A shot glass is a small glass designed to hold or measure spirits or liquor, either imbibed straight from the glass or poured into a cocktail. An alcoholic beverage served in a shot glass and consumed in one gulp, may be known as a "shooter". Shot glasses decorated with a wide variety of toasts, humorous pictures, or other decorations and words are popular souvenirs and collectibles as merchandise of a brewery; the word "shot", meaning a drink of alcohol, has been used since at least the 17th century, while reference to a shot as a small drink of spirits is known in the U. S. since at least the 1920s. The phrase "shot glass" has been in use since at least 1940; some of the earliest small whiskey glasses in America from the late 1700s to early 1800s were called "whiskey tasters" or "whiskey tumblers" and were hand blown. They are thick, similar to today's shot glasses, but will show a pontil mark or scar on the bottom, or will show a cupped area on the bottom where the pontil mark was ground and polished off.
Some of these glasses have hand-applied handles and decorations hand cut by a grinding wheel. In the early to mid-1800s, glass blowers began to use molds and several different patterns of "whiskey tasters" in several different colors were being made in molds; these glasses are thick like today's shot glass but they will have rough pontiled bottoms from being hand blown into the mold. By the 1870s to 1890s as glass making technology improved, the rough pontiled bottoms disappeared from glasses and bottles. Just before Prohibition in the U. S. in the late 1800s to early 1900s, thin-sided mass-produced whiskey glasses were common. Many of these glasses feature etched advertising on them. After Prohibition, these were replaced by shot glasses with thick sides; these glasses are for those wary of heavy drinking. Their bottoms are sturdy and thick so they give the illusion of a plain shot glass when in reality they only hold half as much liquid. A basic shot glass with fluting featured on the base of the glass.
Pony glasses can only hold about an ounce of fluid each but are used while mixing drinks into a larger glass. Tall shot glasses are narrower, they only hold a standard 1.5 ounces of liquid. In a rounded shot glasses the walls of the glass curve is down leaving a 10 centimeter difference between the lip of the glass and the bottom rim of the glass, they are popular in Europe. A jigger or measure is a bartending tool used to measure liquor, then poured into a glass or cocktail shaker; the term jigger in the sense of a small cup or measure of spirits or wine originates in the U. S. in the early 19th century. It was slang for the special cup used for it. Many references from the 1800s describe the "jigger boss" providing jiggers of whiskey to Irish immigrant workers who were digging canals in the U. S. Northeast; the style of double-ended jigger common today, made of stainless steel with two unequal sized opposing cones in an hourglass shape, was patented in 1893 by Cornelius Dungan of Chicago. One cone measures a regulation single shot, the other some fraction or multiple—with the actual sizes depending on local laws and customs.
A contemporary jigger measure in the U. S. holds 1.5 US fluid ounces, while the jiggers used in the U. K. are 25 ml or sometimes 35 ml. Jiggers may hold other amounts and ratios, can vary depending on the region and date of manufacture. In the U. S. up until Prohibition, a jigger was known to be about half a gill, or 2 US fluid ounces, but starting in the latter part of the 20th century, it is interpreted to be 1.5 US fluid ounces. A shot glass graduated in smaller units such as half-ounces, tablespoons, or millilitres, they are useful for precise measurement of cocktail ingredients, as well as in cooking recipes that call for multiples of a smaller unit, allowing the dispensing of the amount in a single measure. Alcoholic spirits measure Alcohol measurements The Shotglass collectors website
Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of trees and other woody plants. It is an organic material, a natural composite of cellulose fibers that are strong in tension and embedded in a matrix of lignin that resists compression. Wood is sometimes defined as only the secondary xylem in the stems of trees, or it is defined more broadly to include the same type of tissue elsewhere such as in the roots of trees or shrubs. In a living tree it performs a support function, enabling woody plants to grow large or to stand up by themselves, it conveys water and nutrients between the leaves, other growing tissues, the roots. Wood may refer to other plant materials with comparable properties, to material engineered from wood, or wood chips or fiber. Wood has been used for thousands of years for fuel, as a construction material, for making tools and weapons and paper. More it emerged as a feedstock for the production of purified cellulose and its derivatives, such as cellophane and cellulose acetate.
