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Tamil script

The Tamil script is an abugida script, used by Tamils and Tamil speakers in India, Sri Lanka, Singapore and elsewhere to write the Tamil language, using consonants and diacritics not represented in the Tamil alphabet. Certain minority languages such as Saurashtra, Badaga and Paniya are written in the Tamil script; the Tamil script has 12 vowels, 18 consonants and one special character, the ஃ. ஃ is called "அக்கு" akku and is classified in Tamil orthography as being neither a consonant nor a vowel. However, it is listed at the end of the vowel set; the script is syllabic, not alphabetic. The complete script, consists of the 31 letters in their independent form and an additional 216 combinant letters, for a total of 247 combinations of a consonant and a vowel, a mute consonant, or a vowel alone; the combinant letters are formed by adding a vowel marker to the consonant. Some vowels require the basic shape of the consonant to be altered in a way, specific to that vowel. Others are written by adding a vowel-specific suffix to the consonant, yet others a prefix, still other vowels require adding both a prefix and a suffix to the consonant.

In every case, the vowel marker is different from the standalone character for the vowel. The Tamil script is written from left to right; the Tamil script, like the other Brahmic scripts, is thought to have evolved from the original Brahmi script. The earliest inscriptions which are accepted examples of Tamil writing date to the Ashokan period. Although some inscriptions which have been dated to a much early period of 5th century BCE, have been discovered at places like Adichanallur and Kodumanal in Tamil Nadu; the script used by such inscriptions is known as the Tamil-Brahmi, or "Tamili script", differs in many ways from standard Ashokan Brahmi. For example, early Tamil-Brahmi, unlike Ashokan Brahmi, had a system to distinguish between pure consonants and consonants with an inherent vowel. In addition, according to Iravatham Mahadevan, early Tamil Brahmi used different vowel markers, had extra characters to represent letters not found in Sanskrit, omitted letters for sounds not present in Tamil such as voiced consonants and aspirates.

Inscriptions from the 2nd century use a form of Tamil-Brahmi, similar to the writing system described in the Tolkāppiyam, an ancient Tamil grammar. Most notably, they used the puḷḷi to suppress the inherent vowel; the Tamil letters thereafter evolved towards a more rounded form, by the 5th or 6th century, they had reached a form called the early vaṭṭeḻuttu. The modern Tamil script does not, descend from that script. In the 6th century, the Pallava dynasty created a new script for Tamil, the Grantha alphabet evolved from it, adding the Vaṭṭeḻuttu alphabet for sounds not found to write Sanskrit. Parallel to Pallava script a new script again emerged in Chola territory resembling the same glyph development like Pallava script, but it did not evolve from that. By the 8th century, the new scripts supplanted Vaṭṭeḻuttu in the Chola resp. Pallava kingdoms. However, Vaṭṭeḻuttu continued to be used in the southern portion of the Tamil-speaking region, in the Chera and Pandyan kingdoms until the 11th century, when the Pandyan kingdom was conquered by the Cholas.

With the fall of Pallava kingdom, the Chola dynasty pushed the Chola-Pallava script as the de facto script. Over the next few centuries, the Chola-Pallava script evolved into the modern Tamil script; the Grantha and its parent script influenced the Tamil script notably. The use of palm leaves; the scribe had to be careful not to pierce the leaves with the stylus while writing because a leaf with a hole was more to tear and decay faster. As a result, the use of the puḷḷi to distinguish pure consonants became rare, with pure consonants being written as if the inherent vowel were present; the vowel marker for the kuṟṟiyal ukaram, a half-rounded u which occurs at the end of some words and in the medial position in certain compound words fell out of use and was replaced by the marker for the simple u. The puḷḷi did not reappear until the introduction of printing, but the marker kuṟṟiyal ukaram never came back into use although the sound itself still exists and plays an important role in Tamil prosody.

The forms of some of the letters were simplified in the 19th century to make the script easier to typeset. In the 20th century, the script was simplified further in a series of reforms, which regularised the vowel markers used with consonants by eliminating special markers and most irregular forms; the Tamil script differs from other Brahmi-derived scripts in a number of ways. Unlike every other Brahmic script, it does not represent voiced or aspirated stop consonants as these are not phonemes of the Tamil language though voiced and fricative allophones of stops do appear in spoken Tamil, thus the character க் k, for example, represents /k/ but can be pronounced or based on the rules of Tamil grammar. A separate set of characters appears for these sounds when the Tamil script is used to write Sanskrit or other languages. Unlike other Brahmi scripts, the Tamil script uses typographic ligatures to represent conjunct consonants, which are far less frequent in Tamil than in other Indian languages.

