Sapindales is an order of flowering plants. Well-known members of Sapindales include citrus; the APG III system of 2009 includes it in the clade malvids with the following nine families: Anacardiaceae Biebersteiniaceae Burseraceae Kirkiaceae Meliaceae Nitrariaceae Rutaceae Sapindaceae SimaroubaceaeThe APG II system of 2003 allowed the optional segregation of families now included in the Nitrariaceae. In the classification system of Dahlgren the Rutaceae were placed in the order Rutales, in the superorder Rutiflorae; the Cronquist system of 1981 used a somewhat different circumscription, including the following families: Staphyleaceae Melianthaceae Bretschneideraceae Akaniaceae Sapindaceae Hippocastanaceae Aceraceae Burseraceae Anacardiaceae Julianiaceae Simaroubaceae Cneoraceae Meliaceae Rutaceae ZygophyllaceaeThe difference from the APG III system is not as large as may appear, as the plants in the families Aceraceae and Hippocastanaceae stay in this order at APG III. The species now composing the family Nitrariaceae in APG III belonged to this order in the Cronquist system as part of the family Zygophyllaceae, while those now in the family Kirkiaceae were present as part of the family Simaroubaceae.
Pell, Susan Katherine. Molecular systematics of the cashew family. Department of Biological Sciences, Louisiana State University. Archived from the original on 2008-08-21
The Murcott is a tangor, or mandarin–sweet orange hybrid. The Murcott arose out of citrus pioneer Walter Tennyson Swingle's attempts to produce novel citrus hybrids, its seed parent has been identified as the King tangelo. About 1913, he gave a hybrid tree he had produced at a US Department of Agriculture planting to R. D. Hoyt at Safety Harbor, Florida. Hoyt in turn gave budwood to his nephew, Charles Murcott Smith. Smith was growing the resulting trees in 1922 at his nursery in Bayview, Pinellas County, now a neighborhood in Clearwater; the trees grow upright, but have branches bent or broken by heavy fruiting at the ends. It is grown in Florida, where it matures in January to March. Citrus scab and alternaria fungus disease attack Murcotts; the Murcott is one parent of the Clementine-like hybrid variously called the Afourer, Nadorcott or W. Murcott cultivar, the other parent being unknown
A zipper, fly, or zip fastener known as a clasp locker, is a used device for binding the edges of an opening of fabric or other flexible material, such as on a garment or a bag. It is used in clothing and other bags, sporting goods, camping gear, other items. Zippers come in all different sizes and colors. Whitcomb L. Judson, an American inventor from Chicago, is sometimes given credit as the inventor of the zipper, but he never made a practical device; the method, still in use today, is based on interlocking teeth. It was titled the “hookless fastener” and was redesigned to become more reliable; the bulk of a zipper/zip consists of two rows of protruding teeth, which may be made to interdigitate, linking the rows, carrying from tens to hundreds of specially shaped metal or plastic teeth. These teeth can be either individual or shaped from a continuous coil, are referred to as elements; the slider, operated by hand, moves along the rows of teeth. Inside the slider is a Y-shaped channel that meshes together or separates the opposing rows of teeth, depending on the direction of the slider's movement.
The word Zipper is onomatopoetic, because it was named for the sound the device makes when used, a high-pitched zip. In many jackets and similar garments, the opening is closed when the slider is at the top end; some jackets have double-separating zippers with two sliders on the tape. When the sliders are on opposite ends of the tape the jacket is closed. If the lower slider is raised the bottom part of the jacket may be opened to allow more comfortable sitting or bicycling; when both sliders are lowered the zipper may be separated. Bags and other pieces of luggage often feature two sliders on the tape: the part of the zipper between them is unfastened; when the two sliders are located next to each other, which can be at any point along the tape, the zipper is closed. Zippers may increase or decrease the size of an opening to allow or restrict the passage of objects, as in the fly of trousers or in a pocket. Join or separate two ends or sides of a single garment, as in the front of a jacket, or on the front, back or side of a dress or skirt to facilitate dressing.
Attach or detach a separable part of the garment to or from another, as in the conversion between trousers and shorts or the connection or disconnection of a hood and a coat. Attach or detach a small pouch or bag to or from a larger one. One example of this is military rucksacks which have smaller pouches or bags attached on the sides using one or two zippers. Be used to decorate an item; these variations are achieved by sewing one end of the zipper together, sewing both ends together, or allowing both ends of the zipper to fall apart. A zipper costs little, but if it fails, the garment may be unusable until the zipper is repaired or replaced—which can be quite difficult and expensive. Problems lie with the zipper slider. With separating zippers, the insertion pin may tear loose from the tape. If a zipper fails, it can either jam or break off. In 1851, Elias Howe received a patent for an "Automatic, Continuous Clothing Closure", he did not try to market it, missing recognition he might otherwise have received.