As of 2005, the growing stock of forests worldwide was about 434 billion cubic meters, 47% of, commercial. As an abundant, carbon-neutral renewable resource, woody materials have been of intense interest as a source of renewable energy. In 1991 3.5 billion cubic meters of wood were harvested. Dominant uses were for building construction. A 2011 discovery in the Canadian province of New Brunswick yielded the earliest known plants to have grown wood 395 to 400 million years ago. Wood can be dated by carbon dating and in some species by dendrochronology to determine when a wooden object was created. People have used wood for thousands of years for many purposes, including as a fuel or as a construction material for making houses, weapons, packaging and paper. Known constructions using wood date back ten thousand years. Buildings like the European Neolithic long house were made of wood. Recent use of wood has been enhanced by the addition of bronze into construction; the year-to-year variation in tree-ring widths and isotopic abundances gives clues to the prevailing climate at the time a tree was cut.
Wood, in the strict sense, is yielded by trees, which increase in diameter by the formation, between the existing wood and the inner bark, of new woody layers which envelop the entire stem, living branches, roots. This process is known as secondary growth; these cells go on to form thickened secondary cell walls, composed of cellulose and lignin. Where the differences between the four seasons are distinct, e.g. New Zealand, growth can occur in a discrete annual or seasonal pattern, leading to growth rings. If the distinctiveness between seasons is annual, these growth rings are referred to as annual rings. Where there is little seasonal difference growth rings are to be indistinct or absent. If the bark of the tree has been removed in a particular area, the rings will be deformed as the plant overgrows the scar. If there are differences within a growth ring the part of a growth ring nearest the center of the tree, formed early in the growing season when growth is rapid, is composed of wider elements.
It is lighter in color than that near the outer portion of the ring, is known as earlywood or springwood. The outer portion formed in the season is known as the latewood or summerwood. However, there are major differences, depending on the kind of wood; as a tree grows, lower branches die, their bases may become overgrown and enclosed by subsequent layers of trunk wood, forming a type of imperfection known as a knot. The dead branch may not be attached to the trunk wood except at its base, can drop out after the tree has been sawn into boards. Knots affect the technical properties of the wood reducing the local strength and increasing the tendency for splitting along the wood grain, but may be exploited for visual effect. In a longitudinally sawn plank, a knot will appear as a circular "solid" piece of wood around which the grain of the rest of the wood "flows". Within a knot, the direction of the wood is up to 90 degrees different from the grain direction of the regular wood. In the tree a knot is either the base of a dormant bud.
A knot is conical in shape with the inner tip at the point in stem diameter at which the plant's vascular cambium was located when the branch formed as a bud. In grading lumber and structural timber, knots are classified according to their form, size and the firmness with which they are held in place; this firmness is affected by, among other factors, the length of time for which the branch was dead while the attaching stem continued to grow. Knots materially affect cracking and warping, ease in working, cleavability of timber, they are defects which weaken timber and lower its value for structural purposes where strength is an important consideration. The weakening effect is much more serious when timber is subjected to forces perpendicular to the grain and/or tension than when under load along the grain and/or compression; the extent to which knots affect the strength of a beam depends upon their position, size and condition. A knot on the upper side is compressed. If there is a season check
Yard of ale
A yard of ale or yard glass is a tall beer glass used for drinking around 2 1⁄2 imperial pints of beer, depending upon the diameter. The glass is 1 yard long, shaped with a bulb at the bottom, a widening shaft, which constitutes most of the height; the glass most originated in 17th-century England, where the glass was known as a "long glass", a "Cambridge yard" and an "ell glass". It is associated by legend with stagecoach drivers, though was used for drinking feats and special toasts. Drinking a yard glass full of beer as as possible is a traditional pub game; the fastest drinking of a yard of ale in the Guinness Book of Records is 5 seconds. The glass is 1 yard, shaped with a bulb at the bottom and a widening shaft, which constitutes most of the height. In countries where the metric system is used, the glass may be 1 metre; because the glass is so long and in any case does not have a stable flat base, it is hung on the wall when not in use. The glass most originated in 17th-century England, where the glass was known as a "long glass", a "Cambridge yard" and an "ell glass".
