Moscow Oblast, or Podmoskovye, is a federal subject of Russia. With a population of 7,095,120 living in an area of 44,300 square kilometers, it is one of the most densely populated regions in the country and is the second most populous federal subject; the oblast has no official administrative center. Moscow Oblast borders Tver Oblast in the northwest, Yaroslavl Oblast in the north, Vladimir Oblast in the northeast and east, Ryazan Oblast in the southeast, Tula Oblast in the south, Kaluga Oblast in the southwest, Smolensk Oblast in the west. In the center stands the federal city of Moscow, a separate federal subject in its own right; the oblast is industrialized, with its main industrial branches being metallurgy, oil refining, mechanical engineering, food and chemical industries. The oblast is flat, with some hills with the height of about 160 meters in the western and extensive lowlands in the eastern part. From the southwest to northeast, the oblast is crossed by the border of the Moscow glacier to the north of the common ice-erosion form with moraine ridges, to the south – only erosional landforms.
The western and northern parts of the oblast contain the Moscow Uplands. Their average height peaks at about 300 meters near Dmitrov and the upper point of 310 meters lies near the village of Shapkino in Mozhaysky District; the northern part of the Moscow Uplands is steeper than the southern part. The uplands contain lakes such as Lakes Nerskoye and Krugloye. To the north of the Moscow Uplands lies the alluvial Verhnevolzhsk Depression. To the south stretches a hilly area of the Moskvoretsko-Oksk plain, its greatest height of 254 meters lies within the Moscow city limits. The plain has defined river valleys in the south parts, occasional karst relief in Serpukhovsky District. In the extreme south, after the Oka River, lies the Central Russian Upland, it contains numerous gullies and ravines and has average height above 200 m with the maximum of 236 m near Pushchino. Most of the eastern part of Moscow Oblast is taken by the vast Meshchera Lowlands with much wetland in their eastern part, their highest hill peaks at 214 meters but the average heights are 120–150 meters.
Most lakes of the lowlands, such as Lakes Chyornoye and Svyatoye, are of glacial origin. Here lies the lowest natural elevation of the water level of Oka River at 97 meters. Moscow Oblast is located in the central part of the East European craton. Like all cratons, the latter is composed of the crystalline sedimentary cover; the basement consists of Archaean and Proterozoic rocks and the cover is deposited in the Palaeozoic and Cenozoic eras. The lowest depth of the basement is to the south of Serebryanye Prudy, in the south area of the oblast, the largest is to the east of Sergiyev Posad, in the northeast region. Tertiary deposits are absent within the oblast. More abundant are deposits of the Carboniferous and Jurassic periods. In the Cretaceous period, a sea was covering Moscow Oblast, as evidenced by phosphate deposits and a variety of sands. Cretaceous sediments are most common in the north of the oblast; the sea was wider in Jurassic than in Cretaceous period. Typical Jurassic deposits, in the form of black clay, are found within and around the city of Moscow and in the valley of the Moscow River.
Carboniferous deposits in Moscow Oblast are represented by dolomite and marl. Coal deposits rich in organic remains occur in the south in Serpukhovsky District, in the western regions. Devonian deposits were found within the region. Quaternary deposits are distributed in Moscow Oblast, it is believed. The first occurred in the Lower Pleistocene and spread to the east-west part of the Oka River valley, it left no trace in the region. In the Middle Pleistocene, there were two powerful glaciations; the Dnieper glacier covered a large part of the Russian Plain, whereas the Moscow glaciation stopped just south of the present city of Moscow. The last glaciation, the Valdai glaciation, occurred in the Late Pleistocene; the glaciers left behind a moraine loam with pebbles and boulders of various rocks, such as granite, quartzite, dolomite and sandstone. Its thickness varies between a few meters at 100 m at moraine ridges. Moscow Oblast is rich in minerals. Sands from the sediments of different periods are of high quality and are used in construction.