Howe's device was more like an elaborate drawstring than a true slide fastener. Forty-two years in 1893 Whitcomb Judson, who invented a pneumatic street railway, marketed a "Clasp Locker"; the device served as a hook-and-eye shoe fastener. With the support of businessman Colonel Lewis Walker, Judson launched the Universal Fastener Company to manufacture the new device; the clasp locker had its public debut at the 1893 Chicago World's Fair and met with little commercial success. Judson is sometimes given credit as the inventor of the zipper, but he never made a practical device; the Universal Fastener Company moved to Hoboken, New Jersey, in 1901, reorganized as the Fastener Manufacturing and Machine Company. Gideon Sundback, a Swedish-American electrical engineer, was hired to work for the company in 1906. Good technical skills and a marriage to the plant-manager's daughter Elvira Aronson led Sundback to the position of head designer; the company moved to Meadville, where it operated for most of the 20th century under the name Talon, Inc.
Sundback worked on improving the fastener and in 1909 he registered a patent in Germany. The US-rights to this invention were on the name of the Meadville company, but Sundback retained non-U. S. Rights and used these to set up in subsequent years Lightning Fastner Co. in St. Catharines, Ontario. Sundback's work with this firm has led to the common misperception that he was Canadian and that the zipper originated in that country. Gideon Sundback increased the number of fastening elements from four per inch to ten or eleven, introduced two facing rows of teeth that pulled into a single piece by the slider, increased the opening for the teeth guided by the slider; the patent for the "Separable Fastener" was issued in 1917. Gideon Sundback created the manufacturing machine for the new device; the "S-L" or "scrapless" machine took a special Y-shaped wire and cut scoops from it punched the scoop dimple and nib, clamped each scoop on a cloth tape to produce a continuous zipper chain. Within the first year of operation, Sundback's machinery was producing a few hundred feet of fastener per day.
In March of the same year, Mathieu Burri, a Swiss inventor, impro
Zest is a food ingredient, prepared by scraping or cutting from the outer, colorful skin of unwaxed citrus fruits such as lemon, orange and lime. Zest is used to add flavor to foods. In terms of fruit anatomy, the zest is obtained from the flavedo, referred to as zest; the flavedo and white pith of a citrus fruit together makes up its peel. The amounts of both flavedo and pith are variable among citrus fruits, may be adjusted by the manner in which they are prepared. Citrus peel may be used fresh, candied, or pickled in salt. For culinary use, a zester, vegetable peeler, paring knife, or a surform tool is used to scrape or cut zest from the fruit. Alternatively, the peel is sliced excess pith cut away; the white portion of the peel under the zest may be unpleasantly bitter and is avoided by limiting the peeling depth. Some citrus fruits have so little white mesocarp; the zest and mesocarp vary with the genetics of the fruit. Fruit with peels that are all flavedo are mandarines; the mesocarp of pummelo relatives is more bitter.
The lemon is a hybrid of pummelo and mandarin. The mesocarp is edible, is used to make succade. Zest is used to add flavor to different pastries and sweets, such as pies, cookies, puddings, confectionery and chocolate. Zest is added to certain dishes, sauces and salads. Zest is a key ingredient in a variety of sweet and sour condiments, including lemon pickle, lime chutney, marmalade. Lemon liqueurs and liquors such as Licor de oro require zest. Zest is used in some cocktails not only for flavor and aroma but for color as a garnish. For use as a cocktail garnish, zest is cut in a long spiral called a twist. Cocktails featuring a twist include Horse's Neck. For maximum flavor and aroma, as in mulled wine, zest is cut from the fruit with a knife; the fungicide enilconazole is a known carcinogen used to grow citrus crops. An exposure standard governing the outer skin of a citrus fruit would differ from an exposure standard governing the fruit pulp. Depending on the chemical present and the degree of concern, a consumer might wish to wash or scrub an item of citrus fruit prior to zesting the peel.