Such a glass was a testament to the glassblower's skill as much. John Evelyn records in his Diary the formal yet festive drinking of a yard of ale toast to James II at Bromley in Kent, 1685. Yard glasses can be found hanging on the walls of some English pubs, there are a number of pubs named The Yard of Ale throughout the country. Drinking a yard glass full of beer is a traditional pub game in the UK; some ancient colleges at Oxford University have sconcing forfeits. Former Australian Prime Minister Bob Hawke was the world record holder for the fastest drinking of a yard of beer, when he downed a sconce pot in eleven seconds as part of a traditional Oxford college penalty. In New Zealand, where it is referred to as a "yardie", drinking a yard glass full of beer is traditionally performed at a 21st birthday by the celebrated person. Beer tower Drinking horn
Clay is a finely-grained natural rock or soil material that combines one or more clay minerals with possible traces of quartz, metal oxides and organic matter. Geologic clay deposits are composed of phyllosilicate minerals containing variable amounts of water trapped in the mineral structure. Clays are plastic due to particle size and geometry as well as water content, become hard and non–plastic upon drying or firing. Depending on the soil's content in which it is found, clay can appear in various colours from white to dull grey or brown to deep orange-red. Although many occurring deposits include both silts and clay, clays are distinguished from other fine-grained soils by differences in size and mineralogy. Silts, which are fine-grained soils that do not include clay minerals, tend to have larger particle sizes than clays. There is, some overlap in particle size and other physical properties; the distinction between silt and clay varies by discipline. Geologists and soil scientists consider the separation to occur at a particle size of 2 µm, sedimentologists use 4–5 μm, colloid chemists use 1 μm.
Geotechnical engineers distinguish between silts and clays based on the plasticity properties of the soil, as measured by the soils' Atterberg limits. ISO 14688 grades clay particles as being smaller than 2 silt particles as being larger. Mixtures of sand and less than 40% clay are called loam. Loam is used as a building material. Clay minerals form over long periods of time as a result of the gradual chemical weathering of rocks silicate-bearing, by low concentrations of carbonic acid and other diluted solvents; these solvents acidic, migrate through the weathering rock after leaching through upper weathered layers. In addition to the weathering process, some clay minerals are formed through hydrothermal activity. There are two types of clay deposits: secondary. Primary clays remain at the site of formation. Secondary clays are clays that have been transported from their original location by water erosion and deposited in a new sedimentary deposit. Clay deposits are associated with low energy depositional environments such as large lakes and marine basins.
Depending on the academic source, there are three or four main groups of clays: kaolinite, montmorillonite-smectite and chlorite. Chlorites are not always considered to be a clay, sometimes being classified as a separate group within the phyllosilicates. There are 30 different types of "pure" clays in these categories, but most "natural" clay deposits are mixtures of these different types, along with other weathered minerals. Varve is clay with visible annual layers, which are formed by seasonal deposition of those layers and are marked by differences in erosion and organic content; this type of deposit is common in former glacial lakes. When fine sediments are delivered into the calm waters of these glacial lake basins away from the shoreline, they settle to the lake bed; the resulting seasonal layering is preserved in an distribution of clay sediment banding. Quick clay is a unique type of marine clay indigenous to the glaciated terrains of Norway, Northern Ireland, Sweden, it is a sensitive clay, prone to liquefaction, involved in several deadly landslides.
Powder X-ray diffraction can be used to identify clays. The physical and reactive chemical properties can be used to help elucidate the composition of clays. Clays exhibit plasticity. However, when dry, clay becomes firm and when fired in a kiln, permanent physical and chemical changes occur; these changes convert the clay into a ceramic material. Because of these properties, clay is used for making pottery, both utilitarian and decorative, construction products, such as bricks and floor tiles. Different types of clay, when used with different minerals and firing conditions, are used to produce earthenware and porcelain. Prehistoric humans discovered the useful properties of clay; some of the earliest pottery shards recovered are from Japan. They are associated with the Jōmon culture and deposits they were recovered from have been dated to around 14,000 BC. Clay tablets were the first known writing medium. Scribes wrote by inscribing them with cuneiform script using a blunt reed called a stylus. Purpose-made clay balls were used as sling ammunition.
