Universal Pictures is an American film studio owned by Comcast through the Universal Filmed Entertainment Group division of its wholly owned subsidiary NBCUniversal. Founded in 1912 by Carl Laemmle, Mark Dintenfass, Charles O. Baumann, Adam Kessel, Pat Powers, William Swanson, David Horsley, Robert H. Cochrane, Jules Brulatour, it is the oldest surviving film studio in the United States, the world's fifth oldest after Gaumont, Pathé, Nordisk Film, the oldest member of Hollywood's "Big Five" studios in terms of the overall film market, its studios are located in Universal City and its corporate offices are located in New York City. Universal Pictures is a member of the Motion Picture Association of America, was one of the "Little Three" majors during Hollywood's golden age. Universal Studios was founded by Carl Laemmle, Mark Dintenfass, Charles O. Baumann, Adam Kessel, Pat Powers, William Swanson, David Horsley, Robert H. Cochrane and Jules Brulatour. One story has Laemmle watching a box office for hours, counting patrons and calculating the day's takings.
Within weeks of his Chicago trip, Laemmle gave up dry goods to buy the first several nickelodeons. For Laemmle and other such entrepreneurs, the creation in 1908 of the Edison-backed Motion Picture Trust meant that exhibitors were expected to pay fees for Trust-produced films they showed. Based on the Latham Loop used in cameras and projectors, along with other patents, the Trust collected fees on all aspects of movie production and exhibition, attempted to enforce a monopoly on distribution. Soon and other disgruntled nickelodeon owners decided to avoid paying Edison by producing their own pictures. In June 1909, Laemmle started the Yankee Film Company with partners Abe Julius Stern; that company evolved into the Independent Moving Pictures Company, with studios in Fort Lee, New Jersey, where many early films in America's first motion picture industry were produced in the early 20th century. Laemmle broke with Edison's custom of refusing to give screen credits to performers. By naming the movie stars, he attracted many of the leading players of the time, contributing to the creation of the star system.
In 1910, he promoted Florence Lawrence known as "The Biograph Girl", actor King Baggot, in what may be the first instance of a studio using stars in its marketing. The Universal Film Manufacturing Company was incorporated in New York on April 30, 1912. Laemmle, who emerged as president in July 1912, was the primary figure in the partnership with Dintenfass, Kessel, Swanson and Brulatour. All would be bought out by Laemmle; the new Universal studio was a vertically integrated company, with movie production and exhibition venues all linked in the same corporate entity, the central element of the Studio system era. Following the westward trend of the industry, by the end of 1912 the company was focusing its production efforts in the Hollywood area. On March 15, 1915, Laemmle opened the world's largest motion picture production facility, Universal City Studios, on a 230-acre converted farm just over the Cahuenga Pass from Hollywood. Studio management became the third facet of Universal's operations, with the studio incorporated as a distinct subsidiary organization.
Unlike other movie moguls, Laemmle opened his studio to tourists. Universal became the largest studio in Hollywood, remained so for a decade. However, it sought an audience in small towns, producing inexpensive melodramas and serials. In its early years Universal released three brands of feature films—Red Feather, low-budget programmers. Directors included Jack Conway, John Ford, Rex Ingram, Robert Z. Leonard, George Marshall and Lois Weber, one of the few women directing films in Hollywood. Despite Laemmle's role as an innovator, he was an cautious studio chief. Unlike rivals Adolph Zukor, William Fox, Marcus Loew, Laemmle chose not to develop a theater chain, he financed all of his own films, refusing to take on debt. This policy nearly bankrupted the studio when actor-director Erich von Stroheim insisted on excessively lavish production values for his films Blind Husbands and Foolish Wives, but Universal shrewdly gained a return on some of the expenditure by launching a sensational ad campaign that attracted moviegoers.