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Sharon Lohr

Sharon Lynn Lohr is an American statistician. She is an Emeritus Dean’s Distinguished Professor of Statistics at Arizona State University, an independent statistical consultant, her research interests include survey sampling, design of experiments, applications of statistics in education and criminology. Lohr graduated from Calvin College in 1982, she completed her Ph. D. in statistics in 1987 at the University of Wisconsin–Madison. Her dissertation, Accurate Multivariate Estimation Using Double and Triple Sampling, was supervised by Mark Finster. After retiring from Arizona State, she served a five-year term as vice president and senior statistician at Westat. Lohr is the author of: Sampling: Design and Analysis Measuring Crime: Behind the Statistics Lohr is a Fellow of the American Statistical Association and an elected member of the International Statistical Institute. In 2003 she became the inaugural winner of the Gertrude M. Cox Award of the Washington Statistical Society. Home page


MoneyGram International, Inc. is an American money transfer company based in the United States with headquarters in Dallas, Texas. It has an operations center in St. Louis Park and regional and local offices around the world. MoneyGram businesses are divided into two categories: Global Funds Transfers and Financial Paper Products; the company provides its service to individuals and businesses through a network of agents and financial institutions. In 2014, MoneyGram was the second largest provider of money transfers in the world; the company operates in more than 200 countries and territories with a global network of about 347,000 agent offices. MoneyGram International formed as a result of two businesses merging, Minneapolis-based Travelers Express and Denver-based Integrated Payment Systems Inc. MoneyGram was first established as a subsidiary of Integrated Payment Systems and afterwards became independent company before it was acquired by Travelers in 1998. In 2004, Travelers Express became.

The Minneapolis-based Travelers Express Co. Inc. was founded in 1940. In 1965, Travelers Express was acquired by The Greyhound Corporation and became the nation's largest provider of money orders before initiating a company reorganization plan in 1993. MoneyGram was formed in 1988 as a subsidiary of Integrated Payment Systems Inc. Integrated Payment Systems was a subsidiary of First Data Corporation, itself a subsidiary of American Express. In 1992, First Data was spun off from American Express and publicly traded on the New York Stock Exchange. First Data Corporation merged with First Financial, the owners of rival Western Union. In order to approve the merger, the Federal Trade Commission forced First Data to sell Integrated Payment Systems. Thomas Cook Global Foreign Exchange, under the stewardship of John Bavister, launched a re-engineered money transfer service in 1994. Branded as MoneyGram, the venture saw the partnering of the global travel giant with First Data Corp. In 1996, Integrated Payment Systems, the nation's second largest non-bank consumer money transfer business, became its own publicly traded company and was renamed MoneyGram Payment Systems Inc.

In 1997, James F. Calvano, former president of Western Union, became MoneyGram Payment Systems CEO. By the late 1990s, MoneyGram Payment Systems had served customers at over 22,000 locations in 100 countries. Moneygram International Ltd. was established in 1997 by MoneyGram Payment Systems Inc. and Thomas Cook, a year after the company had gone public. At the time when MoneyGram International was established, MoneyGram Payment Systems owned 51 percent of the company, while the other 49 percent was owned by the Thomas Cook Group. In April 1998, Viad Corp acquired MoneyGram Payment Systems Inc. for $287 million. MoneyGram was folded into Viad's Travelers Express in Minneapolis. In November 2000, the Moneygram brand and business was sold to Travelex as part of its acquisition of Thomas Cook Financial Services for £400m. In 2003, Travelers Express gained full ownership of the MoneyGram network, including MoneyGram International; that year, Viad spun off Travelers Express as an independent company.

In January 2004 and Travelers Express was renamed to MoneyGram International Inc. In June 2004, Viad sold MoneyGram and it became a individual entity. By 2006, MoneyGram International had expanded internationally to include over 96,000 agents in regions such as the Asian-Pacific, Eastern Europe, Central America; the company had introduced additional services such as bill payment and online money transfers. During the financial crisis of 2007–2008, MoneyGram's shares fell 96 percent from 2007 to 2009, it lost more than $1.6 billion from investments in securities backed by risky mortgages in 2008, the losses led the company to sell a majority stake to Thomas H. Lee Partners and Goldman Sachs in exchange for a cash infusion. During the drop, U. S. Bancorp shifted its money transfer services to Western Union; the company became profitable again in 2009. Amid MoneyGram's turnaround, Pamela Patsley became the executive chairwoman of the company in January 2009 and was named CEO in September of that year.

In November 2010, MoneyGram relocated its global headquarters to the city of Dallas, Texas. The company continues to maintain global operations and information technology centers in Minneapolis, Minnesota. In 2013, MoneyGram began considering a sale. In 2014, MoneyGram lost a relationship with Wal-Mart Stores and began restructuring to cut costs. From their peak in 2013 until late 2015, shares fell about 70%. MoneyGram closed a call center in Colorado resulting in over 500 layoffs. Furthermore, MoneyGram closed its 376-person Brooklyn Center operation in 2015. Moneygram has moved numerous positions to Warsaw, Poland from its Colorado and Minnesota locations for cut costs further. In 2015, the company's agent network in Africa reached 25,000 locations, including an agreement with the Mauritius Post Office. Between late October 2016 and January 2017, MoneyGram's shares doubled in value. On January 26, 2017, Ant Financial Services Group announced a deal to acquire MoneyGram International for $880 million.

