aramana The Headquarters of the Chengannur Diocese. Pongalady Church Thumpamon Martha Mariam Center Theological College, Makkamkunnu Eraviperoor HospitalKochu Thirumeni was a strong influence on many of the clergy and along with Vattasseril Geevarghese Mar Dionysius persuaded H.
H Baselos Marthoma Mathews I to go for Theological studies at Calcutta. He led the legal battles against Mar Ivanios to regain control over some of the schools which were handed over to the latter for management while Mar Dionysius, undertook a trip to Mardin Kochu Thirumeni died on 17 April 1951 at the young age of 54, at the Marathamcode Mar Gregorios Chapel, where the room and the bed he used are maintained as relics of his life, his remains were interred at St. Mary's Orthodox Cathedral, Puthencavu where the remains of Mar Thoma VI and Mar Thoma VIII are entombed; the following lines are inscribed on his tomb: His Presence was Joyful,His Voice Sweet, His Words Inspiring,His Manners Endearing, His Smile Unforgettable. Kochu Thirumeni's tomb is a pilgrimage destination for Malankara Orthodox Christians; the commemoration feast of Kochu Thirumeni is held on 17 April every year. On 17 April 2013, his 62nd Commemoration he was conferred the title of'Ratna Deepam' of the Catholicate by HH Baselios Marthoma Paulose II, as per the decision of the Episcopal Synod and the declaration was read out by HG Thomas Mar Athanasius, Kochu Thirumeni's Nephew.
Rev. Fr. Dr. Mathew Koshy,Puthencavu Mar Philoxenos- Malankarayude Mahatwamulla Saithu Adv. P. C. Mathew Pulikottil and Mr. K. V. Mammen Kottackal,Puthencavu Kochu Thirumeni – Katholicattinte Karuthanaya Vakthavu, Kottakal Publishers Samuel Chandanapally,Malankara Sabha Pithakkanmar,1990, CeeDees Books Rev. Fr. John Thomas Karingattil, Malankara Sabhayude Yugashilpi KV Mammen, Catholicateinte Ratnadeepam, 2013 George Mathan Puthencavu Mathan Tharakan Article on Geevarghese Mar Philoxenos at Prabhamayam-india.com