Character actor Lon Chaney became a drawing card for Universal in the 1920s, appearing in dramas. His two biggest hits for Universal were The Phantom of the Opera. During this period Laemmle entrusted most of the production policy decisions to Irving Thalberg. Thalberg had been Laemmle's personal secretary, Laemmle was impressed by his cogent observations of how efficiently the studio could be operated. Promoted to studio chief, Thalberg was giving Universal's product a touch of class, but MGM's head of production Louis B. Mayer lured Thalberg away from Universal with a promise of better pay. Without his guidance Universal became a second-tier studio, would remain so for several decades. In 1926, Universal opened a production unit in Germany, Deutsche Universal-Film AG, under the direction of Joe Pasternak; this unit produced three to four films per year until 1936, migrating to Hungary and Austria in the face of Hitler's increasing domination of central Europe. With the advent of sound, these productions were made in the German language or Hungarian or Polish.
In the U. S. Universal Pictures did not distribute any of this subsidiary's films, but at least some of them were exhibited through othe
Zebulon is a city in Pike County, United States. The population was 1,181 at the 2000 census; the city is the county seat of Pike County. The city and county were named after explorer Zebulon Pike. Zebulon was incorporated in 1825; the town was named after a war hero and explorer. Singer/Songwriter Vic Chesnutt grew up in Zebulon. Vic was ranked as the #5 living songwriter by NPR in 2006. Zebulon is located at 33°5′56″N 84°20′32″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 3.5 square miles, of which 3.5 square miles is land and 0.04 square mile is water. Soils in Zebulon have dark reddish brown loamy surface horizons over red to dark red clay and are mapped as Davidson or Lloyd series; as of the census of 2000, there were 1,181 people, 464 households, 324 families residing in the city. The population density was 338.0 people per square mile. There were 499 housing units at an average density of 142.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 60.12% White, 36.92% African American, 0.08% Native American, 1.27% Asian, 0.68% from other races, 0.93% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.95% of the population. There were 464 households out of which 36.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.1% were married couples living together, 22.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.0% were non-families. 27.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.50 and the average family size was 3.06. In the city, the population was spread out with 28.4% under the age of 18, 9.7% from 18 to 24, 28.6% from 25 to 44, 20.0% from 45 to 64, 13.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females, there were 84.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 76.3 males. The median income for a household in the city was $29,125, the median income for a family was $35,333. Males had a median income of $25,804 versus $19,479 for females; the per capita income for the city was $12,772. About 12.8% of families and 15.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.8% of those under age 18 and 27.1% of those age 65 or over.
The Pike County School District serves Zebulon. The school district has one Pre-K building, one primary school, one elementary school, one middle school, a ninth grade academy and two high schools; the district has 156 full-time teachers and over 2,800 students. Pike County Pre-Kindergarten Pike County Primary School Pike County Elementary School Pike County Middle School Pike County 9th Grade Academy Pike County High School Zebulon High School
G. D. Spradlin
Gervase Duan "G. D." Spradlin was an American actor. Known for his distinctive accent and voice, he played devious authority figures, he is credited in over 70 television and film productions, performed alongside actors including Marlon Brando, Al Pacino, James Garner, Charlton Heston, George C. Scott, Johnny Depp. Spradlin was born August 1920, in Pauls Valley, Oklahoma, his parents both worked as schoolteachers. Spradlin obtained his bachelor's degree in Education from the University of Oklahoma, he was a member of the Delta Chi Fraternity. He served in the United States Army Air Force during World War II, where he was stationed in China. Following World War II, Spradlin returned to the University of Oklahoma, where he completed a law degree in 1948, he first began his career as an attorney working in Venezuela and became an independent oil producer forming Rouge Oil Company. Before he turned to acting he was active in local politics campaigning for John F. Kennedy in 1959, he joined the Oklahoma Repertory Theatre in 1964.
