Kyoto Kyoto City, is the capital city of Kyoto Prefecture, located in the Kansai region of Japan. It is best known in Japanese history for being the former Imperial capital of Japan for more than one thousand years, as well as a major part of the Kyoto-Osaka-Kobe metropolitan area. In Japanese, Kyoto was called Kyō, Miyako, or Kyō no Miyako. In the 11th century, the city was renamed Kyoto, from the Chinese calligraphic, jingdu. After the city of Edo was renamed Tokyo in 1868, the seat of the Emperor was moved there, Kyoto was for a short time known as Saikyō. Kyoto is sometimes called the thousand-year capital; the National Diet never passed any law designating a capital. Foreign spellings for the city's name have included Kioto and Meaco, utilised by Dutch cartographers. Another term used to refer to the city in the pre-modern period was Keishi, meaning "urba" or "capital". Ample archaeological evidence suggests human settlement in Kyoto began as early as the Paleolithic period, although not much published material is retained about human activity in the area before the 6th century, around which time the Shimogamo Shrine is believed to have been established.
During the 8th century, when powerful Buddhist clergy became involved in the affairs of the Imperial government, Emperor Kanmu chose to relocate the capital in order to distance it from the clerical establishment in Nara. His last choice for the site was the village of Uda, in the Kadono district of Yamashiro Province; the new city, Heian-kyō, a scaled replica of the Tang capital Chang'an, became the seat of Japan's imperial court in 794, beginning the Heian period of Japanese history. Although military rulers established their governments either in Kyoto or in other cities such as Kamakura and Edo, Kyoto remained Japan's capital until the transfer of the imperial court to Tokyo in 1869 at the time of the Imperial Restoration; the city suffered extensive destruction in the Ōnin War of 1467–1477, did not recover until the mid-16th century. During the Ōnin War, the shugo collapsed, power was divided among the military families. Battles between samurai factions spilled into the streets, came to involve the court nobility and religious factions as well.
Nobles' mansions were transformed into fortresses, deep trenches dug throughout the city for defense and as firebreaks, numerous buildings burned. The city has not seen such widespread destruction since. In the late 16th century, Toyotomi Hideyoshi reconstructed the city by building new streets to double the number of north-south streets in central Kyoto, creating rectangle blocks superseding ancient square blocks. Hideyoshi built earthwork walls called odoi encircling the city. Teramachi Street in central Kyoto is a Buddhist temple quarter where Hideyoshi gathered temples in the city. Throughout the Edo period, the economy of the city flourished as one of three major cities in Japan, the others being Osaka and Edo; the Hamaguri rebellion of 1864 burnt down 28,000 houses in the city which showed the rebels' dissatisfaction towards the Tokugawa Shogunate. The subsequent move of the Emperor to Tokyo in 1869 weakened the economy; the modern city of Kyoto was formed on April 1, 1889. The construction of Lake Biwa Canal in 1890 was one measure taken to revive the city.
The population of the city exceeded one million in 1932. There was some consideration by the United States of targeting Kyoto with an atomic bomb at the end of World War II because, as an intellectual center of Japan, it had a population large enough to persuade the emperor to surrender. In the end, at the insistence of Henry L. Stimson, Secretary of War in the Roosevelt and Truman administrations, the city was removed from the list of targets and replaced by Nagasaki; the city was spared from conventional bombing as well, although small-scale air raids did result in casualties. As a result, the Imperial City of Kyoto is one of the few Japanese cities that still have an abundance of prewar buildings, such as the traditional townhouses known as machiya. However, modernization is continually breaking down the traditional Kyoto in favor of newer architecture, such as the Kyōto Station complex. Kyoto became a city designated by government ordinance on September 1, 1956. In 1997, Kyoto hosted the conference.
