Atlanersa was a Nubian king who ruled around 653 to 640 BC as the successor of Tantamani, the last ruler of the 25th Nubian dynasty in Egypt. In contrast to his predecessor, Atlanersas kingdom was restricted to the region of Kush south of Elephantine, nevertheless, he did adopt the titles of the Egyptian pharaohs. Atlanersa was the son of king Taharqa or possibly Tantamani and his mother was a queen whose name is not fully preserved, but ended with. salka. Atlanersa was married to his two sisters and Khaliset, further wives may include Malotaral - mother of his successor Senkamanisken- and Peltasen. A lady whose name is partially preserved, may be another consort. Atlanersa is known from depictions and a granite stand found in the temple of Jebel Barkal, an altar was found there inscribed with his name. At Dongola, the fragment of an obelisk was discovered with his name and he was buried in pyramid Nu.20 at Nuri. László Török, in, Fontes Historiae Nubiorum, Vol. I, Bergen 1994, 210-211, ISBN 82-991411-6-8
Narmer was an ancient Egyptian king of the Early Dynastic Period. Probably the successor to the Protodynastic kings Scorpion and/or Ka, some consider him the unifier of Egypt and founder of the First Dynasty, and in turn the first king of a unified Egypt. This conclusion is based on the Narmer Palette and the two seals from the necropolis of Abydos that show him as the first king of the First Dynasty. The date commonly given for the beginning of his reign is c.3100 BC, other mainstream estimates using both the historical method and Radiocarbon dating are in the range 3273–2987 BC. Although highly inter-related, the question of “who was Menes. ”, while Menes is traditionally considered the first king of Ancient Egypt, Narmer has been identified by the majority of Egyptologists as the same person as Menes. Although vigorously debated, the predominant opinion is that Narmer was Menes, the issue is confusing because “Narmer” is a Horus Name, while “Menes” is a personal name. The difficulty is aligning the contemporary archaeological evidence which lists Horus Names with the King Lists that list personal names, two documents have been put forward as proof either that Narmer was Menes or alternatively Hor-Aha was Menes.
The first is the “Naqada Label” which shows a serekh of Hor-Aha next to an enclosure inside of which are symbols that have been interpreted by scholars as the name “Menes”. The second is the impression from Abydos that alternates between a serekh of Narmer and the chessboard symbol, “mn”, which is interpreted as an abbreviation of Menes. Arguments have been made with regard to each of these documents in favour of Narmer or Hor-Aha being Menes, but in neither case, are the arguments conclusive. Two necropolis sealings, found in 1985 and 1991 in Abydos, in or near the tombs of Den and Qa’a, show Narmer as the founder of the First Dynasty, followed by Hor-Aha. The Qa’a sealing lists all eight of the kings of the First Dynasty in the correct order starting with Narmer and these necropolis sealings are strong evidence that Narmer was the first king of the First Dynasty – hence is the same person as Menes. The famous Narmer Palette, discovered by James E, since its discovery, however, it has been debated whether the Narmer Palette represents an actual historic event or is purely symbolic.
Of course, the Narmer Palette could represent an historical event while at the same time having a symbolic significance. In 1993, Günter Dreyer discovered in Abydos, a “year label” of Narmer depicting the event that is depicted on the Narmer Palette. This year label shows that the Narmer Palette depicts an historical event. Archaeological evidence suggests that Egypt was at least partially unified during the reigns of Ka and Iry-Hor, but there is a substantial difference in the quantity and distribution of inscriptions with the names of those earlier kings in Lower Egypt and Canaan, compared to the inscriptions of Narmer. The archaeological evidence suggest that the unification began before Narmer, but was completed by him through the conquest of a polity in the North-West Delta as depicted on the Narmer Palette
Neferkare Shabaka was a Kushite pharaoh of the Twenty-fifth dynasty of Egypt, who reigned from 721 BC–707/706 BC. Shabaka is thought to be the son of King Kashta and Pebatjma, although a text from the time of Taharqa could be interpreted to mean that Shabaka was a brother of Taharqa, Shabakas Queen Consort was Qalhata, according to Assyrian records, a sister of Taharqa. Shabaka and Qalhata were the parents of King Tantamani and most likely the parents of King Shebitku as well and it is possible that Queen Tabekenamun was a wife of Shabaka. She is thought by some to be a wife of Taharqa, Shabakas son Haremakhet became High Priest of Amun and is known from a statue and a fragment of a statue found in Karnak. A lady named Mesbat is mentioned on the sarcophagus of Haremakhet, Shabaka is the father of at least two more children, but the identity of their mother is not known. Piankharty became the wife of her brother Tantamani and she is depicted on the Dream Stela with him. Isetemkheb H likely married Tantamani as well and she was buried in Abydos, Egypt.