A notable break for Spradlin resulted from his work in television in the 1960s. Fred Roos had cast Spradlin in such television shows as I Spy and Gomer Pyle, U. S. M. C.. Spradlin portrayed Commander Maurice E. "Germany" Curts, Communications Officer, U. S. Pacific Fleet, in an uncredited role in Tora! Tora! Tora! in 1970. He was in the late Sixties counter -culture film Zabriskie Point, he worked with Jack Webb on the series Dragnet, playing multiple roles from a safecracker to a low-level con man. When Roos co-produced The Godfather Part II, he recommended Spradlin to play the role of a corrupt U. S. Senator from Nevada, Senator Pat Geary, he played a senator in the 1976 TV miniseries Rich Man, Poor Man Book II. Among his film credits are One on Apocalypse Now, he played the head football coach B. A. Strother in North Dallas Forty, "Carolina Military Institute" commandant General Durrell in the 1983 movie The Lords of Discipline, a conspirator in the attempted assassination of a state governor in Nick of Time, a minister in Ed Wood, the President of the United States in The Long Kiss Goodnight.
In 1984 Spradlin played a villainous Southern sheriff in Tank. In 1986, he starred in the miniseries Dream West. In 1988, he played Admiral Raymond A. Spruance in the miniseries Remembrance. In 1989, Spradlin played a small role in the film The War of the Roses as a divorce lawyer, with Michael Douglas and Kathleen Turner. Spradlin retired from acting after Dick, in which he played Ben Bradlee, he reprised his role as Pat Geary in Electronic Arts' video game adaptation of The Godfather Part II in 2009. Spradlin played the role of Bishop Dyer in a TV adaption of the 1912 novel Riders of the Purple Sage. Spradlin died of natural causes at his cattle ranch in San Luis Obispo, California, on July 24, 2011, at the age of 90, his first wife, with whom he had two daughters, died in 2000. He was survived by his second wife, Frances Hendrickson, whom he married in 2002. G. D. Spradlin on IMDb G. D. Spradlin at Find a Grave
James Oliver Cromwell is an American actor. Some of his more notable films include Babe, Star Trek: First Contact, L. A. Confidential, The Green Mile, Space Cowboys, The Sum of All Fears, I, The Longest Yard, The Queen, W. Secretariat, The Artist, Big Hero 6, Marshall, as well as the television series Angels in America, Six Feet Under, American Horror Story: Asylum, Boardwalk Empire and Catch Fire, The Young Pope and Counterpart Cromwell has been nominated for four Primetime Emmy Awards and four Screen Actors Guild Awards, as well as the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor for Babe, he won a Primetime Emmy Award for his role in American Horror Story: Asylum and a Canadian Screen Award for his role in Still Mine. Cromwell was born in Los Angeles and raised in Manhattan, New York, he is the son of actress Kay Johnson and actor and director John Cromwell, blacklisted during the McCarthy era. He has English, German and Scottish ancestry, he was educated at The Hill School, Middlebury College, Carnegie Mellon University, where he studied architecture until he left to pursue acting.
He received his acting training at HB Studio in New York City. Like his parents, he was drawn to the theatre, performing in everything from Shakespeare to experimental plays. Cromwell's first television performance was in a 1974 episode of The Rockford Files playing Terry, a tennis instructor. A few weeks he began a recurring role as Stretch Cunningham on All in the Family. In 1975, he took his first lead role on television as Bill Lewis in the short-lived Hot l Baltimore, appeared on M*A*S*H as Captain Leo Bardonaro, in the episode "Last Laugh" in Season 6 and a year he made his film debut in Neil Simon's classic detective spoof Murder by Death. In 1980, Cromwell guest-starred in the two-part episode "Laura Ingalls Wilder" of the long-running television series Little House on the Prairie, he played one of Almanzo Wilder's old friends. While Cromwell continued with regular television work throughout the 1980s, he made appearances in films for his supporting roles in the films Tank and Revenge of the Nerds.