Quartz sand is used in the glass industry, their production is conducted from the end of 17th century near Lyubertsy. Much of the production is halted due to environmental concerns, only the Yeganovskoye field is being exploited. Sand and gravel deposits are abundant within the Smolensk-Moscow Upland. Sandstone deposits are developed in Dmitrovsky Districts. There are numerous clay deposits within the oblas
A rocket-propelled grenade is a shoulder-fired anti-tank weapon system that fires rockets equipped with an explosive warhead. Most RPGs can be carried by an individual soldier; these warheads are affixed to a rocket motor which propels the RPG towards the target and they are stabilized in flight with fins. Some types of RPG are reloadable with new rocket-propelled grenades. RPGs, with some exceptions, are loaded from the muzzle. RPGs with high explosive anti-tank warheads are effective against armored vehicles such as armoured personnel carriers; however armored vehicles from the 2010s, such as main battle tanks, are too well armored to be penetrated by an RPG, unless less armored sections of vehicle are exploited. Various warheads are capable of causing secondary damage to vulnerable systems and other unarmored targets; the term "rocket-propelled grenade" stems from the Russian language РПГ or ручной противотанковый гранатомёт, meaning "hand-held anti-tank grenade launcher", the name given to early Russian designs.
The static nature of trench warfare in World War I encouraged the use of shielded defenses including personal armor, that were impenetrable by standard rifle ammunition. This led to some isolated experiments with higher caliber rifles, similar to elephant guns, using armor-piercing ammunition; the first tanks, the British Mark I, could be penetrated by these weapons under the right conditions. Mark IV tanks, had thicker armor. In response, the German rushed to create an upgraded version of these early anti-armor rifles, the Tankgewehr M1918, the first anti-tank rifle. In the inter-war years, tank armor continued to increase overall, to the point that anti-tank rifles could no longer be effective against anything but light tanks. With the first tanks, artillery officers used field guns depressed to fire directly at armored targets. However, this practice expended much valuable ammunition and was of limited effectiveness as tank armor became thicker; this led to the concept of anti-tank guns, a form of artillery designed to destroy armored fighting vehicles from static defensive positions.
The first dedicated anti-tank artillery began appearing in the 1920s, by World War II was a common appearance in most armies. In order to penetrate armor they fired specialized ammunition from proportionally longer barrels to achieve a higher muzzle velocity than field guns. Most anti-tank guns were developed in the 1930s as improvements in tanks were noted, nearly every major arms manufacturer produced one type or another. Anti-tank guns deployed during World War II were manned by specialist infantry rather than artillery crews, issued to infantry units accordingly; the anti-tank guns of the 1930s were of small caliber. As World War II progressed, the appearance of heavier tanks rendered these weapons obsolete and anti-tank guns began firing larger calibre and more effective armor-piercing shells. Although a number of large caliber guns were developed during the war that were capable of knocking out the most armored tanks, they proved slow to set up and difficult to conceal; the latter generation of low-recoil anti-tank weapons, which allowed projectiles the size of an artillery shell to be fired from a man's shoulder, was considered a far more viable option for arming infantrymen.
The RPG has its roots in the 20th century with the early development of the explosive shaped charge, in which the explosive is made in a pointed cone shape, which concentrates its power on the impact point. Before the adoption of the shaped charge, anti-tank guns and tank guns relied on kinetic energy of metal shells to defeat armor. Soldier-carried anti-tank rifles such as the Boys anti-tank rifle could be used against lightly-armoured tankettes and light armoured vehicles. However, as tank armor increased in thickness and effectiveness, the anti-tank guns needed to defeat them became heavy and expensive. During WW II, as tank armor got thicker, larger calibre anti-tank guns were developed to defeat this thicker armour. While larger anti-tank guns were more effective, the weight of these anti-tank guns meant that they were mounted on wheeled, towed platforms; this meant that if the infantry was on foot, they might not have access to these wheeled, vehicle-towed anti-tank guns. This led to situations where infantry could find themselves defenseless against tanks and unable to attack tanks.
Armies found that they needed to give infantry a human-portable weapon to defeat enemy armor when no wheeled anti-tank guns were available, since anti tank rifles were no longer effective. Initial attempts to put such weapons in the hands of the infantry resulted in weapons like the Soviet RPG-40 "blast effect" hand grenade; the RPG-43 and RPG-6 used shaped charges, the chemical energy of their explosive being used more efficiently to enable the defeat of thicker armor. What was needed was a means of delivering the shaped charge warhead from a distance. Different approaches to this goal wo
Mongolia is a landlocked country in East Asia. Its area is equivalent with the historical territory of Outer Mongolia, that term is sometimes used to refer to the current state, it is sandwiched between China to Russia to the north. Mongolia does not share a border with Kazakhstan. At 1,564,116 square kilometres, Mongolia is the 18th-largest and the most sparsely populated sovereign state in the world, with a population of around three million people, it is the world's second-largest landlocked country behind Kazakhstan and the largest landlocked country that does not border a closed sea. The country contains little arable land, as much of its area is covered by grassy steppe, with mountains to the north and west and the Gobi Desert to the south. Ulaanbaatar, the capital and largest city, is home to about 45% of the country's population. Ulaanbaatar shares the rank of the world's coldest capital city with Moscow and Nur-Sultan. 30% of the population is nomadic or semi-nomadic. The majority of its population are Buddhists.