Shabaka succeeded his brother Piye on the throne, and adopted the name of the 6th-dynasty ruler Pepi II. Shabakas reign was dated from 716 BC to 702 BC by Kenneth Kitchen. This point was stressed by Danel Kahn in a 2006 article. Shabakas reign is significant because he consolidated the Nubian Kingdoms control over all of Egypt from Nubia down to the Delta region and it saw an enormous amount of building work undertaken throughout Egypt, especially at the city of Thebes, which he made the capital of his kingdom. In Karnak he erected a granite statue of himself wearing the twin crowns of Egypt. Shabaka succeeded in preserving Egypts independence from outside foreign powers--especially the Assyrian empire under Sargon II, the most famous relic from Shabakas reign is the Shabaka stone which records several Old Kingdom documents that the king ordered preserved. Also notable is the Shabaka Gate, a stone door unearthed by archeologists in 2011. Despite being relative newcomers to Egypt and his family were interested in Egypts past.
Shabaka would grant refuge to king Iamanni of Ashdod after the fled to Egypt following the suppression of his revolt by Assyria in 712 BC. Shabaka is assumed to have died in his 15th regnal year based on BM cube statue 24429, from the evidence of the Tang-i Var inscription, Shabaka was already dead by 707 or 706 BC. He was buried in a pyramid at el-Kurru and was succeeded by his nephew Shebitku, Piyes son, following the Kushite tradition of succession from brother to brother, Shebitku would eventually be succeeded by Tantamuni, a son of Shabaka
Taharqa, spelled Taharka or Taharqo, was a pharaoh of ancient Egypt of the Twenty-fifth Dynasty and qore of the Kingdom of Kush. Taharqa was the son of Piye, the Nubian king of Napata who had first conquered Egypt, Taharqa was the cousin and successor of Shebitku. The successful campaigns of Piye and Shabaka paved the way for a prosperous reign by Taharqa, Taharqas reign can be dated from 690 BC to 664 BC. Evidence for the dates of his reign is derived from the Serapeum stela and this stela records that an Apis bull born and installed in Year 26 of Taharqa died in Year 20 of Psammetichus I, having lived 21 years. This would give Taharqa a reign of 26 years and a fraction, Taharqa explicitly states in Kawa Stela V, line 15, that he succeeded his predecessor after the latters death with this statement, I received the Crown in Memphis after the Falcon flew to heaven. Although Taharqas reign was filled with conflict with the Assyrians, it was a prosperous period in Egypt. When Taharqa was about 20 years old, he participated in a battle with the Assyrian emperor Sennacherib at Eltekeh.
The might of Taharqas military forces was established at Eltekeh, leading to a period of peace in Egypt, during this period of peace and prosperity, the empire flourished. In the sixth year of Taharqas reign, prosperity was aided by abundant rainfall, Taharqa took full advantage of the lull in fighting and abundant harvest. He restored existing temples, built new ones, and built the largest pyramid in the Napatan region, particularly impressive were his additions to the Temple at Karnak, new temple at Kawa, and temple at Jebel Barkal. Scholars have identified Taharqa with Tirhakah, king of Ethiopia, who waged war against Sennacherib during the reign of King Hezekiah of Judah, the events in the Biblical account are believed to have taken place in 701 BC, whereas Taharqa came to the throne some ten years later. Herodotus, the Greek historian who wrote his Histories ca.450 BC, speaks of a divinely-appointed disaster destroying an army of Sennacherib, which was defeated by Sethos after praying to the gods.