He guest starred on the sitcom Night Court, playing a mental patient, along with Predator actor Kevin Peter Hall. He had starring roles in the 1990s critically acclaimed films Babe, The People vs. Larry Flynt, The Education of Little Tree, L. A. Confidential, The Green Mile, Snow Falling on Cedars, he played Dr. Zefram Cochrane in Star Trek: First Contact and the Star Trek: Enterprise pilot episode "Broken Bow". Appearing in other Star Trek roles on the television series The Next Generation and Deep Space Nine, though not as Cochran, Cromwell guest-starred in several episodes, including "The Hunted", "Birthright" and "Starship Down", he voiced The Colonel in Dreamworks' Spirit: Stallion of the Cimarron. Cromwell has had additional successes on television throughout his career, his role as newspaper tycoon William Randolph Hearst in the television film RKO 281 earned him an Emmy Award nomination for Outstanding Supporting Actor in a Television Movie. The following year, he received his second Emmy Award nomination for playing Bishop Lionel Stewart on the NBC medical drama series ER.
In 2004, he guest-starred as former President D. Wire Newman in The West Wing episode "The Stormy Present". From 2003 to 2005, Cromwell played George Sibley in the HBO drama series Six Feet Under, which earned him his third Emmy Award nomination in 2003. Along with the rest of his castmates, he was nominated for two Screen Actors Guild Award for Best Ensemble in a Drama Series in 2005 and 2006; the following year, Cromwell played Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh in The Queen, that earned Helen Mirren an Academy Award for Best Actress. He guest starred as Phillip Bauer, father of lead character Jack, in the sixth season of the Fox thriller drama series 24. In October 2007, Cromwell played the lead role of James Tyrone Sr. in the Druid Theatre Company's production of Eugene O'Neill's Long Day's Journey into Night, at the Gaiety in Dublin as part of the Ulster Bank Dublin Theatre Festival's 50th Anniversary. That same year he received the King Vidor Memorial Award from the San Luis Obispo International Film Festival for his artistic achievements in film.
More Cromwell played George Herbert Walker Bush in Oliver Stone's W. that chronicles the rise to power of his son up until the 2003 invasion of Iraq. In an interview, Cromwell revealed that Stone had offered the role to Warren Beatty and Harrison Ford. Cromwell provided the voice of the main villain Professor Robert Callaghan/Yokai in the Disney movie Big Hero 6. In 2016 Cromwell starred in HBO's series The Young Pope alongside Jude Law, Diane Keaton. In 2018, he appeared in HBO's Succession, Showtime's Counterpart. Cromwell was married to Ann Ulvestad from 1976 until their divorce in 1986. Cromwell married his second wife, actress Julie Cobb, on May 29, 1986. On January 1, 2014, Cromwell married actress Anna Stuart at the home of Stuart's former Another World co-star Charles Keating, he resides in Wawayanda, New York, dividing his time between New York and Los Angeles, California. Cromwell is known for his tall stature.
Robin Hood is a legendary heroic outlaw depicted in English folklore and subsequently featured in literature and film. According to legend, he was a skilled archer and swordsman. In some versions of the legend, he is depicted as being of noble birth, in modern time he is sometimes depicted as having fought in the Crusades before returning to England to find his lands taken by the Sheriff. In the oldest known versions he is instead a member of the yeoman class. Traditionally depicted dressed in Lincoln green, he is said to have robbed from the rich and given to the poor. Through retellings and variations a body of familiar characters associated with Robin Hood have been created; these include his lover, Maid Marian, his band of outlaws, the Merry Men, his chief opponent, the Sheriff of Nottingham. The Sheriff is depicted as assisting Prince John in usurping the rightful but absent King Richard, to whom Robin Hood remains loyal, his partisanship of the common people and his hostility to the Sheriff of Nottingham are early recorded features of the legend but his interest in the rightfulness of the king is not, neither is his setting in the reign of Richard I.