Fruit anatomy is the plant anatomy of the internal structure of fruit. Fruits are ovaries of one or more flowers. In fleshy fruits, the outer layer is the pericarp, the tissue that develops from the ovary wall of the flower and surrounds the seeds, but in some pericarp fruits, the edible portion is not derived from the ovary. For example, in the fruit of the ackee tree the edible portion is an aril, in the pineapple several tissues from the flower and stem are involved; the outer covering of a seed is tough. Fruits are found in three main anatomical categories: simple fruits, aggregate fruits, multiple fruits. Aggregate fruits contain many ovaries or fruitlets. Examples include blackberries. Multiple fruits are formed from the fused ovaries of multiple flowers or inflorescence. An example of multiple fruits are the fig and the pineapple. Simple fruit may contain one or many seeds, they can be either dry. In fleshy fruit, during development, the pericarp and other accessory structures become the fleshy portion of the fruit.
The types of fleshy fruits are berries and drupes. In berries, the entire pericarp is fleshy but this excludes the exocarp which acts as more as a skin. There are berries that are known as pepo, a type of berry with an inseparable rind, or hesperidium, which has a separable rind. An example of a pepo is the cucumber and a lemon would be an example of a hesperidium; the fleshy portion of the pomes is developed from the floral tube and like the berry most of the pericarp is fleshy but the endocarp is cartilaginous, an apple is an example of a pome. Lastly, drupes are known for being one seeded with a fleshy mesocarp, an example of this would be the peach. However, there are fruits were the fleshy portion is developed from tissues that are not the ovary, such as in the strawberry; the edible part of the strawberry is formed from the receptacle of the flower. Due, to this difference the strawberry is known as an accessory fruit. There is a shared method of seed dispersal within fleshy fruits; these fruits depend on animals to eat the fruits and disperse the seeds in order for their populations to survive.
Dry fruits develop from the ovary but unlike the fleshy fruits they do not depend on the mesocarp but the endocarp for seed dispersal. Dry fruits depend more like wind and water. Dry fruits' seeds can perform pod shattering, which involve the seed being ejected from the seed coat by shattering it; some dry fruits are able to perform wisteria, an extreme case where there is an explosion of the pod, resulting the seed to be dispersed over long distances. Like fleshy fruits, dry fruits can depend on animals to spread their seeds by adhering to animal's fur and skin, this is known as epizoochory. Types of dry fruits include achenes, follicles or nuts. Dry fruits can be separated into dehiscent and indehiscent fruits. Dry dehiscent fruits are described as a fruit where the pod has an increase in internal tension to allow seeds to be released; these include the sweet pea, alfalfa, mustard and poppy. Dry indehiscent fruit differ in that they do not have this mechanism and depend on physical forces. Examples of species indehiscent fruit are sunflower seeds and dandelions.
There is a wide variety in the structures of fruit across the different species of plants. Evolution has selected for certain traits in plants; this diversity arose through the selection of advantageous methods for seed protection and dispersal in different environments. It is known. A study looking at the Rubiaceae family found that within the family, fleshy fruits had evolved independently at least 12 times; this means that fleshy fruits were not passed on to following generations but that this form of fruit was selected for in different species. This may imply that fleshy fruit is a favorable and beneficial trait because not only does it disperse the seeds, but it protects them. There is a variety of dispersal methods that are used by different plants; the origins of these modes of dispersal have been found to be a more recent evolutionary change. Of the methods of dispersal, the plants that use animals have not changed in many ways from the original trait. Due to this, it may be assumed that animal dispersal is an efficient form of dispersal, however there has been no evidence that it increases dispersal distances.
Therefore, the question remains. It has been found, that simple changes within developmental regulatory genes can cause large alterations within the anatomical structure of the fruit. Without knowing the mechanism involved in the biodiversity of fruit, it is clear that this diversity is important to the continuation of plant populations. In berries and drupes, the pericarp forms the edible tissue around the seeds. In other fruits such as Citrus stone fruits only some layers of the pericarp are eaten. In accessory fruits, other tissues develop into the edible portion of the fruit instead, for example the receptacle of the flower in strawberries. In fleshy fruits, the pericarp is made up of three distinct layers: the epicarp, the outermost layer. In a citrus fruit, the epicarp and mesocarp make up the peel. In dry fruits, the layers of the pericarp are not cle
Palatka is a city in Putnam County, United States. The population was 10,558 at the 2010 census, it is the county seat of Putnam County. Palatka is the principal city of the Palatka Micropolitan Statistical Area, home to 72,893 residents; the city is home to St. Johns River State College, St. Johns River Water Management District Headquarters, Ravine Gardens State Park; the area is well known for its local festivals, most notably the Florida Azalea Festival and the Blue Crab Festival. The area was once the domain of the Timucuan peoples, two tribes of which existed in the Palatka region under chiefs Saturiwa and Utina, they fished bass and mullet, or hunted deer, turkeys and opossum. Others farmed beans, melons and tobacco. However, infectious disease that came with European contact and war devastated the tribes, they were extinct by the mid-18th century; the last people evacuated with the Spanish to Cuba in 1763, when Spain ceded Florida to Great Britain after the Seven Years' War. During the late eighteenth century, remnants of Creek and other tribes made their way to Florida.