The gods sent a multitude of field-mice, which devoured all the quivers and bowstrings of the enemy, and ate the thongs by which they managed their shields. This is commemorated in a statue of Sethos, with a mouse in his hand, and an inscription to this effect Look on me. While Taharqa was still in the neighbourhood of Pelusium, some unexpected disaster may have befallen the Assyrian host on the borders of Palestine, the two snakes in the crown of pharaoh Taharqa show that he was the king of both the lands of Egypt and Nubia. It was during his reign that Egypts enemy Assyria at last invaded Egypt, Esarhaddon led several campaigns against Taharqa, which he recorded on several monuments. His first attack in 677 BC, aimed at pacifying Arab tribes around the Dead Sea, Esarhaddon proceeded to invade Egypt proper in Taharqas 17th regnal year, after Esarhaddon had settled a revolt at Ashkelon. Taharqa defeated the Assyrians on that occasion, three years in 671 BC the Assyrian king captured and sacked Memphis, where he captured numerous members of the royal family
Sudan, known as North Sudan since South Sudans independence and officially the Republic of the Sudan, is a country in Northern Africa. It is the third largest country in Africa, the River Nile divides the country into eastern and western halves. Before the Sudanese Civil War, South Sudan was part of Sudan, Sudan was home to numerous ancient civilizations, such as the Kingdom of Kush, Nobatia, Makuria, Meroë and others, most of which flourished along the Nile. During the pre-dynastic period Nubia and Nagadan Upper Egypt were identical, by virtue of its proximity to Egypt, the Sudan participated in the wider history of the Near East inasmuch as it was Christianized by the 6th century, and Islamized in the 15th. As a result of Christianization, the Old Nubian language stands as the oldest recorded Nilo-Saharan language, Sudan was the largest country in Africa and the Arab world until 2011, when South Sudan separated into an independent country, following an independence referendum. Sudan is now the third largest country in Africa and the third largest country in the Arab world and its capital is Khartoum, the political and commercial centre of the nation.
It is a representative democratic federal republic. The politics of Sudan are regulated by an organization called the National Assembly. The Sudanese legal system is based on Islamic law, the countrys place name Sudan is a name given to a geographical region to the south of the Sahara, stretching from Western Africa to eastern Central Africa. The name derives from the Arabic bilād as-sūdān, or the lands of the Blacks, during the fifth millennium BC migrations from the drying Sahara brought neolithic people into the Nile Valley along with agriculture. The population that resulted from this cultural and genetic mixing developed social hierarchy over the centuries become the Kingdom of Kush at 1700 BC. The Kingdom of Kush was an ancient Nubian state centered on the confluences of the Blue Nile and White Nile, and the Atbarah River and it was established after the Bronze Age collapse and the disintegration of the New Kingdom of Egypt, centered at Napata in its early phase. After King Kashta invaded Egypt in the eighth century BC, the Kushite kings ruled as pharaohs of the Twenty-fifth Dynasty of Egypt for a century before being defeated and driven out by the Assyrians.
At the height of their glory, the Kushites conquered an empire that stretched from what is now known as South Kordofan all the way to the Sinai, pharaoh Piye attempted to expand the empire into the Near East, but was thwarted by the Assyrian king Sargon II. Sennacheribs successor Esarhaddon went further, and invaded Egypt itself, deposing Taharqa, Taharqa fled back to his homeland where he died two years later. Egypt became an Assyrian colony, king Tantamani, after succeeding Taharqa, Esarhaddon died while preparing to leave the Assyrian capital of Nineveh in order to eject him. However, his successor Ashurbanipal sent an army into southern Egypt and routed Tantamani. During Classical Antiquity, the Nubian capital was at Meroë, in ancient Greek geography, the Meroitic kingdom was known as Ethiopia
Upper Egypt is the strip of land on both sides of the Nile that extends between Nubia and downriver to Lower Egypt. Upper Egypt is between the Cataracts of the Nile above modern-day Aswan, downriver to the area between Dahshur and El-Ayait, which is south of modern-day Cairo, the northern part of Upper Egypt, between Sohag and El-Ayait, is known as Middle Egypt. In Arabic, inhabitants of Upper Egypt are known as Saidis, in ancient Egypt, Upper Egypt was known as tꜣ šmꜣw, literally the Land of Reeds or the Sedgeland It was divided into twenty-two districts called nomes. The first nome was roughly where modern-day Aswan is and the twenty-second was at modern Atfih just to the south of Cairo, the main city of prehistoric Upper Egypt was Nekhen, whose patron deity was the vulture goddess Nekhbet. By about 3600 BC, Neolithic Egyptian societies along the Nile had based their culture on the raising of crops, shortly after 3600 BC, Egyptian society began to grow and increase in complexity. A new and distinctive pottery, which was related to the Levantine ceramics, extensive use of copper became common during this time.