Kyoto is located in a valley, part of the Yamashiro Basin, in the eastern part of the mountainous region known as the Tamba highlands. The Yamashiro Basin is surrounded on three sides by mountains known as Higashiyama and Nishiyama, with a height just above 1,000 metres above sea level; this interior positioning results in cold winters. There are three rivers in the basin, the Ujigawa to the south, the Katsuragawa to the west, the Kamogawa to the east. Kyoto City takes up 17.9% of the land in the prefecture with an area of 827.9 square kilometres. The original city was arranged in accordance with traditional Chinese feng shui following the model of the ancient Chinese capital of Chang'an; the Imperial Palace faced south. The streets in the modern-day wards of Nakagyō, Shimogyō, Kamigyō-ku still follow a grid pattern. Today, the main business district is located to the south of the old Imperial Palace, with the less-populated northern area retaining a fa
Satsuma Domain Kagoshima Domain, was a Japanese domain of the Edo period. It is associated with the provinces of Satsuma, Ōsumi and Hyūga in modern-day Kagoshima Prefecture and Miyazaki Prefecture on the island of Kyūshū. In the han system, Satsuma was a political and economic abstraction based on periodic cadastral surveys and projected agricultural yields. In other words, the domain was defined in terms of kokudaka, not land area; this was different from the feudalism of the West. The domain was ruled from Kagoshima Castle, the core of what became the city of Kagoshima, its kokudaka was assessed at the second highest kokudaka after that of Kaga Domain. The Shimazu family controlled Satsuma province for four centuries prior to the beginning of the Edo period. Despite being chastised by Toyotomi Hideyoshi in his 1587 Kyūshū Campaign, forced back to Satsuma, they remained one of the most powerful clans in the archipelago. During the decisive battle of Sekigahara in 1600, the Shimazu fought on the losing side.
Satsuma was one of the most powerful feudal domains in Tokugawa Japan. It was controlled throughout the Edo period by the tozama daimyō of the Shimazu clan. Since the mid-15th century, Satsuma fought with the Ryukyu Kingdom for control of the Northern Ryukyu Islands, which lie southwest of Japan. In 1609, Shimazu Iehisa requested permission from the shogunate to invade Ryukyu. After a three-month war which met stiff resistance, Satsuma captured the Ryukyuan capital of Shuri and King Shō Nei. In the ensuing peace treaty, Satsuma annexed the Amami and Tokara Islands, demanded tribute, forced the King and his descendants to pledge loyalty to Satsuma's daimyō. For the remainder of the Edo period, Satsuma influenced their politics and dominated their trading policies to take advantage of Ryukyu's tributary status with China; as strict maritime prohibitions were imposed upon much of Japan beginning in the 1630s, Satsuma's ability to enjoy a trade in Chinese goods, information, via Ryukyu, provided it a distinct and important, if not unique, role in the overall economy and politics of the Tokugawa state.
The degree of economic benefits enjoyed by Satsuma, the degree of their influence in Ryukyu, are subjects debated by scholars, but the political prestige and influence gained through this relationship is not questioned. The Shimazu continually made efforts to emphasize their unique position as the only feudal domain to claim an entire foreign kingdom as its vassal, engineered repeated increases to their own official Court rank, in the name of maintaining their power and prestige in the eyes of Ryukyu. In 1871, Emperor Meiji abolished the Han system, the following year informed King Shō Tai that he was designated "Domain Head of Ryukyu Domain", transferring Satsuma's authority over the country to Tokyo. Though not the wealthiest han in terms of kokudaka, Satsuma remained among the wealthiest and most powerful domains throughout the Edo period; this derived not only from their connection to Ryukyu, but from the size and productive wealth of Satsuma province itself, from their extreme distance from Edo, thus from the shōgun's armies.
The Shimazu exercised their influence to exact from the shogunate a number of special exceptions. Satsuma was granted an exception to the shogunate's limit of one castle per domain, a policy, meant to restrict the military strength of the domains, they received special exceptions from the shogunate in regard to the policy of sankin-kōtai, another policy meant to restrict the wealth and power of the daimyō. Under this policy, every feudal lord was mandated to travel to Edo at least once a year, to spend some portion of the year there, away from his domain and his power base; the Shimazu were granted permission to make this journey only once every two years. These exceptions thus allowed Satsuma to gain more power and wealth relative to the majority of other domains. Though arguably opposed to the shogunate, Satsuma was one of the strictest domains in enforcing particular policies. Christian missionaries were seen as a serious threat to the power of the daimyō, the peace and order of the domain.
The ban on smuggling unsurprisingly, was not so enforced, as the domain gained from trade performed along its shores, some ways away from Nagasaki, where the shogunate monopolized commerce. In the 1830s, Satsuma used its illegal Okinawa trade to rebuild its finances under Zusho Hirosato; the Satsuma daimyō of the 1850s, Shimazu Nariakira, was interested in Western thought and technology, sought to open the country. At the time, contacts with Westerners increased particularly for Satsuma, as Western ships landed in the Ryukyus and sought not only trade, but formal diplomatic relations. To increase his influence in the shogunate, Nariakira engineered a marriage between Shōgun Tokugawa Iesada and his adopted daughter, Atsu-hime. In 1854, the first year of Iesada's reign, Commodore Perry landed in Japan and forced an end to the isolation policy of the shogunate. However, the treaties signed between Japan and the western powers the Harris Treaty of 1858, put Japan at a serious disadvantage. In the same year, both Iesada and Nariakira died.