In a process of ethnogenesis, the Seminole tribe was formed. They called the location Pilo-taikita, meaning "crossing over" or "cows' crossing". Here the St. Johns River narrows and begins a shallower, winding course upstream to Lake George and Lake Monroe. In 1767, Denys Rolle, an English gentleman and philanthropist, established Rollestown on the east bank of the St. Johns River at the head of deep-water navigation, his 78,000-acre plantation was a utopian commercial and humanitarian experiment, recruiting settlers off the streets of London, including paupers, pickpockets and "penitent prostitutes." Two hundred indentured servants arrived to clear wilderness for livestock. Unaccustomed to either hard work or a subtropical climate, they scattered. Rolle next purchased slaves from West Africa, forcing them to tend chickens, hogs and sheep, or produce cotton, indigo and turpentine for export to England, he built a mansion and laid out a village, but trouble beleaguered the "ideal society." In 1770, a disgruntled overseer sold over 1,000 of his employer's cattle and disappeared with the money.
Rolle hired new overseers and bought more slaves. When Spain resumed control of Florida in 1783, Rolle abandoned the colony and chartered a ship to carry his household belongings and slaves to a 2,000-acre estate on Great Exuma in the Bahamas; the point, in East Palatka, is still called Rollestown. With changes of sovereignty in Florida came numerous changes of ownership in Pilo-taikita, now contracted to Pilatka. In 1774, naturalist William Bartram noted an Indian village on the west bank, but it was abandoned before European Americans came to settle; the current existence of Palatka can be traced to the settlement established there in 1821. After the United States acquired Florida in 1821, Nehemiah Brush established a ferry and bought a 1,200-acre tract in 1826 and another of equal size the next year; the site became a distribution point, where goods were shipped by a New York company to supply immigrants at the Grant of Arredondo, which lay to the west. The arrival of land-hungry American settlers created confrontations with the resident Seminole.
When the government attempted to relocate the tribe to the west of the Mississippi as part of Indian Removal starting in 1833, the Second Seminole War began. The Seminole attacked and burned Pilatka in 1835. Recognizing the site's strategic importance for control of the St. Johns River, the main artery into Central Florida, the US Army in 1838 established Fort Shannon, named for Captain Samuel Shannon, it included supply depot and hospital. During 1842 the Seminole were driven from the area, Fort Shannon was abandoned by the army in 1843. Settlers made use of the military piers and buildings, including eight blockhouses, to develop the town. By 1847, it was growing rapidly. In 1849, Putnam County was created, with Pilatka the county seat. With the help of Judge Isaac H. Bronson, it was incorporated as a city on January 8, 1853. During the 1850s, Florida in general and Pilatka in particular gained a reputation as a haven for invalids escaping northern winters. Steamboats carried them up the river in increasing numbers.
One visitor wrote that amusements included "sailing, rowing, riding in buggies and on horseback, euchre and hunting." The tourist trend was interrupted by the Civil War, when gunboats cruised the waters and Pilatka was destitute and deserted. On October 7, 1862, the USS Cimarron fired several shells over the town after seeing some Confederate cavalry. Mary Boyd pleaded with Union Commander Maxwell Woodhull to spare Pilatka, assuring him that the horse soldiers were not residents, he complied. Among the notable residents of Pilatka during the war was Confederate spy Lola Sánchez and her sisters. Sánchez became upset when their father was falsely accused of being a Confederate spy by the members of the Union Army and imprisoned. Officers of the Union Army occupied their residence in Palatka, Florida. On one occasion Sánchez overheard various officers’ planning a raid and alerted the Confederates forces; as a result, the Confederate forces, led by Capt. John Jackson Dickison and captured the Union troops on the day of the supposed raid in what is known as the Battle of Horse Landing.