He became a popular folk figure in the Late Middle Ages, the earliest known ballads featuring him are from the 15th century. There have been numerous variations and adaptations of the story over the last six hundred years, the story continues to be represented in literature and television. Robin Hood is considered one of the best known tales of English folklore; the historicity of Robin Hood has been debated for centuries. There are numerous references to historical figures with similar names that have been proposed as possible evidence of his existence, some dating back to the late 13th century. At least eight plausible origins to the story have been mooted by historians and folklorists, including suggestions that "Robin Hood" was a stock alias used by or in reference to bandits; the first clear reference to'rhymes of Robin Hood' is from the alliterative poem Piers Plowman, thought to have been composed in the 1370s, but the earliest surviving copies of the narrative ballads that tell his story date to the second half of the 15th century, or the first decade of the 16th century.
In these early accounts, Robin Hood's partisanship of the lower classes, his devotion to the Virgin Mary and associated special regard for women, his outstanding skill as an archer, his anti-clericalism, his particular animosity towards the Sheriff of Nottingham are clear. Little John, Much the Miller's Son and Will Scarlet all appear, although not yet Maid Marian or Friar Tuck; the latter has been part of the legend since at least the 15th century, when he is mentioned in a Robin Hood play script. In modern popular culture, Robin Hood is seen as a contemporary and supporter of the late-12th-century king Richard the Lionheart, Robin being driven to outlawry during the misrule of Richard's brother John while Richard was away at the Third Crusade; this view first gained currency in the 16th century. It is not supported by the earliest ballads; the early compilation, A Gest of Robyn Hode, names the king as'Edward'. The oldest surviving ballad, Robin Hood and the Monk, gives less support to the picture of Robin Hood as a partisan of the true king.
The setting of the early ballads is attributed by scholars to either the 13th century or the 14th, although it is recognised they are not historically consistent. The early ballads are quite clear on Robin Hood's social status: he is a yeoman. While the precise meaning of this term changed over time, including free retainers of an aristocrat and small landholders, it always referred to commoners; the essence of it in the present context was'neither a knight nor a peasant or "husbonde" but something in between'. Artisans were among those regarded as'yeomen' in the 14th century. From the 16th century on, there were attempts to elevate Robin Hood to the nobility and in two influential plays, Anthony Munday presented him at the end of the 16th century as the Earl of Huntingdon, as he is still presented in modern times; as well as ballads, the legend was transmitted by'Robin Hood games' or plays that were an important part of the late medieval and early modern May Day festivities. The first record of a Robin Hood game was in 1426 in Exeter, but the reference does not indicate how old or widespread this custom was at the time.
The Robin Hood games are known to have flourished in the 15th and 16th centuries. It is stated as fact that Maid Marian and a jolly friar entered the legend through the May Games; the earliest surviving text of a Robin Hood ballad is the 15th-century "Robin Hood and the Monk". This is preserved in Cambridge University manuscript Ff.5.48. Written after 1450, it contains many of the elements still associated with the legend, from the Nottingham setting to the bitter enmity between Robin and the local sheriff; the first printed version is A Gest of Robyn Hode, a collection of separate stories that attempts to unite the episodes into a single continuous narrative. After this comes "Robin Hood and the Potter", contained in a manuscript of c. 1503. "The Potter" is markedly different in tone from "The Monk": whereas the earlier tale is'a thriller' the latter is more comic, its plot involving trickery and cunning rather than straightforward force. Other early texts are dramatic pieces, the earliest being the fragmentary Robyn Hod and the Shryff off Notyngham.
Panzerschreck was the popular name for the Raketenpanzerbüchse 54, an 88 mm calibre reusable anti-tank rocket launcher developed by Nazi Germany in World War II. Another earlier, official common name was Ofenrohr; the Panzerschreck was designed as a lightweight infantry anti-tank weapon and was an enlarged copy of the American bazooka. The weapon fired a fin-stabilized rocket with a shaped-charge warhead, it was made in smaller numbers than the Panzerfaust, a disposable recoilless gun firing an anti-tank warhead. The Panzerschreck development was based on American bazookas captured in Tunisia, February 1943; the Panzerschreck was larger and heavier than its American counterpart - the Panzerschreck had an 88 mm calibre, compared to the 60 mm calibre of the bazooka - which meant that it could penetrate thicker armor, but it produced more smoke when firing. Calibre 88 mm was selected as existing RPzB. Gr. 4312 for 8.8 cm Raketenwerfer 43 was reused for Panzerschreck. Warhead and fuzing was carried over, but the rocket motor's housing needed lengthening from 490 mm to 650 mm to accommodate the longer rocket motor.