The non-religious population is the second largest group. Islam is the dominant religion among ethnic Kazakhs; the majority of the state's citizens are of Mongol ethnicity, although Kazakhs and other minorities live in the country in the west. Mongolia joined the World Trade Organization in 1997 and seeks to expand its participation in regional economic and trade groups; the area of what is now Mongolia has been ruled by various nomadic empires, including the Xiongnu, the Xianbei, the Rouran, the Turkic Khaganate, others. In 1206, Genghis Khan founded the Mongol Empire, which became the largest contiguous land empire in history, his grandson Kublai Khan conquered China to establish the Yuan dynasty. After the collapse of the Yuan, the Mongols retreated to Mongolia and resumed their earlier pattern of factional conflict, except during the era of Dayan Khan and Tumen Zasagt Khan. In the 16th century, Tibetan Buddhism began to spread in Mongolia, being further led by the Manchu-founded Qing dynasty, which absorbed the country in the 17th century.
By the early 1900s one-third of the adult male population were Buddhist monks. After the collapse of the Qing dynasty in 1911, Mongolia declared independence, achieved actual independence from the Republic of China in 1921. Shortly thereafter, the country came under the control of the Soviet Union, which had aided its independence from China. In 1924, the Mongolian People's Republic was founded as a socialist state. After the anti-Communist revolutions of 1989, Mongolia conducted its own peaceful democratic revolution in early 1990; this led to a multi-party system, a new constitution of 1992, transition to a market economy. Homo erectus inhabited Mongolia from 850,000 years ago. Modern humans reached Mongolia 40,000 years ago during the Upper Paleolithic; the Khoit Tsenkher Cave in Khovd Province shows lively pink and red ochre paintings of mammoths, bactrian camels, ostriches, earning it the nickname "the Lascaux of Mongolia". The venus figurines of Mal'ta testify to the level of Upper Paleolithic art in northern Mongolia.
Neolithic agricultural settlements, such as those at Norovlin, Tamsagbulag and Rashaan Khad, predated the introduction of horse-riding nomadism, a pivotal event in the history of Mongolia which became the dominant culture. Horse-riding nomadism has been documented by archeological evidence in Mongolia during the Copper and Bronze Age Afanasevo culture; the wheeled vehicles found in the burials of the Afanasevans have been dated to before 2200 BC. Pastoral nomadism and metalworking became more developed with the Okunev culture, Andronovo culture and Karasuk culture, culminating with the Iron Age Xiongnu Empire in 209 BC. Monuments of the pre-Xiongnu Bronze Age include deer stones, keregsur kurgans, square slab tombs, rock paintings. Although cultivation of crops has continued since the Neolithic, agriculture has always remained small in scale compared to pastoral nomadism. Agriculture arose independently in the region; the population during the Copper Age has been described as mongoloid in the east of what is now Mongolia, as europoid in the west.
Tocharians and Scythians inhabited western Mongolia during the Bronze Age. The mummy of a Scythian warrior, believed to be about 2,500 years old, was a 30- to 40-year-old man with blond hair; as equine nomadism was introduced into Mongolia, the political center of the Eurasian Steppe shifted to Mongolia, where it remained until the 18th century CE. The intrusions of northern pastoralists into China during the Shang dynasty and Zhou dynasty presaged the age of nomadic empires; the concept of Mongolia as an independent power north of China is expressed in a letter sent by Emperor Wen of Han to Laoshang Chanyu in 162 BC: Since prehistoric times, Mongolia has been inhabited by nomads who, from time to time, formed great confederations that rose to power and prominence. Common institutions were the office of the Khan, the Kurultai and right wings, imperial army and the decimal military system; the first of these empires, the Xiongnu of undetermined
Anti-tank guided missile
An anti-tank guided missile, anti-tank missile, anti-tank guided weapon or anti-armor guided weapon is a guided missile designed to hit and destroy armored military vehicles. ATGMs range in size from shoulder-launched weapons, which can be transported by a single soldier, to larger tripod-mounted weapons, which require a squad or team to transport and fire, to vehicle and aircraft mounted missile systems; the introduction to the modern battlefield of smaller, man-portable ATGMs with larger warheads has given infantry the ability to defeat light and medium tanks at great ranges, though main battle tanks using composite and reactive armors have proven to be resistant to smaller ATGMs. Earlier infantry anti-tank weapons, such as anti-tank rifles, anti-tank rockets and magnetic anti-tank mines, had limited armor-penetration abilities or required a soldier to approach the target closely; as of 2016, ATGMs were used by many non-state actors around the world. Germany developed a design for a wire-guided anti tank missile derived from the Ruhrstahl X-4 air to air missile concept in the closing months of World War II.