Nariakira named Shimazu Tadayoshi, as his successor. As Tadayoshi was still a child, his father, Shimazu Hisamitsu
Minamitane is a town located on Tanegashima, in Kumage District, Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan. As of June 2013, the town has an estimated population of 5,925 and a population density of 53.8 persons per km². The total area is 110.40 km². The headquarters of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency are located at the Tanegashima Space Center in Minamitane. Minamitane is located on the southern end of Tanegashima, bordered by the East China Sea to the west and the Pacific Ocean to the east, the town of Nakatane to the north The climate is classified as humid subtropical with warm summers and mild winters. Precipitation is high throughout the year, but is highest in the months of May and September; the area is subject to frequent typhoons. Minamitane Village was established on April 1, 1889. In 1879, a government office was established in the village of Shimama overseeing the villages of Nishino and Sakai, while another government office was established in Kukinaga covering the villages of Hirayama and Nakano.
These former villages were merged to form Minamitane Village. Minamitane was upgraded to town status on October 15, 1956. Japan National Route 56 The Mangjeol family of South Korea trace their ancestry to a man from Shimama Village surnamed Amikiri who went to Korea during the colonial period and settled there, his son married a Korean woman, his grandson Amikiri Ichirō chose to remain in South Korea after its independence and naturalised as a South Korean citizen, changed his name to the Korean reading of its characters, Mangjeol Ilrang. Media related to Minamitane, Kagoshima at Wikimedia Commons Official website
Portugal the Portuguese Republic, is a country located on the Iberian Peninsula in southwestern Europe. It is the westernmost sovereign state of mainland Europe, being bordered to the west and south by the Atlantic Ocean and to the north and east by Spain, its territory includes the Atlantic archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira, both autonomous regions with their own regional governments. Portugal is the oldest state on the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled and fought over since prehistoric times; the pre-Celtic people, Celts and Romans were followed by the invasions of the Visigoths and Suebi Germanic peoples. Portugal as a country was established during the Christian Reconquista against the Moors who had invaded the Iberian Peninsula in 711 AD. Founded in 868, the County of Portugal gained prominence after the Battle of São Mamede in 1128; the Kingdom of Portugal was proclaimed following the Battle of Ourique in 1139, independence from León was recognised by the Treaty of Zamora in 1143.
In the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal established the first global empire, becoming one of the world's major economic and military powers. During this period, today referred to as the Age of Discovery, Portuguese explorers pioneered maritime exploration, notably under royal patronage of Prince Henry the Navigator and King John II, with such notable voyages as Bartolomeu Dias' sailing beyond the Cape of Good Hope, Vasco da Gama's discovery of the sea route to India and the European discovery of Brazil. During this time Portugal monopolized the spice trade, divided the world into hemispheres of dominion with Castille, the empire expanded with military campaigns in Asia. However, events such as the 1755 Lisbon earthquake, the country's occupation during the Napoleonic Wars, the independence of Brazil, a late industrialization compared to other European powers, erased to a great extent Portugal's prior opulence. After the 1910 revolution deposed the monarchy, the democratic but unstable Portuguese First Republic was established being superseded by the Estado Novo right-wing authoritarian regime.
Democracy was restored after the Carnation Revolution in 1974. Shortly after, independence was granted to all its overseas territories; the handover of Macau to China in 1999 marked the end of what can be considered the longest-lived colonial empire. Portugal has left a profound cultural and architectural influence across the globe, a legacy of around 250 million Portuguese speakers, many Portuguese-based creoles, it is a developed country with a high-income advanced economy and high living standards. Additionally, it is placed in rankings of moral freedom, democracy, press freedom, social progress, LGBT rights. A member of the United Nations and the European Union, Portugal was one of the founding members of NATO, the eurozone, the OECD, the Community of Portuguese Language Countries; the word Portugal derives from the Roman-Celtic place name Portus Cale. Portus, the Latin word for port or harbour, Cala or Cailleach was the name of a Celtic goddess – in Scotland she is known as Beira – and the name of an early settlement located at the mouth of the Douro River which flows into the Atlantic Ocean in the north of what is now Portugal.
