Tannhäuser was a German Minnesinger and poet. His biography is obscure beyond the poetry, which dates between 1245 and 1265, his name becomes associated with a "fairy queen"-type folk ballad in German folklore of the 16th century. Tradition has it that he presumed familial lineage with the old Swabian nobles, the Lords of Thannhausen, residents in their castle at Tannhausen near Ellwangen and ministeriales of the Counts of Oettingen. More however, is a descent from the Tanhusen family of Imperial ministeriales, documented in various 13th century sources, with their residence in the area of Neumarkt in the Bavarian Nordgau; the illustrated Codex Manesse manuscript depicts him clad in the Teutonic Order habit, suggesting he might have fought in the Sixth Crusade led by Emperor Frederick II in 1228/29. For a while, Tannhäuser was an active courtier at the court of the Austrian duke Frederick the Warlike, who ruled from 1230 to 1246. Frederick was the last of the Babenberg dukes. Tannhäuser was a proponent of the leich style of dance-song poetry.
As literature, his poems parody the traditional genre with irony and hyperbole, somewhat similar to commercium songs. However, his Bußlied is unusual, given the eroticism of the remaining Codex Manesse. Based on his Bußlied, Tannhäuser became the subject of a legendary account, it makes Tannhäuser a knight and poet who found the Venusberg, the subterranean home of Venus, spent a year there worshipping the goddess. After leaving the Venusberg, Tannhäuser is filled with remorse, travels to Rome to ask Pope Urban IV if it is possible to be absolved of his sins. Urban replies. Three days after Tannhäuser's departure, Urban's staff bloomed with flowers; the Venusberg legend has been interpreted in terms of a Christianised version of the well-known folk-tale type of a mortal visiting the Otherworld: A human being seduced by an elf or fairy experiences the delights of the enchanted realm but the longing for his earthly home is overwhelming. His desire is granted; the Venusberg legend has no counterpart in Middle High German literature associated with Tannhäuser.
Venusberg as a name of the "Otherworld" is first mentioned in German in Formicarius by Johannes Nider in the context of the rising interest in witchcraft at the time. The earliest version of the narrative of the Tannhauser legend, as yet without association with the figure of Tannhauser, naming a "Sibylla" instead of Venus as the queen in the mountain, is recorded in the form of a ballad by the Provencal writer Antoine de la Sale, part of the compilation known as La Salade; the association of the narrative of La Sale's ballad, based on an Italian original, with the name of Tannhauser, appears to take place in the early 16th century. A German Tannhauser folk ballad is recorded in numerous versions beginning around 1510, both in High German and Low German variants. Folkloristic versions were still collected from oral tradition in the early-to-mid 20th century in the Alpine region. Early written transmission around the 1520s was by the means of printed single sheets popular at the time, with examples known from Augsburg, Straubing and Wolfenbüttel The earliest extant version is from Jörg Dürnhofers Liederbuch, printed by Gutknecht of Nuremberg in ca.
1515. The popularity of the ballad continues unabated well into the 17th century. Versions are recorded by Johannes Preatorius; the Preatorius version was included in the Des Knaben Wunderhorn folksong collection by Clemens Brentano and Achim von Arnim in 1806. The folk ballad was adapted by Heinrich Heine. Richard Wagner adapted the legend in his three-act opera Tannhäuser, completed in 1845; the plot of the opera covers both the Tannhauser legend and the epic of the Sängerkrieg at Wartburg Castle. Aubrey Beardsley started to write an erotic treatment of the legend, never to be finished due to his conversion to Catholicism, repudiation of his past works, subsequent illness and death. In 1907, the original manuscript was entitled The Story of Venus and Tannhäuser. John Heath-Stubbs wrote a poem on the legend called " Tannhauser's End". Aleister Crowley wrote a play called Tannhauser which follows the characters Venus. English poet Algernon Charles Swinburne's "Laus Veneris". Swinburne composed the medieval French epigraph that purports to be its source.