Reliable information for this weapon is elusive. It was never used in combat and had serious guidance to target issues; the SS.10 is the first anti-tank missile to be used. It entered service in the French Army in 1955, it was the first anti-tank missile used by the US Army and Israeli Defense Forces. The Malkara missile was one of the earliest anti-tank guided missiles, it was jointly developed by Australia and the United Kingdom between 1951 and 1954, was in service from 1958 until replaced by the Vickers Vigilant missile in the late 1960s. It was intended to be light enough to deploy with airborne forces, yet powerful enough to knock out any tank in service. First-generation manually command guided MCLOS missiles require input from an operator using a joystick or similar device to steer the missile to the target; the disadvantage is that the operator must keep the sight's cross hairs on the target and steer the missile into the cross hairs—i.e. The line-of-sight. To do this, the operator must be well trained and must remain stationary and in view of the target during the flight time of the missile.
Because of this, the operator is vulnerable while guiding the missile. The first system to become operational and to see combat was the French Nord SS.10 during the early 1950s. Second-generation semi-automatically command guided SACLOS missiles require the operator to only keep the sights on the target until impact. Automatic guidance commands are sent to the missile through wires or radio, or the missile relies on laser marking or a TV camera view from the nose of the missile. Examples are Israeli LAHAT and the American Hellfire I missiles; the operator must remain stationary during the missile's flight. Third-generation guidance systems rely on a laser, electro-optical imager seeker or a W band radar seeker in the nose of the missile. Once the target is identified, the missile needs no further guidance during flight. However, fire-and-forget missiles are more subject to electronic countermeasures than MCLOS and SACLOS missiles. Examples include the Israeli Spike. Most modern ATGMs have shaped charge HEAT warheads, designed for penetrating armor.
Tandem-charge missiles attempt to defeat ERA. The small initial charge sets off the ERA while the follow-up main charge attempts to penetrate the main armor. Top-attack weapons such as the U. S. Javelin, the Swedish Bill are designed to strike vehicles from above, where their armor is much weaker. Countermeasures against ATGMs include spaced and composite armors, explosive reactive armor, jammers like the Russian Shtora, active protection systems like the Israeli Trophy and the Russian Arena. Armor systems have continued in development alongside ATGMs, the most recent generations of armor are tested to be effective against ATGM strikes, either by'tricking' the missile into not detonating against the armor itself or using some form of reactive armor to'attack' the missile upon impact, disrupting the shaped charge that makes the warhead effective. Both come with the downside of significant bulk. Reactive armor works best when a vehicle is designed with the system integrated and while developments continue to make armor lighter, any vehicle that includes such a system necessitates a powerful engine and will still be slow.
However, inclusion of such armor in older vehicles as a part of a re-design is possible, as in the numerous types derived from the T-72 do carry reactive armor. Slat armor is lighter and as such can be added to many vehicles after construction but still adds both bulk and weight. For vehicles that are designed to be transported by cargo aircraft, slat armor has to be fitted in the field after deployment. Either approach can never offer complete coverage over the vehicle, leaving tracks or wheels vulnerable to attack. Jamming is an effective countermeasure to specific missiles that are radar guided, however, as a general purpose defense, it is of no use against unguided anti-tank weapons, as such it is never the only defense. If jamming is used continually, it can be difficult for a missile to acquire the target, locking on to the much larger return from the jammer, with the operator unlikely noticing the difference without a radar screen to se
Kyrgyzstan the Kyrgyz Republic, known as Kirghizia, is a country in Central Asia. Kyrgyzstan is a landlocked country with mountainous terrain, it is bordered by Kazakhstan to the north, Uzbekistan to the west and southwest, Tajikistan to the southwest and China to the east. Its capital and largest city is Bishkek. Kyrgyzstan's recorded history spans over 2,000 years, encompassing a variety of cultures and empires. Although geographically isolated by its mountainous terrain, which has helped preserve its ancient culture, Kyrgyzstan has been at the crossroads of several great civilizations as part of the Silk Road and other commercial and cultural routes. Though long inhabited by a succession of independent tribes and clans, Kyrgyzstan has periodically fallen under foreign domination and attained sovereignty as a nation-state only after the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991. Since independence, the sovereign state has been a unitary parliamentary republic, although it continues to endure ethnic conflicts, economic troubles, transitional governments and political conflict.