At the time the land of a specific people was named after its deity. Those names are the origins of the - gal in Galicia. Incidentally, the meaning of Cale or Calle is a derivation of the Celtic word for port which would confirm old links to pre-Roman, Celtic languages which compare to today's Irish caladh or Scottish cala, both meaning port; some French scholars believe it may have come from ` Portus Gallus', the port of the Celts. Around 200 BC, the Romans took the Iberian Peninsula from the Carthaginians during the Second Punic War, in the process conquered Cale and renamed it Portus Cale incorporating it to the province of Gaellicia with capital in Bracara Augusta. During the Middle Ages, the region around Portus Cale became known by the Suebi and Visigoths as Portucale; the name Portucale evolved into Portugale during the 7th and 8th centuries, by the 9th century, that term was used extensively to refer to the region between the rivers Douro and Minho. By the 11th and 12th centuries, Portugallia or Portvgalliae was referred to as Portugal.
The early history of Portugal is shared with the rest of the Iberian Peninsula located in South Western Europe. The name of Portugal derives from the joined Romano-Celtic name Portus Cale; the region was settled by Pre-Celts and Celts, giving origin to peoples like the Gallaeci, Lusitanians and Cynetes, visited by Phoenicians, Ancient Greeks and Carthaginians, incorporated in the Roman Republic dominions as Lusitania and part of Gallaecia, after 45 BC until 298 AD. The region of present-day Portugal was inhabited by Neanderthals and by Homo sapiens, who roamed the border-less region of the northern Iberian peninsula; these were subsistence societies that, although they did not establish prosperous settlements, did form organized societies. Neolithic Portugal experimented with domestication of herding animals, the raising of some cereal crops and fluvial or marine fishing, it is believed by some scholars that early in the first millennium BC, several waves of Celts invaded Portugal from Central Europe and inter-married with the local populations, forming differe
The Hosokawa clan was a Japanese samurai kin group or clan. Emperor Jimmu Emperor Suizei Emperor Annei Emperor Itoku Emperor Kōshō Emperor Kōan Emperor Kōrei Emperor Kōgen Emperor Kaika Emperor Sujin Emperor Suinin Emperor Keikō Yamato Takeru Emperor Chūai Emperor Ōjin Wakanuke Futamata no Kimi Ohohoto no Kimi Ohi no Kimi Ushi no Kimi Emperor Keitai Emperor Kinmei Emperor Bidatsu Prince Oshisaka Emperor Jomei Emperor Tenji Prince Shiki Emperor Kōnin Emperor Kanmu Emperor Saga Emperor Ninmyō Emperor Montoku Emperor Seiwa Prince Sadazumi Minamoto no Tsunemoto Minamoto no Mitsunaka Minamoto no Yorinobu Minamoto no Yoriyoshi Minamoto no Yoshiie Minamoto no Yoshikuni Minamoto no Yoshiyasu Minamoto no Yoshikiyo Ashikaga Yoshizane Hosokawa Yoshisue The clan was descended from the Seiwa Genji, a branch of the Minamoto clan, from Emperor Seiwa himself, through the Ashikaga clan, it produced many prominent officials in the Ashikaga shogunate's administration. In the Edo period, the Hosokawa clan was one of the largest landholding daimyō families in Japan.
In the present day, the current clan head Morihiro Hosokawa, has served as Prime Minister of Japan. Ashikaga Yoshisue, son of Ashikaga Yoshizane, was the first to take the name of Hosokawa. Hosokawa Yoriharu, a Hosokawa of the late Kamakura period, fought for the Ashikaga clan against the Kamakura shogunate. Another, Hosokawa Akiuji, helped establish the Ashikaga shogunate; the clan wielded significant power over the course of the Muromachi and Edo periods, however, from Shikoku, to Kinai, to Kyūshū over the centuries. The clan was one of three families to dominate the post of Kanrei, under the Ashikaga shogunate. One such individual was Hosokawa Yoriyuki. At the beginning of the Ashikaga's rule, the Hosokawa were given control of the entirety of Shikoku. Over the course of this period, members of the Hosokawa clan were Constables of Awa, Bitchū, Sanuki, Tanba and Yamashiro Provinces. A conflict between Hosokawa Katsumoto, the fifth Kanrei, his father-in-law Yamana Sōzen, over the shogunate's succession, sparked the Ōnin War, which led to the fall of the shogunate and a period of 150 years of chaos and war, known as the Sengoku period.
