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Tankōbon is the Japanese term for a book, complete in itself and is not part of a series or corpus. In modern Japan, though, it is most used in reference to individual volumes of a single manga, as opposed to magazines, which feature multiple series; the largest imprint labels for manga tankōbon publications include Jump Comics, Shōnen Sunday Comics, Shōnen Magazine Comics. After 1959, manga came to be published in thick, phone-book-sized weekly or monthly anthology manga magazines; these anthologies have hundreds of pages and dozens of individual series by multiple authors. They are printed on cheap newsprint and are considered disposable. Since the 1930s though, comic strips had been compiled into tankōbon collecting multiple installments from a single series and reprints them in a paperback-sized volume on higher quality paper than in the original magazine printing. Strips in manga magazines and tankobon are printed in black and white, but sometimes certain sections may be printed in color, or using colored inks or paper.

In English, while a tankōbon translation is marketed as a "graphic novel" or "trade paperback", the transliterated terms tankoubon and tankōbon are sometimes used amongst online communities. Japanese people refer to manga tankōbon by the English loanword "comics", although it is more widespread for being used in place of the word "manga", as they are the same thing; the term refers to the format itself—a comic collection in a trade paperback sized book. Although Japanese manga tankobon may be in various sizes, the most common are Japanese B6 and ISO A5; the tankōbon format has made inroads in the American comics market, with several major publishers opting to release some of their titles in this smaller format, sometimes called "digest format" or "digest size". In the United States, many manga are released in the so-called "Tokyopop trim" or "Tokyopop size". An aizōban is a collector's edition volume; these volumes are more expensive and lavished with special features such as special covers created for the edition, special paper used for the cover, higher quality paper, a special slipcase, so on.

Aizōban are printed in a limited run, thereby increasing the value and collectability of those few copies made. The aizōban format has begun to make inroads into the US market, with titles such as Fruits Basket, Rurouni Kenshin and Mobile Suit Gundam: The Origin being reissued in aizōban format. Only the most popular manga are released in this format. A bunkoban edition refers to a tankōbon printed in bunko format, or a typical Japanese novel-sized volume. Bunkoban are A6 size and thicker than tankōbon and, in the case of manga have a new cover designed for the release. In the case of manga, a bunkoban tends to contain more pages than a tankōbon and is a republication of tankōbon of the same title which may or may not have been out of print. Thus, the bunko edition of a given manga will consist of fewer volumes. For example, Please Save My Earth was published in 21 tankōbon volumes, re-released in 12 bunko volumes. If the original manga was a wide-ban release, the bunkoban release will have the same number of volumes.

The term is abbreviated in Japanese to just bunko. The kanzenban is another term sometimes used to denote this kind of a special release. A kanzenban release is A5 size and will reproduce individual chapter covers, color pages, side-stories from its original magazine run, features that are omitted or converted to grayscale in standard tankōbon releases. While the aizōban appellation emphasizes the value of the volumes, the term kanzenban emphasizes their completeness, though it is generally reserved for popular manga such as Dragon Ball. Similar to a wide-ban, a shinsōban is a new edition released with a new cover; the volumes in such a release have new color pages and other extras. For example, in 2002, Sailor Moon was reedited. Plus, the chapters were redivided to fit into 12 volumes instead of 18; the sōshūhen is a new format published by Shueisha beginning in 2008. A sōshūhen edition is B5 size, larger than a kanzenban, reproduces chapter covers and color pages while including a variety of bonus features such as posters and interviews.

The majority of sōshūhen releases are for popular manga with ongoing serializations. They contain far more pages than a standard tankōbon and thus feature more chapters in fewer volumes. A wide-ban or waidoban edition is larger than a regular tankōbon. Many manga seinen and josei manga, are published in wide-ban editions after magazine serialization, are never released in the tankōbon format, common in shōnen manga and shōjo manga; when a series published in tankōbon format is re-released in wide-ban format, each volume will contain more pages than in the original ed


A nephelescope is a device invented by James Pollard Espy to measure the drop in temperature of a gas from a reduction in pressure. The original design consisted of an air compression pump, a vessel, a barometer. Air is pumped into the vessel until a desired pressure is reached, the stopclock is closed and the temperature allowed to equilibriate; the stopclock is opened, allowing the pressure of the container to equilibriate the atmosphere, closed again. The air inside of the container would now be colder; as it warms up, pressure inside the container once again increases above atmosphere. This increase in pressure can be used to work out the number of degrees which the container had been cooled by. A design consisted of an air pump receiver connected to a flask by an intervening stopclock. Air was pumped out of the receiver the stopclock was opened. One advantage of using negative pressure was that a glass vessel could be used, which allowed the observation of condensation and droplets resulting from the drop in temperature.

To observe this in a dry atmosphere, air would have needed to first be moistened by exposure to water. The nephelescope enabled Epsy to predict the change in heat of air, he showed that when dry air was used instead of moist air, temperature was reduced by about twice as much as moist air. In other words, latent heat released from the condensation of water mitigated some of the cooling from expansion of moist air. Since moist air is lighter than dry air, the warmer and lighter moist air in clouds would continue to rise and cool, forcing more vapor to condense, which had consequences for meteorological theories at that time; the nephelescope has been described as an "early cloud-chamber"