Kyrgyzstan is a member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the Eurasian Economic Union, the Collective Security Treaty Organization, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, the Turkic Council, the Türksoy community and the United Nations. Ethnic Kyrgyz make up the majority of the country's 6 million people, followed by significant minorities of Uzbeks and Russians. Kyrgyz is related to other Turkic languages, although Russian remains spoken and is an official language, a legacy of a century of Russification; the majority of the population are non-denominational Muslims. In addition to its Turkic origins, Kyrgyz culture bears elements of Persian and Russian influence. "Kyrgyz" is believed to have been derived from the Turkic word for "forty", in reference to the forty clans of Manas, a legendary hero who united forty regional clans against the Uyghurs. Kyrgyz means We are forty. At the time, in the early 9th century AD, the Uyghurs dominated much of Central Asia and parts of Russia and China.
The 40-ray sun on the flag of Kyrgyzstan is a reference to those same forty tribes and the graphical element in the sun's center depicts the wooden crown, called tunduk, of a yurt—a portable dwelling traditionally used by nomads in the steppes of Central Asia. In terms of naming conventions, the country's official name is "Kyrgyz Republic" whenever it is used in some international arenas and foreign relations. However, in the English-speaking world, the spelling Kyrgyzstan is used while its former name Kirghizia is used as such. According to David C. King, Scythians were early settlers in present-day Kyrgyzstan; the Kyrgyz state reached its greatest expansion after defeating the Uyghur Khaganate in 840 A. D. From the 10th century the Kyrgyz migrated as far as the Tian Shan range and maintained their dominance over this territory for about 200 years. In the twelfth century the Kyrgyz dominion had shrunk to the Altay Range and Sayan Mountains as a result of the Mongol expansion. With the rise of the Mongol Empire in the thirteenth century, the Kyrgyz migrated south.
The Kyrgyz peacefully became a part of the Mongol Empire in 1207. The descent of the Kyrgyz from the indigenous Siberian population, on the other hand, is confirmed by recent genetic studies; because of the processes of migration, conquest and assimilation, many of the Kyrgyz peoples who now inhabit Central and Southwest Asia are of mixed origins stemming from fragments of many different tribes, though they now speak related languages. Issyk Kul Lake was a stopover on the Silk Road, a land route for traders and other travelers from the Far East to Europe. Kyrgyz tribes were overrun in the 17th century by the Mongols, in the mid-18th century by the Manchurian Qing Dynasty, in the early 19th century by the Uzbek Khanate of Kokand. In the late nineteenth century, the eastern part of what is today Kyrgyzstan the Issyk-Kul Region, was ceded to the Russian Empire by Qing China through the Treaty of Tarbagatai; the territory known in Russian as "Kirghizia", was formally incorporated into the Empire in 1876.
The Russian takeover was met with numerous revolts, many of the Kyrgyz opted to relocate to the Pamir Mountains and Afghanistan. In addition, the suppression of the 1916 rebellion against Russian rule in Central Asia caused many Kyrgyz to migrate to China. Since many ethnic groups in the region were split between neighboring states at a time when borders were more porous and less regulated, it was common to move back and forth over the mountains, depending on where life was perceived as better. Soviet power was established in the region in 1919, the Kara-Kyrgyz Autonomous Oblast was created within the Russian SFSR. On 5 December 1936, the Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic was established as a constituent Union Republic of the Soviet Union. During the 1920s, Kyrgyzstan developed in cultural and social life. Literacy was improved, a standard literary language was introduced by imposing Russian on the populace. Economic and social development was notable. Many aspects of the Ky
Russian Armed Forces
The Russian Armed Forces are the military forces of the Russian Federation, established after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. On 7 May 1992, Boris Yeltsin signed a presidential decree establishing the Russian Ministry of Defence and placing all Soviet Armed Forces troops on the territory of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic under Russian control; the Commander-in-Chief of the Armed Forces is the President of Russia. The Russian Armed Forces were formed in 1992; the Russian Armed Forces is one of the world's largest military forces. It is the world's second most powerful military and the world's second largest arms exporter. Under Russian federal law, the RuAF along with the Federal Security Service's Border Troops, the National Guard, the Ministry of Internal Affairs, the Federal Protective Service, the Foreign Intelligence Service, EMERCOM's civil defence form Russia's military services and are under direct control of the Security Council of Russia. Armed forces under the Ministry of Defence are divided into: the three "branches of Armed Forces": the Ground Forces, Aerospace Forces, the Navy the two "separate troop branches": the Strategic Missile Troops and the Airborne Troops the Logistical Support, which has a separate status of its ownThere are additionally two further "separate troop branches", the National Guard and the Border Service.