Following the fall of the Ashikaga shogunate, based in Kyoto, control of the city, thus ostensibly the country, fell into the hands of the Hosokawa clan for a few generations. Katsumoto's son, Hosokawa Masamoto, held power in this way at the end of the 15th century, but was assassinated in 1507. After his death, the clan was weakened by internecine fighting. What power they still had, was centered in and around Kyoto; this gave them the leverage to consolidate their power to some extent, came to be strong rivals with the Ōuchi clan, both politically, in terms of dominating trade with China. The Hosokawa remained in Kyoto for one hundred years, fleeing the city when it was attacked by Oda Nobunaga. Another division of the clan whom many have believe had extinct; the Hosokawa of Kokura became the "main" line of the Hosokawa clan during the Edo period. Hosokawa Gracia, the wife of Hosokawa Tadaoki, was one of the most famous samurai converts to Christianity; the Hosokawa sided with Tokugawa Ieyasu against Ishida Mitsunari during the decisive Sekigahara Campaign, thus were made fudai daimyō under the Tokugawa shogunate.
They were given Higo Province, with an income of 540,000 koku, as their han. Hosokawa Tadatoshi, the third lord of Kumamoto, was the patron of the swordsman Miyamoto Musashi. Though the Hosokawa domain was far from the capital, on Kyūshū, they were among the wealthiest of the daimyōs. By 1750, Higo was one of the top producers of rice, was in fact counted as a standard by the Osaka rice brokers; the domain suffered from serious economic decline after that, as most domains did, but the sixth lord, Hosokawa Shigekata instituted a number of reforms which turned the situation around. He founded a Han school, Jishūkan, in 1755. In years, it produced many scholars such as Yokoi Shōnan. In 1787, the main family line descended from Tadatoshi became extinct with the death of the 7th lord, Shigekata's son Harutoshi, he was succeeded by his distant cousin Narishige, the sixth Lord of Udo a direct descendant of Tadatoshi's younger brother Yukitaka. In 1810, Narishige abdicated his title in favor of his elder son Naritatsu, who succeeded as the ninth lord of Kumamoto.
Naritatsu died without an heir in 1826, was succeeded by his nephew Narimori, the son of Naritatsu's younger brother Tatsuyuki, the seventh lord of Udo. Following the death of Narimori in 1860, his elder son Yoshikuni succeeded him as the eleventh and final ruling lord of Kumamoto. There were four major branches of the Hosokawa clan in the Edo period, each of which held the title of daimyō. Another two branches of the family, under the Nagaoka surname, served the Hosokawa of Kumamoto as karō; the residence of one of those families, Hosokawa Gyōbu mansion, is still extant, is a Tangible Cultural Property of Kumamoto Prefecture. During the Boshin War of 1868–69, the Hosokawa of Kumamoto, Kumamoto-Shinden, Udo sided with the imperial government, its forces took part among others. Following the abolition of the feudal class in 1871, the Hosokawa clan and its bra
The Ōsumi Peninsula projects south from the Japanese island of Kyūshū and includes the southernmost point on the island, Cape Sata. Its east coast lies on the Pacific Ocean, while to the west it faces the Satsuma Peninsula across Kagoshima Bay. Politically it is part of Kagoshima Prefecture. Lava erupted in 1914 by Sakurajima made a land connection with the northwest of the Ōsumi Peninsula. Satamisaki: Southernmost point
The Shimazu clan were the daimyō of the Satsuma han, which spread over Satsuma, Ōsumi and Hyūga provinces in Japan. The Shimazu were identified as one of the tozama or outsider daimyō families in contrast with the fudai or insider clans which were hereditary vassals or allies of the Tokugawa clan; the Shimazu were descendants of the Seiwa Genji branch of the Minamoto. The Shimazu would become one of the families of Edo period daimyō to have held their territory continuously since the Kamakura period, would become, at their peak, the wealthiest and most powerful Tozama daimyō family with an income in excess of 700,000 koku; the founder, Shimazu Tadahisa, was a son of Shōgun Minamoto no Yoritomo with the sister of Hiki Yoshikazu. Tadahisa's wife was a daughter of Koremune Hironobu, descendant of the Hata clan, whose name Tadahisa took at first, he received the domain of Shioda in Shinano Province in 1186 and was named shugo of Satsuma Province. He sent Honda Sadachika to take possession of the province in his name and accompanied Yoritomo in his expedition to Mutsu in 1189.