Raketenwerfer 43 had percussion firing, whereas for Panzerschreck an electrical priming was selected, forming standard grenade RPzB. Gr. 4322. Other munitions were developed, including drill dummy, practice live rocket with inert warhead and standard grenade with improved contact system; the earliest production model of the RPzB 54 was 164 centimetres long and weighed about 9.25 kilograms when empty. Unlike the rockets used in American bazookas which extinguished before leaving the tube, the RPzB rockets kept burning for about 2 meters after exiting the tube. Users were instructed to wear heavy gloves, a protective poncho and a gas mask without a filter to protect them from the heat of the backblast when the weapon was fired. Improvised shields were made to protect the user and in February 1944, the RPzB 54 was fitted with an official blast shield to protect the operator which made the weapon heavier, weighing 11 kilograms empty. Small numbers of the shortened RPzB 54/1 were produced, it had an improved rocket, a shorter barrel, a range increased to about 180 meters.
Firing the RPzB generated a lot of smoke both in front of and behind the weapon. Because of the weapon's tube and the smoke, official documentation named the weapon the Ofenrohr; this meant that anti-tank teams were revealed once they fired, making them targets and, required them to shift positions after firing. This type of system made it problematic to fire the weapon from inside closed spaces, filling the room with toxic smoke and revealing the firing location immediately. Late war German tactical doctrine called for Panzerschreck and/or Panzerfaust teams to set up in staggered trenches no further than 115 metres apart. In this way, attacking armor would face anti-tank fire from multiple directions at a distance of no more than 69 metres. Anti-tank teams were instructed to aim for rear armor whenever possible. Allied armored units attempted to add improvised protection to their tanks, e.g. sandbags, spare track units, logs and so on to protect against HEAT rounds. Most of this makeshift protection had little protective effect, overtaxed the vehicle's engine and suspension systems.
Another defense was to rig metal mesh and netting around the tank, resembling the German Schürzen auxiliary plates. In 1944, Germany provided the Panzerschreck to Finland, which used it to great effect against Soviet armour. In one engagement the Finns destroyed 25 Soviet tanks; the Finnish name for the weapon was Panssarikauhu. An all-new Finnish weapon, the 55 S 55, was developed after the war along the lines of Panzerschreck; the Italian Social Republic and Hungary used the Panzerschreck. Several Italian units became known as skilled anti-tank hunters and the Hungarians used the Panzerschreck extensively during Operation Spring Awakening. Penetration measured against Rolled Homogeneous Armor. Nazi Germany Finland Italian Social Republic Kingdom of Hungary Kingdom of Romania Polish Home Army Soviet Union Bazooka Panzerfaust Shoulder-launched missile weapon List of common World War II infantry weapons List of World War II firearms of Germany PIAT Rocket-propelled grenade RPG-2 German 88mm "Panzerschrek" World War II Finnish Manual on Panzerschreck
Fort Benning is a United States Army post straddling the Alabama–Georgia border next to Columbus, Georgia. Fort Benning supports more than 120,000 active-duty military, family members, reserve component soldiers and civilian employees on a daily basis, it is a power projection platform, possesses the capability to deploy combat-ready forces by air and highway. Fort Benning is the home of the United States Army Maneuver Center of Excellence, the United States Army Armor School, United States Army Infantry School, the Western Hemisphere Institute for Security Cooperation, elements of the 75th Ranger Regiment, 3rd Brigade – 3rd Infantry Division, many other additional tenant units, it is named after Henry L. Benning, a brigadier general in the Confederate States Army during the Civil War. Since 1909, Fort Benning has served as the Home of the Infantry. Since 2005, Fort Benning has been transformed into the Maneuver Center of Excellence, as a result of the 2005 Base Realignment and Closure Commission's decision to consolidate a number of schools and installations to create various "centers of excellence".