Following the war, tourists returned to find new hotels, including the Putnam House, built by Hubbard L. Hart, the Larkin House, which had accommodations for 250 guests. Steamers ran up the Ocklawaha River to Eustis and Silver Springs, or the St. Johns River to Enterprise and S
In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants formed from the ovary after flowering. Fruits are the means. Edible fruits, in particular, have propagated with the movements of humans and animals in a symbiotic relationship as a means for seed dispersal and nutrition. Accordingly, fruits account for a substantial fraction of the world's agricultural output, some have acquired extensive cultural and symbolic meanings. In common language usage, "fruit" means the fleshy seed-associated structures of a plant that are sweet or sour, edible in the raw state, such as apples, grapes, lemons and strawberries. On the other hand, in botanical usage, "fruit" includes many structures that are not called "fruits", such as bean pods, corn kernels and wheat grains; the section of a fungus that produces spores is called a fruiting body. Many common terms for seeds and fruit do not correspond to the botanical classifications. In culinary terminology, a fruit is any sweet-tasting plant part a botanical fruit.
However, in botany, a fruit is the ripened ovary or carpel that contains seeds, a nut is a type of fruit and not a seed, a seed is a ripened ovule. Examples of culinary "vegetables" and nuts that are botanically fruit include corn, eggplant, sweet pepper, tomato. In addition, some spices, such as allspice and chili pepper, are fruits. In contrast, rhubarb is referred to as a fruit, because it is used to make sweet desserts such as pies, though only the petiole of the rhubarb plant is edible, edible gymnosperm seeds are given fruit names, e.g. ginkgo nuts and pine nuts. Botanically, a cereal grain, such as corn, rice, or wheat, is a kind of fruit, termed a caryopsis. However, the fruit wall is thin and is fused to the seed coat, so all of the edible grain is a seed; the outer edible layer, is the pericarp, formed from the ovary and surrounding the seeds, although in some species other tissues contribute to or form the edible portion. The pericarp may be described in three layers from outer to inner, the epicarp and endocarp.
Fruit that bears a prominent pointed terminal projection is said to be beaked. A fruit results from maturation of one or more flowers, the gynoecium of the flower forms all or part of the fruit. Inside the ovary/ovaries are one or more ovules where the megagametophyte contains the egg cell. After double fertilization, these ovules will become seeds; the ovules are fertilized in a process that starts with pollination, which involves the movement of pollen from the stamens to the stigma of flowers. After pollination, a tube grows from the pollen through the stigma into the ovary to the ovule and two sperm are transferred from the pollen to the megagametophyte. Within the megagametophyte one of the two sperm unites with the egg, forming a zygote, the second sperm enters the central cell forming the endosperm mother cell, which completes the double fertilization process; the zygote will give rise to the embryo of the seed, the endosperm mother cell will give rise to endosperm, a nutritive tissue used by the embryo.
As the ovules develop into seeds, the ovary begins to ripen and the ovary wall, the pericarp, may become fleshy, or form a hard outer covering. In some multiseeded fruits, the extent to which the flesh develops is proportional to the number of fertilized ovules; the pericarp is differentiated into two or three distinct layers called the exocarp and endocarp. In some fruits simple fruits derived from an inferior ovary, other parts of the flower, fuse with the ovary and ripen with it. In other cases, the sepals, petals and/or stamens and style of the flower fall off; when such other floral parts are a significant part of the fruit, it is called an accessory fruit. Since other parts of the flower may contribute to the structure of the fruit, it is important to study flower structure to understand how a particular fruit forms. There are three general modes of fruit development: Apocarpous fruits develop from a single flower having one or more separate carpels, they are the simplest fruits. Syncarpous fruits develop from a single gynoecium having two or more carpels fused together.
Multiple fruits form from many different flowers. Plant scientists have grouped fruits into three main groups, simple fruits, aggregate fruits, composite or multiple fruits; the groupings are not evolutionarily relevant, since many diverse plant taxa may be in the same group, but reflect how the flower organs are arranged and how the fruits develop. Simple fruits can be either dry or fleshy, result from the ripening of a simple or compound ovary in a flower with only one pistil. Dry fruits may be either dehiscent, or indehiscent. Types of dry, simple fruits, examples of each, include: achene – most seen in aggregate fruits capsule – caryopsis – cypsela – an achene-like fruit derived from the individual florets in a capitulum. Fibrous drupe – follicle – is formed from a single carpel, opens by one suture