He went to Satsuma in 1196, subdued Hyūga and Ōsumi provinces, built a castle in the domain of Shimazu, which name he adopted. The 19th head, was the daimyō at the time of the Battle of Sekigahara, the establishment of the Tokugawa Shogunate, the Siege of Osaka, his nephew and successor was Tadatsune. He held significant power during the first two decades of the 17th century, organized the Shimazu invasion of the Ryūkyū Kingdom in 1609; the Shōgun allowed this because he wished to appease the Shimazu and prevent potential uprisings after their loss at Sekigahara. The trade benefits thus acquired, the political prestige of being the only daimyō family to control an entire foreign country secured the Shimazu's position as one of the most powerful daimyō families in Japan at the time; the Shimazu clan is renowned for the loyalty of its retainers and officers during the Sengoku period. Some retainer families, such as the Ijuin and Shirakawa, were determined to defeat any opposition to help expand the power of the Shimazu clan.
The Shimazu are famous for being the first to use teppo on the battlefield in Japan, began domestic production of the weapons as well. Shimazu battle tactics are known to have been successful in defeating larger enemy armies during their campaign to conquer Kyūshū in the 1580s, their tactics included the luring of the opposition into an ambush on both sides by arquebus troops, creating panic and disorder. Central forces would be deployed to rout the enemy. In this way, the Shimazu were able to defeat much larger clans such as Ryūzōji and Ōtomo. Overall, the Shimazu was a large and powerful clan due to their strong economy both from domestic production through trade, good organization of government and troops, strong loyalty of retainers and isolation from Honshū. Hisamitsu, regent of Tadayoshi, was the daimyō of Satsuma at the time of the Boshin War and the Meiji Restoration, in which Satsuma played a major role. Incorporates information from the Japanese Wikipedia article Shimazu Tadahisa Shimazu Tadatoki Shimazu Hisatsune Shimazu Tadamune Shimazu Sadahisa Shimazu Morohisa Shimazu Ujihisa Shimazu Yuihisa Shimazu Motohisa Shimazu Hisatoyo Shimazu Tadakuni Shimazu Tachihisa Shimazu Tadamasa Shimazu Tadaosa Shimazu Tadataka Shimazu Katsuhisa Shimazu Takahisa Shimazu Yoshihisa Shimazu Yoshihiro Shimazu Tadatsune Shimazu Mitsuhisa Shimazu Tsunataka Shimazu Yoshitaka Shimazu Tsugutoyo married Takehime from Tokugawa Family Shimazu Munenobu Shimazu Shigetoshi Shimazu Shigehide Shimazu Narinobu Shimazu Narioki Shimazu Nariakira Shimazu Tadayoshi Shimazu Tadashige Shimazu Toyohisa Shimazu Yoshihiro A Shimazu Sanehisa Shimazu Kiriyama Shimazu Shigehide The Shimazu shichi-tō comprised the seven most significant vassal families—the Niiro, Hokugō, Machida, Kawakami and Kajiki.
Ijuin Tada'aki Ijuin Tada'ao Ijuin Tadamune Ijuin Tadazane Niiro Tadamoto Yamada Arinobu Yamada Arinaga Kabayama Hisataka Saigō Takamori Shō Nei, King of Ryūkyū Shō Tai, King of Ryūkyū Shimazu is a playable nation in the grand strategy game Europa Universalis IV. Shimazu is a playable faction in Shogun 2; the main character of the Drifters anime and manga is Shimazu Toyohisa, a historical member of the Shimazu clan who perished at Sekigahara. Takako Shimazu Bombardment of Kagoshima Appert, Georges and H. Kinoshita.. Ancien Japon. Tokyo: Imprimerie Kokubunsha. OCLC 4429674 Nussbaum, Louis Frédéric and Käthe Roth.. Japan Encyclopedia. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01753-5. Okinawa, the History of an Island People. Tokyo: Tuttle Publishing. ISBN 9780804820875. Dictionnaire d'histoire et de géographie du japon. Tokyo: Librarie Sansaisha. OCLC 465662682. Sansom, George.. A History of Japan: 1615-1867. Stanford University Press. OCLC 607164037