Clays sintered in fire were the first form of ceramic. Bricks, cooking pots, art objects, smoking pipes, musical instruments such as the ocarina can all be shaped from clay before being fired. Clay is used in many industrial processes, such as paper making, cement production, chemical filtering; until the late 20th century, bentonite clay was used as a mold binder in the manufacture of sand castings. Clay, being impermeable to water, is used where natural seals are needed, such as in the cores of dams, or as a barrier in landfills against toxic seepage. Studies in the early 21st century have investigated clay's absorption capacities in various applications, such as the removal of heavy metals from waste water and air purification. Traditional uses of clay as medicine goes back to prehistoric times. An example is Armenian bole, used to soothe an upset stomach; some animals such as parrots and pigs ingest clay for similar reasons. Kaolin clay and attapulgite have been used as anti-diarrheal medicines.
Clay as the defining ingredient of loam is one of the oldest building materials on Earth, among other
The Mary Rose is a carrack-type warship of the English Tudor navy of King Henry VIII. After serving for 33 years in several wars against France and Brittany and after being rebuilt in 1536, she saw her last action on 19 July 1545. While leading the attack on the galleys of a French invasion fleet, she sank in the Solent, the straits north of the Isle of Wight; the wreck of the Mary Rose was rediscovered in 1971. It was raised on 11 October 1982 by the Mary Rose Trust, in one of the most complex and expensive projects in the history of maritime archaeology; the surviving section of the ship and thousands of recovered artefacts are of immeasurable value as a Tudor-era time capsule. The excavation and raising of the Mary Rose was a milestone in the field of maritime archaeology, comparable in complexity and cost only to the raising of the Swedish 17th-century warship Vasa in 1961; the finds include weapons, sailing equipment, naval supplies and a wide array of objects used by the crew. Many of the artefacts are unique to the Mary Rose and have provided insights into topics ranging from naval warfare to the history of musical instruments.
Since the mid-1980s, while undergoing conservation, the remains of the hull have been on display at the Portsmouth Historic Dockyard. An extensive collection of well-preserved artefacts is on display at the Mary Rose Museum, built to display the remains of the ship and its artefacts alongside each other; the Mary Rose was one of the largest ships in the English navy through more than three decades of intermittent war and was one of the earliest examples of a purpose-built sailing warship. She was armed with new types of heavy guns that could fire through the invented gun-ports. After being rebuilt in 1536, she was one of the earliest ships that could fire a broadside, although the line of battle tactics that employed it had not yet been developed. Several theories have sought to explain the demise of the Mary Rose, based on historical records, knowledge of 16th-century shipbuilding, modern experiments; the precise cause of her sinking is still unclear, because of conflicting testimonies and a lack of conclusive physical evidence.
In the late 15th century, England was a insignificant state on the periphery of Europe. The great victories against France in the Hundred Years' War were in the past; the War of the Roses—the civil war between the houses of York and Lancaster—had ended with Henry VII's establishment of the House of Tudor, the new ruling dynasty of England. The ambitious naval policies of Henry V were not continued by his successors, from 1422 to 1509 only six ships were built for the crown; the marriage alliance between Anne of Brittany and Charles VIII of France in 1491, his successor Louis XII in 1499, left England with a weakened strategic position on its southern flank. Despite this, Henry VII managed to maintain a comparatively long period of peace and a small but powerful core of a navy. At the onset of the early modern period, the great European powers were France, the Holy Roman Empire and Spain. All three became involved in the War of the League of Cambrai in 1508; the conflict was aimed at the Republic of Venice but turned against France.
Through the Spanish possessions in the Low Countries, England had close economic ties with the Spanish Habsburgs, it was the young Henry VIII's ambition to repeat the glorious martial endeavours of his predecessors. In 1509, six weeks into his reign, Henry married the Spanish princess Catherine of Aragon and joined the League, intent on certifying his historical claim as king of both England and France. By 1511 Henry was part of an anti-French alliance that included Ferdinand II of Aragon, Pope Julius II and Holy Roman emperor Maximilian; the small navy that Henry VIII inherited from his father had only two sizeable ships, the carracks Regent and Sovereign. Just months after his accession, two large ships were ordered: the Mary Rose and the Peter Pomegranate of about 500 and 450 tons respectively. Which king ordered the building of the Mary Rose is unclear. Henry VIII oversaw the project and he ordered additional large ships to be built, most notably the Henry Grace à Dieu, or Great Harry at more than 1000 tons burthen.