2019 Women's Cricket Super League

The 2019 Women's Cricket Super League, or 2019 Kia Super League for sponsorship reasons, is the fourth and final season of the Women's Cricket Super League, the semi-professional women's cricket competition in England and Wales. The competition, run by the England and Wales Cricket Board, consisted of six franchise teams playing in a Women's Twenty20 format; the tournament will be replaced by Women's Hundred tournament from the next season. The Surrey Stars are the defending champions. Western Storm defeated Southern Vipers by 6 wickets to win the 2019 title. Six teams competed for the T20 title from 6 August to 1 September 2019; the six teams played each other twice in a round robin format. The 2nd and 3rd team played the semi-final. Both semi-final and final were held on finals day at the County Cricket Ground in Sussex. Teams get 4 points for a win and a bonus point if their run rate is 1.25 times that of the opposition. Advanced to Final advanced to the Semi-final Win with bonus point: 5 points Win without bonus point: 4 points No Result/Tied: 2 points each Loss: 0 pointsSource Highest Score by a team: Yorkshire Diamonds − 185/6 vs Southern Vipers Lowest Score by a team: Surrey Stars − 89 vs Southern Vipers Most runs: Danielle Wyatt − 466 runs in 12 innings Most Wickets: Freya Davies − 19 wickets in 11 innings Top Score by an individual: Jemimah Rodrigues − 112* vs Southern Vipers Best Bowling figures by an individual: Leigh Kasperek − 4/16 vs Southern Vipers Official Website Tournament homepage at ESPNcricinfo Tournament homepage at CricBuzz

Anatoly Derevyanko

Anatoly Derevyanko — is a Soviet/Russian historian, scientist in the field of Siberian and Far East`s Paleolith. In 1963 he graduated from Blagoveschensk State Pedagogical University. Derevyanko is one of the youngest Doctors of Historical Sciences in USSR, he got a degree in 1971, being 28 years old, for his doctoral thesis «Amur River Region in Antiquity ». Anatoly Derevyanko is the prize-winner of several awards, such as State Prize of the Russian Federation, The Demidov Prize, The Lomonosov Gold Medal. Derevyanko has developed the new spatiotemporal version of initial ways of Asia`s settlement, created a periodization and dynamics of Paleolith in the region, he is the head of programme, dedicated to the compound research of paleolithic spelaean monuments in South Siberia and Central Asia. Anatoly Derevyanko was the chancellor of Novosibirsk State University for two years

2011 Republican National Committee chairmanship election

The 2011 Republican National Committee chairmanship election was held on January 14, 2011, to determine the next chairman of the RNC, to serve a two-year term ending in 2013 and will lead the party through the 2012 general elections. After seven rounds of balloting, Reince Priebus was elected chairman over incumbent chair Michael Steele, Saul Anuzis, Ann Wagner and Maria Cino. Priebus won re-election with near unanimity in the party's 2013 meeting in Charlotte, North Carolina, he was re-elected to a third term in 2015, setting him up to become the longest serving head of the party ever. Saul Anuzis, National Chairman for the Save American Jobs Project, former Michigan Republican Party Chairman Maria Cino, Political Director of George Bush's 2000 Campaign Reince Priebus, Chairman of the Republican Party of Wisconsin Michael Steele, incumbent Committee Chairman, former Lieutenant Governor of Maryland Ann Wagner, former United States Ambassador to Luxembourg, former Missouri Republican Party ChairmanFormer candidates who withdrew before voting beganGentry Collins, Former Political Director of the RNC, withdrew on January 2, 2010 Gary Emineth, Chairman of the North Dakota Republican Party December 13, 2010 – Incumbent Chair Steele announces bid for re-election.

January 3, 2011 – Candidate debate held by Americans for Tax Reform at the National Press Club January 14, 2011 – Election held by party voting members in Washington, D. C. A debate among the candidates hosted by Americans for Tax Reform took place on January 3, 2011 at the National Press Club. Anuzis, Priebus and Wagner participated in the debate. Republican Committee Chair Debate, C-SPAN, January 3, 2011, full video A poll by the National Journal, released on January 13, 2011, showed Priebus in the lead with 40 committed votes out of 168, Steele 17, Wagner 15, Anuzis 14, Cino 12. With 168 voting members of the RNC, 85 votes were required to win the chairmanship. Candidate won majority of votes in the round Candidate secured a plurality of votes in the round Candidate withdrew

Sevgi Salmanlı

Sevgi Salmanlı is a Turkish women's football forward playing in the Turkish Women's First Football League for Beşiktaş J. K. in Istanbul with jersey number 99. She was a member of the Turkey women's national team. Sevi Salmanlı was born in Küçükçekmece, Istanbul Province, Turkey on November 21, 1993, she was raised as a boy. Salmanlı is of Albanian origin, she studies in Edirne. Salmanlı began football playing with boys on the street at a young age, enjoyed striking a goal by dribbling fast, she liked to continue as a footballer. She was supported in her interest for football playing by her mother, who took her for registration in a club. Salmanlı obtained her license from Zeytinburnuspor on April 27, 2010, she played one game each for Zeytinburnuspor in the 2009–10 and for her high school team altınşehir Lisesi Spor in the 2010–11 Second League. In the 2011–12 season, she transferred to Bakırköy Zara, which played in the Second League. After two and half seasons, Salmanlı joined Kireçburnu Spor in the second half of the 2013–14 Second League season.

Her team finished the 2014–15 season as winner, was promoted to the First League. She plays in the left wing position. Salmanlı was transferred by the 2018–19 Women's First League champion Beşiktaş J. K. to play in the 2019–20 UEFA Women's Champions League - Group 9 matches. Salmanlı was admitted to the Turkey national team, debuted internationally in the match against Romania at the 2017 Goldencity Women's Cup held in Antalya, Turkey on March 1, she capped twice for the nationals. As of match played January 11, 2020. Turkish Women's Second League Kireçburnu Spor Winners: 2014–15