Included in this transformation was the move of the Armor School from Fort Knox to Fort Benning. Camp Benning was established in October 1909, after President Woodrow Wilson called for a special session of Congress, culminating Congressional work in the creation of the Revenue Act of 1913, reintroducing an income tax which lowered tariffs, assigning permanent status in 1909. Providing basic training for World War I units, post-war Dwight D. Eisenhower served at Benning from December 24, 1918, until March 15, 1919, with about 250 of his Camp Colt, tankers who transferred to Benning after the armistice. On December 26, 1918, a portion of the Camp Polk tank school was transferred to Camp Benning "to work in conjunction with the Infantry school". Camp Benning tank troops were moved to Camp Meade from February 19–21, 1919. In February 1920, Congress voted to declare Camp Benning a permanent military post and appropriated more than $1 million of additional building funds for the Infantry School of Arms, which became the Infantry School.
By the fall of 1920, more than 350 officers, 7,000 troops and 650 student officers lived at Camp Benning. The post was renamed to Fort Benning in 1922, after Henry L. Benning, a general in the army of the Confederate States of America. In 1924, Brig. Gen. Briant H. Wells became the fourth commandant of the Infantry School and established the Wells Plan for permanent construction on the installation, emphasizing the importance of the outdoor environment and recreation opportunities for military personnel. During Wells' tenure, the post developed recreational facilities such as Doughboy Stadium, Gowdy Field, the post theater and Russ swimming pool. Doughboy Stadium was erected as a memorial by soldiers to their fallen comrades of World War I. One of the Doughboys' original coaches was a young captain named Dwight D. Eisenhower. Lt. Col George C. Marshall was appointed assistant commandant of the post in 1927 and initiated major changes. Marshall, who became the Army Chief of Staff during World War II, was appalled by the high casualties of World War I caused, he thought, by insufficient training.
He was determined to prevent a lack of preparation from costing more lives in future conflicts. He and his subordinates revamped the education system at Fort Benning; the changes he fostered are still known as the Benning Revolution. In his life, Marshall went on to author the Marshall Plan for reviving postwar Europe and was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1953. During World War II Fort Benning had 197,159 acres with billeting space for 3,970 officers and 94,873 enlisted persons. Among many other units, Fort Benning was the home of the 555th Parachute Infantry Battalion, their training began in December 1943 and was an important milestone for black Americans, as was explored in the first narrative history of the installation, Home of the Infantry; the battalion expanded to become the 555th Parachute Infantry Battalion, was trained at Fort Benning but did not deploy overseas and never saw combat during World War II. During this period, the specialized duties of the Triple Nickel were in a firefighting role, with over one thousand parachute jumps as smoke jumpers.
The 555th was deployed to the Pacific Northwest of the United States in response to the concern that forest fires were being set by the Japanese military using long-range incendiary balloons. The 82nd Armored Reconnaissance Battalion was activated July 15, 1940, trained at the Fort; the 17th Armored Engineer Battalion became active and started training July 15, 1940. The 4th Infantry Division, first of four divisions committed by the United States to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization and completed its basic training at Fort Benning from October 1950 to May 1951, when it deployed to Germany for five years; the Airborne School on Main Post has three 249-foot drop towers called "Free Towers." They are used to train paratroopers. The towers were modeled after the parachute towers at the 1939 World's Fair in New York. Only three towers stand today. During the spring of 1962 General Herbert B. Powell, Commanding General, U. S. Continental Army Command, directed that all instruction at the Infantry School after July 1 reflect Reorganization Objective Army Division structures.
Therefore, the Infantry School asked for permission to reorganize the 1st Infantry Brigade under a ROAD structure. Instead, the Army Staff decided to inactivat