These retain the legal status of "Armed Forces", while falling outside of the jurisdiction of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation. The National Guard is formed on the basis of the former Internal Troops of Russia; the new structure has been detached from the Ministry of Internal Affairs into a separate agency, directly subordinated to the President of Russia. The Border Service is a paramilitary organization of the Federal Security Service - the country's main internal intelligence agency. Both organizations have significant wartime tasks in addition to their main peacetime activities and operate their own land and maritime units; the number of personnel is specified by decree of the President of Russia. On 1 January 2008, a number including military of 1,134,800 units, was set. In 2010 the International Institute for Strategic Studies estimated that the Russian Armed Forces numbered about 1,027,000 active troops and in the region of 2,035,000 reserves; as opposed to personnel specified by decree, actual personnel numbers on the payroll was reported by the Audit Chamber of Russia as 766,000 in October 2013.
As of December 2016, the armed forces are at 93 percent of the required manpower, up from 82 percent reported in December 2013. According to the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, between 2005-2009 and 2010-2014, Russian exports of major weapons increased by 37 percent. According to the Russian Defence Ministry, share of modern weapons in the Armed Forces reached from 26 to 48 percent among different kinds of troops in December 2014; this was raised to 30.5–70.7% as of July 2015. The average was 61.5 per cent over the end of 2018. The Soviet Union dissolved on 25 December 1991, leaving the Soviet military in limbo. For the next year and a half various attempts to keep its unity and to transform it into the military of the Commonwealth of Independent States failed. Over time, some units stationed in the newly independent republics swore loyalty to their new national governments, while a series of treaties between the newly independent states divided up the military's assets. Apart from assuming control of the bulk of the former Soviet Internal Troops and the KGB Border Troops the only independent defence move the new Russian government made before March 1992 involved announcing the establishment of a National Guard.
Until 1995, it was planned to form at least 11 brigades numbering 3,000 to 5,000 each, with a total of no more than 100,000. National Guard military units were to be deployed in 10 regions, including in Moscow, a number of other important cities and regions. By the end of September 1991 in Moscow the National Guard was about 15,000 strong consisting of former Soviet Armed Forces servicemen. In the end, President Yeltsin tabled a decree "On the temporary position of the Russian Guard", but it was not put into practice. After signing the Belavezha Accords on 21 December 1991, the countries of the newly formed CIS signed a protocol on the temporary appointment of Marshal of Aviation Yevgeny Shaposhnikov as Minister of Defence and commander of the armed forces in their territory, including strategic nuclear forces. On 14 February 1992 Shaposhnikov formally became Supreme Commander of the CIS Armed Forces. On 16 March 1992 a decree by Boris Yeltsin created The Armed Forces of the Russian Federation the operational control of Allied High Command and the Ministry of Defence, headed by President.
On 7 May 1992, Yeltsin signed a decree establishing the armed forces and Yeltsin assumed the duties of the Supreme Commander. In May 1992, General Colonel Pavel Grachev became the Minister of Defence, was made Russia's first Army General on assuming the post. By August or December 1993 CIS military structures had become CIS military cooperation structures with all real influence lost. In the next few years, Russian forces withdrew from central and eastern Europe, as well as from some newly-independent post-Soviet republics. While in most places the withdrawal took place without any problems, the Russian Armed Forces remained in some di
The biathlon is a winter sport that combines cross-country skiing and rifle shooting. It is treated as a race. Depending on the competition, missed shots result in extra distance or time being added to the contestant's total. According to Encyclopædia Britannica, the biathlon "is rooted in the skiing traditions of Scandinavia, where early inhabitants revered the Norse god Ullr as both the ski god and the hunting god". In modern times, the activity that developed into this sport was an exercise for Norwegian people, an alternative training for the military. Norwegian skiing regiments organized military skiing contests in the 18th century, divided in four classes: shooting at mark while skiing at top speed, downhill race among trees, downhill race on big hills without falling, a long race on flat ground while carrying rifle and military pack. In modern terminology these military contests included downhill, slalom and cross-country skiing. One of the world's first known ski clubs, the Trysil Rifle and Ski Club, was formed in Norway in 1861 to promote national defense at the local level.