In 2017, MoneyGram announced that it uses Mitek's Mobile Verify to validate its customers’ identification. To complete the identity verification step in the money transfer process, Moneygram customers take a picture of their passport or other identity document using their mobile device camera. On June 17th 2019, Moneygram announced they were partnering with Ripple to utilize the digital asset XRP for cross-border remittance. MoneyGram Money Transfer MoneyGram Bill Payments S

Okachimachi Station

Okachimachi Station is a railway station in Taito, Japan, operated by East Japan Railway Company. Okachimachi Station is served by the circular Yamanote Line and the Keihin-Tohoku Line. Although not physically connected, Naka-Okachimachi on the Tokyo Metro Hibiya Line, Ueno-hirokōji on the Tokyo Metro Ginza Line, Ueno-okachimachi on the Toei Oedo Line are within walking distance of Okachimachi and marked as interchanges on route maps; the station is on a raised viaduct running in a north-south direction. There are the north exit and south exit. Both exits have ticket vending toilets. Luggage lockers are available at the south exit; the station has two island platforms with two tracks on either side of each platform. Platforms 1 and 4 serve the Keihin-Tohoku Line, while platforms 2 and 3 are used for Yamanote Line trains; this platform arrangement allows for easy cross-platform interchanges so that passengers may transfer between lines in the same direction by walking across the platform. East of the platforms lie tracks of the Ueno-Tokyo Line.

These are themselves built on former tracks of the Tohoku Main Line running to Tokyo Station, used for stabling trains when construction of the Tohoku Shinkansen took over land near Kanda Station used by the Tohoku Main Line, forcing services to terminate at Ueno Station instead. The Yamanote Line platforms are equipped with chest-high platform edge doors, installed in March 2014; the station opened on 1 November 1925. Waist-high platform edge doors were installed on the Yamanote Line platforms in March 2014, scheduled to be brought into operation from 10 May. From 14 March 2015, rapid services on the Keihin-Tohoku Line began serving the station on weekends and national holidays only. In fiscal 2013, the station was used by an average of 67,593 passengers daily, making it the 64th-busiest station operated by JR East; the daily average passenger figures in previous years are as shown below. Okachimachi Station is in the centre of a busy commercial district stretching southwards from Ueno Station.

Well-known is Ameya-Yokochō, a busy shopping street dominated by small market-style stalls selling a wide variety of wares. Ameyoko includes a large market under the railway tracks. List of railway stations in Japan Okachimachi Station information

Beth Croft

Beth Emily Croft is an English Christian musician, who plays a contemporary Christian style of worship music. She released, Rule in My Heart, with Integrity Music alongside Survivor Records, in 2014. Beth Croft was born on 13 October 1986, as Beth Emily Coulson, in Watford, where her parents raised her along with her two younger brothers and Stephen, in the church, it was not until her mid-teenage years, where her faith would blossom and flourish, when her parents changed churches to Soul Survivor. Croft is now a worship director at Soul Survivor, she went to college at the University of Bath. Croft's music recording career commenced in 2014, with the release, Rule in My Heart, by Integrity Music alongside Survivor Records, on 27 July 2014, she is showcased on the Soul Survivor albums, The Flood, Love Takes Over, Never Gonna Stop and The Promise She married pastor and leader of soul61, Andy Croft, in 2009. Together they have 3 sons Josiah David Croft, born 2015, Judah Croft, born 2016 and Caleb Croft, born 2018.

Solo albumsRule in My Heart As featured artistStanding On The Edge The Promise Never Gonna Stop Love Takes Over The Flood Soul Survivor: 20th Anniversary Collection Kingdom Come We Are The Free Light The Sky Be My Everything: Best of Soul Survivor Live Not Ashamed Complete – Live Worship From Soul Survivor 2008 Living For your Glory We Are Worship profile Twitter account

Mark Turner (cricketer, born 1984)

Mark Turner is an English cricketer who most played for Derbyshire. He is right-arm medium-fast bowler. Turner played for England Under-19s in 2003 and 2004, taking 9–104 against Bangladesh at Taunton in 2004, he made his first-class debut for Durham in 2005 but made just 3 first-class appearances for them in 2005 and 2006 combined. He moved to Somerset where he acted as an understudy to the senior bowlers and made his maiden first-class fifty against Derbyshire in the 2007 season. In September 2010, it was announced that he would join Derbyshire in 2011. At the end of the 2014 season, Turner was released by Derbyshire having spent part of the season on loan at Northamptonshire, he was known for his aggressive fast bowling in the Twenty20 form of the game, being able to bowl at a similar pace off both a short and full-length run-up. He was been known to stutter his run-up suddenly start again – similar to a footballer stuttering in the run-up to a penalty kick. In the four day format of the game, he was a more conservative bowler, sometimes acting as a workhorse – bowling in good areas, at a constant pace, for long periods.

He was an accomplished fielder. Mark Turner at CricketArchive Mark Turner at ESPNcricinfo