William Morris retells the story in "The Hill of Venus," the final story of The Earthly Paradise. Guy Willoughby in his Art and Christhood asserts that the blossoming staff of the eponymous Young King in Oscar Wilde's fairy tale evokes that of Tannhäuser. H. G. Wells' Sleeper watches an adaption in The Sleeper Awakes, he references it in his short story The Man Who Could Work Miracles. Author Philip José Farmer references Tannhäuser and Venusberg in the 1967 sci-fi novella Riders of the Purple Wage; the plo
Dorothy Warren was an American author and officer in the United States Army during World War II. She worked on training programs in the military, after the war she served as the director of the New York House and School of Industry. Warren was born in New York, her parents were Blanche Allien Warren. Her father was a descendant of Thomas Leffingwell, founder of Norwich and her mother was the granddaughter of William Moller, founder of Havemeyer & Moller the American Sugar Refining Company, she graduated from New York City's Spence School in 1925 and studied at the California School of Fine Arts and Columbia University. From 1927 to 1931, she worked as a travel agent, worked in real estate management and brokerage for nine years. During World War II, she became a major, she served in personnel offices and training centers and was a commanding officer, until she left military service in 1946. Following the war, she developed a training program to expand the skill set of women who worked in offices.
It was created for the New York House and School of Industry, where she was the director, in conjunction with state and federal Departments of Labor. She served on the board of various organizations, like United Presbyterian Church, Turtle Bay Music School and The Spence Alumnae Society. A photographer and artist, her works are included in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, Museum of the City of New York and New-York Historical Society collections. A preservationist, she was active with Smithsonian Design Museum, she died on January 2008, in Manhattan at 102 years of age. The Letters of Ruth Draper: Self-Portrait of an Actress, 1920–1956 Dorothy Warren, Sir John Gielgud, 1979 The World of Ruth Draper: A Portrait of an Actress, 1999 Sacrificio: A Study in Heroism, a biography of Lauro De Bosis, 2009
The Huarochirí manuscript is a Quechua-language text from the late 16th century, describing myths, religious notions and traditions of the Indians of Huarochirí Province. The main roles in the myth are played by mountain deities, including the rivals Paryaqaqa and Wallallu Qarwinchu, who act as protectors of regional ethnicities; this text is an important monument of early colonial Quechua literature, because it is unique in its detailed description of the traditional beliefs of the indigenous Andean population of the former Inca Empire. The name of the original Indian author is unknown, but the document was recorded and annotated by Spanish cleric Francisco de Ávila, responsible for the eradication of pagan beliefs. For centuries, the manuscript was forgotten in the royal library of Madrid. German ethnologist Hermann Trimborn discovered the document in Madrid, translated it into German and published a bilingual edition in 1939. Most of it was destroyed in the Second World War. An expanded and re-worked edition in collaboration with Antje Kelm was published in 1967.
In 1966, Peruvian writer and anthropologist José María Arguedas translated the text into Spanish for the first time and published a bilingual edition. Hermann Trimborn: Dämonen und Zauber im Inkareich. Quellen und Forschungen zur Geschichte der Völkerkunde, Leipzig 1939. Hermann Trimborn, Antje Kelm: Götter und Kulte in Huarochirí. Quellenwerke zur alten Geschichte Amerikas aufgezeichnet in den Sprachen der Eingeborenen, Band 8. VerlagMann, 1967. José María Arguedas: Dioses y Hombres de Huarochirí. Quechua text with Spanish translation Huarochirí - An Andean Society Under Inca and Spanish Rule. Author: Karen Spalding Gérald Taylor: Rites et Traditions de Huarochirí. Frank Salomon, George L. Urioste: Huarochirí Manuscript: A Testament of Ancient and Colonial Andean Religion. Parts of the text in Quechua Gods and men of y Huarochirí Huarochirí, a Peruvian Culture in Time. Salomon F; the Huarochirí Manuscript. A Testament of Ancient and Colonial Andean Religion. Introductory Essay. Leónllerna L. Historia, lenguaje y naración en el Manuscrito de Huarochirí