20th century variants include Forsvarsrennet – a 17 km cross-country race with shooting, the military cross-country race at 30 km including marksmanship. The modern biathlon is a civilian variant of the old military combined exercise. In Norway, the biathlon was until 1984 a branch of Det frivillige Skyttervesen, an organization set up by the government to promote civilian marksmanship in support of national defense. In Norwegian, the biathlon is called skiskyting. In Norway there are still separate contests in skifeltskyting, a cross-country race at 12 km with large-caliber rifle shooting at various targets with unknown range. Called military patrol, the combination of skiing and shooting was contested at the Winter Olympic Games in 1924, demonstrated in 1928, 1936, 1948, but did not regain Olympic recognition because the small number of competing countries disagreed on the rules. During the mid-1950s, the biathlon was introduced into the Soviet and Swedish winter sport circuits and was enjoyed by the public.
This newfound popularity aided the effort of having the biathlon gain entry into the Winter Olympics. The first Biathlon World Championship was held in 1958 in Austria, in 1960 the sport was included in the Olympic Games. At Albertville in 1992, women were first allowed in the Olympic biathlon; the competitions from 1958 to 1965 used high-power centerfire cartridges, such as the.30-06 Springfield and the 7.62×51mm NATO, before the.22 Long Rifle rimfire cartridge was standardized in 1978. The ammunition was carried in a belt worn around the competitor's waist; the sole event was the men's 20 km individual, encompassing four separate ranges and firing distances of 100 m, 150 m, 200 m, 250 m. The target distance was reduced to 150 m with the addition of the relay in 1966; the shooting range was further reduced to 50 m in 1978 with the mechanical self-indicating targets making their debut at the 1980 Winter Olympics in Lake Placid. For the 2018/2019 season electronic targets were approved as an alternative to paper or mechanical steel targets for IBU events.
In 1948, the International Modern Pentathlon Union was founded, to standardise the rules for the modern pentathlon and, from 1953 biathlon. In July 1993, the biathlon branch of the UIPMB created the International Biathlon Union, which separated from the UIPMB in 1998. Presidents of the UIPMB/IBU: 1947–1949: Tom Wiborn 1949–1960: Gustaf Dyrssen 1960–1988: Sven Thofelt, 1988–1992: Igor Novikov 1992-2018: Anders Besseberg Since 2018: Olle Dahlin The following articles list major international biathlon events and medalists. Contrary to the Olympics and World Championships, the World Cup is an entire winter season of weekly races, where the medalists are those with the highest sums of World Cup points at the end of the season. Biathlon at the Winter Olympics Biathlon World Championships Biathlon World Cup Biathlon European Championships IBU Cup Biathlon Junior World Championships Biathlon at the Winter Universiade The complete rules of the biathlon are given in the official IBU rule books. A biathlon competition consists of a race in which contestants ski through a cross-country trail system whose total distance is divided into either two or four shooting rounds, half in prone position, the other half standing.
Depending on the shooting performance, extra distance or time is added to the contestant's total skiing distance/time. The contestant with the shortest total time wins. For each shooting round, the biathlete must hit five targets or receive a penalty for each missed target, which varies according to the competition rules, as follows: Skiing around a 150 m penalty loop—typically taking 20–30 seconds for elite biathletes to complete, depending on weather and snow conditions. Adding one minute to the skier's total time. Use of an extra cartridge to hit the target. In order to keep track of the contestants' progress and relative standing throughout a race, split times are taken at several points along the skiing track and upon finishing each shooting round; the large display screens set up at biathlon arenas, as well as the information graphics shown as part of the TV picture, will list the split time of the fastest contestant at each intermediate point and the times and time differences to the closest runners-up.
In the Olympics, all cross-country skiing techniques are permitted in the