By the 1520s the English state had established a de facto permanent "Navy Royal", the organizational ancestor of the modern Royal Navy. The construction of the Mary Rose began in 1510 in Portsmouth and she was launched in July 1511, she was towed to London and fitted with rigging and decking, supplied with armaments. Other than the structural details needed to sail and arm the Mary Rose, she was equipped with flags and streamers that were either painted or gilded. Constructing a warship of the size of the Mary Rose was a major undertaking, requiring vast quantities of high-quality material. In the case of building a state-of-the-art warship, these materials were oak; the total amount of timber needed for the construction can only be calculated since only about one third of the ship still exists. One estimate for the number of trees is around 600 large oaks, representing about 16 hectares of woodland; the huge trees, common in Europe and the British Isles in previous centuries were by the 16th century quite rare, which meant that timbers were brought in from all over southern England.
The largest timbers used in the construction wer
The King's shilling, sometimes called the Queen's shilling when the Sovereign is female, is a historical slang term referring to the earnest payment of one shilling given to recruits to the Armed forces of the United Kingdom in the 18th and 19th centuries, although the practice dates back to the end of the English Civil War. To "take the King's shilling" was to agree to serve as a sailor or soldier in the Royal Navy or the British Army, it is related to the act of impressment. The practice stopped in 1879, although the term is still used informally. A recruit was still entitled to return the shilling until becoming subject to martial law upon formal attestation before a Justice of the Peace. At this point, a more substantial bounty was paid to the new recruit, which fluctuated from two guineas to a high of £23/17/6d in 1812. However, this payment was lost to various duties and dues, such as uniform; the monetary amount of this bounty, which might be equivalent to half a year's wages for the average unskilled worker, was enough to persuade most potential recruits to join.
Those who hesitated were won over by making them intoxicated with strong drink. The bounty was lucrative enough for some to desert reenlist: one man was hanged in 1787 for doing so 47 times; the pay for a private in the English Army was one shilling a day. A soldier was expected to pay for food and clothing out of their wages after using the initial sign-up bounty to purchase their initial equipment, it was not until 1847 that a limit was placed on deductions, ensuring that each soldier was paid at least one penny a day, after deductions. Novel incentives were sometimes used to persuade soldiers to enlist in the army. Jane Gordon, Duchess of Gordon was known to tour Scotland with a shilling in her lips for anyone wishing to join up to take; the 1914 song "I'll Make a Man of You" posits a "new recruiting scheme" in which the female singer states: "On Saturday I'm willing, if you'll only take the shilling, to make a man of any one of you." Press gangs had the power to compel British seamen into the Royal Navy.
A man forced unwillingly into the Navy in this way was given the King's shilling, but was offered a chance to volunteer: a volunteer would be eligible for an advance of two months' wages and would be treated more favourably than their pressed counterparts. Clothes and equipment, such as a hammock, had to be bought from the ship's purser out of the advance. Volunteers were protected from creditors, up to the value of £20. There are recurring tales of sailors being pressed after a shilling was slipped into their drink, leading to glass-bottomed tankards. However, this is to be a myth, for the Navy could press by force, rendering deception unnecessary. Joining the British Army is still unofficially described as "taking the Queen's shilling"; this includes Commonwealth soldiers who join the British Army. At least one airman was given the King's shilling upon attestation into the Royal Air Force in 1948; the phrase has been used to refer to other modern practices, for instance to a member of the British House of Commons accepting an office of profit under the Crown, such as the Crown Steward and Bailiff of the Manor of Northstead, in order to vacate their seats, as resigning is not permitted.
It has been used to describe pay and expenses of Members of Parliament. It has been used metaphorically for other activities paid for by the British Government. Employees of post offices that were bailed out have been referred to as taking the shilling, as have Conservative MPs accused of lobbying, unionist militia in Northern Ireland, judges upon taking office; the term was mentioned in D. H. Lawrence's Lovers; the term was mentioned in the BBC drama, Our Girl. The phrase is used in the 1968 song "Butcher's Tale" by the British band The Zombies, written from the perspective of a butcher serving on the front lines in World War I; the term is used in the BBC television series Peaky Blinders by the character Thomas Shelby. Addressing subordinates he says, "When you take the King's shilling, the King expects you to kill.", in reference to killings that he had ordered
A wine glass is a type of glass, used to drink and taste wine. Most wine glasses are stemware, they are goblets composed of three parts: the bowl and foot; the effect of glass shape on the taste of wine has not been demonstrated by any scientific study and remains a matter of debate. It is however believed by some that the shape of the glass is important, as it concentrates the flavour and aroma to emphasize the varietal's characteristic. One common belief is that the shape of the glass directs the wine itself into the best area of the mouth for the varietal despite flavour being perceived by olfaction in the upper nasal cavity, not the mouth; the importance of wine glass shape could be based on false ideas about the arrangement of different taste buds on the tongue, such as the discredited tongue map. Most wine glasses are stemware, they are goblets composed of three parts: the bowl and foot. In some designs the opening of the glass is narrower than the widest part of the bowl, others are more conical.
In addition, "stemless" wine glasses are available in a variety of shapes. The latter are used more casually than their traditional counterparts, as they negate the benefits of using stemmed wine glasses; some common types of wine glasses are described below. Glasses for red wine are characterized by their rounder, wider bowl, which increases the rate of oxidation; as oxygen from the air chemically interacts with the wine and aroma are believed to be subtly altered. This process of oxidation is considered more compatible with red wines, whose complex flavours are said to be smoothed out after being exposed to air. Red wine glasses can have particular styles of their own, such as Bordeaux glass: tall with a broad bowl, is designed for full bodied red wines like Cabernet Sauvignon and Syrah as it directs wine to the back of the mouth. Burgundy glass: broader than the Bordeaux glass, it has a bigger bowl to accumulate aromas of more delicate red wines such as Pinot noir; this style of glass directs wine to the tip of the tongue.
White wine glasses vary enormously in size and shape, from the delicately tapered Champagne flute, to the wide and shallow glasses used to drink Chardonnay. Different shaped glasses are used to accentuate the unique characteristics of different styles of wine. Wide mouthed glasses function to red wine glasses discussed above, promoting rapid oxidation which alters the flavor of the wine. White wines which are best served oxidized are full flavored wines, such as oaked chardonnay. For lighter, fresher styles of white wine, oxidation is less desirable as it is seen to mask the delicate nuances of the wine. To preserve a crisp, clean flavor, many white wine glasses will have a smaller mouth, which reduces surface area and in turn, the rate of oxidization. In the case of sparkling wine, such as Champagne or Asti, an smaller mouth is used to keep the wine sparkling longer in the glass. Champagne flutes are characterised by a long stem with a narrow bowl on top; the shape is designed to keep sparkling wine desirable during its consumption.
Just as with wine glasses, the flute is designed to be held by the stem to help prevent the heat from the hand from warming the liquid inside. The bowl itself is designed in a manner to help retain the signature carbonation in the beverage; this is achieved by reducing the surface area at the opening of the bowl. Additionally the flute design adds to the aesthetic appeal of champagne, allowing the bubbles to travel further due to the narrow design, giving a more pleasant visual appeal. A sherry glass or schooner is drinkware used for serving aromatic alcoholic beverages, such as sherry, port and liqueurs, layered shooters; the copita, with its aroma-enhancing narrow taper, is a type of sherry glass. A boccalino is a mug used in Switzerland, to drink local wine, it has a volume of 200 ml. Some authors recommend one holds the glass by the stem, to avoid warming the wine and smudging the bowl. High quality wine glasses once were made of lead glass, which has a higher index of refraction and is heavier than ordinary glass, but health concerns regarding the ingestion of lead resulted in their being replaced by lead-free glass.
Wine glasses, with the exception of the hock glass, are not coloured or frosted as doing so would diminish appreciation of the wine's colour. There used to be an ISO standard for glass clarity and freedom from lead and other heavy metals, but it was withdrawn; some producers of high-end wine glasses such as Schott Zwiesel have pioneered methods of infusing titanium into the glass to increase its durability and reduce the likelihood of the glass breaking. In the 18th Century, glass makers would draw spiral patterns in the stem. If they used air bubbles it was called an airtwist; the International Organization for Standardization has a specification for a wine-tasting glass. It consists of a cup supported on a stem resting on a base; the opening is narrower than the convex part so as to concentrate the bouquet. The capacity is 215 ml, but it is intended to take a 50 ml pour; some glasses of a similar shape, but with different capacities, may be loosely referred to as ISO glasses, but they form no part of the ISO specification.
In the UK there has been a steady trend away from serving wine in the standard size of 125 ml, towards the larger size of 250 ml though, since 1 October 2010, alcohol retailers have been obliged by law to offer customers the choice of a smaller measure. A code