The Mesopotamian process of sun-drying adobe and architectural principles—including the use of the arch, concurrent with these cultural advances, a process of unification of the societies and towns of the upper Nile River, or Upper Egypt, occurred. At the same time the societies of the Nile Delta, or Lower Egypt underwent a unification process, warfare between Upper and Lower Egypt occurred often. During his reign in Upper Egypt, King Narmer defeated his enemies on the Delta, for most of pharaonic Egypts history, Thebes was the administrative center of Upper Egypt. After its devastation by the Assyrians, its importance declined, under the Ptolemies, Ptolemais Hermiou took over the role of Upper Egypts capital city. Upper Egypt was represented by the tall White Crown Hedjet, and its symbols were the flowering lotus, in the 11th century, large numbers of pastoralists, known as Hilalians, fled Upper Egypt and moved westward into Libya and as far as Tunis. It is believed that degraded grazing conditions in Upper Egypt, associated with the beginning of the Medieval Warm Period, were the cause of the migration.
In the 20th-century Egypt, the title Prince of the Said was used by the apparent to the Egyptian throne. Although the Kingdom of Egypt was abolished after the Egyptian revolution of 1952, media related to Upper Egypt at Wikimedia Commons
Nubia is a region along the Nile river located in what is today northern Sudan and southern Egypt. It was the seat of one of the earliest civilizations of ancient Africa, with a history that can be traced from at least 2000 B. C. onward, and was home to one of the African empires. Nubia was again united within Ottoman Egypt in the 19th century, the name Nubia is derived from that of the Noba people, nomads who settled the area in the 4th century following the collapse of the kingdom of Meroë. The Noba spoke a Nilo-Saharan language, ancestral to Old Nubian, Old Nubian was mostly used in religious texts dating from the 8th and 15th centuries AD. Before the 4th century, and throughout classical antiquity, Nubia was known as Kush, or, in Classical Greek usage, until at least 1970, the Birgid language was spoken north of Nyala in Darfur, but is now extinct. Nubia was divided into two regions and Lower Nubia, so called because of their location in the Nile river valley. Early settlements sprouted in both Upper and Lower Nubia, Egyptians referred to Nubia as Ta-Seti, or The Land of the Bow, since the Nubians were known to be expert archers.
Modern scholars typically refer to the people from this area as the “A-Group” culture, fertile farmland just south of the Third Cataract is known as the “pre-Kerma” culture in Upper Nubia, as they are the ancestors. The Neolithic people in the Nile Valley likely came from Sudan, as well as the Sahara, by the 5th millennium BC, the people who inhabited what is now called Nubia participated in the Neolithic revolution. Saharan rock reliefs depict scenes that have been thought to be suggestive of a cult, typical of those seen throughout parts of Eastern Africa. Megaliths discovered at Nabta Playa are early examples of what seems to be one of the worlds first astronomical devices, around 3500 BC, the second Nubian culture, termed the A-Group, arose. It was a contemporary of, and ethnically and culturally similar to. The A-Group people were engaged in trade with the Egyptians and this trade is testified archaeologically by large amounts of Egyptian commodities deposited in the graves of the A-Group people.
The imports consisted of gold objects, copper tools, faience amulets and beads, slate palettes, stone vessels, and a variety of pots. Around 3300 BC, there is evidence of a kingdom, as shown by the finds at Qustul. The Nubian culture may have contributed to the unification of the Nile Valley. The earliest known depiction of the crown is on a ceremonial incense burner from Cemetery at Qustul in Lower Nubia. New evidence from Abydos, particularly the excavation of Cemetery U, around the turn of the protodynastic period, Naqada, in its bid to conquer and unify the whole Nile Valley, seems to have conquered Ta-Seti and harmonized it with the Egyptian state
The Nile is a major north-flowing river in northeastern Africa. It is generally regarded as the longest river in the world, in particular, the Nile is the primary water source of Egypt and Sudan. The Nile has two tributaries, the White Nile and Blue Nile. The White Nile is considered to be the headwaters and primary stream of the Nile itself, the Blue Nile, however, is the source of most of the water and silt. The White Nile is longer and rises in the Great Lakes region of central Africa and it flows north through Tanzania, Lake Victoria and South Sudan. The Blue Nile begins at Lake Tana in Ethiopia and flows into Sudan from the southeast, the two rivers meet just north of the Sudanese capital of Khartoum. The northern section of the river flows north almost entirely through the Sudanese desert to Egypt, ends in a large delta, Egyptian civilization and Sudanese kingdoms have depended on the river since ancient times. Most of the population and cities of Egypt lie along those parts of the Nile valley north of Aswan, in the ancient Egyptian language, the Nile is called Ḥpī or Iteru, meaning river.
In Coptic, the words piaro or phiaro meaning the river come from the ancient name. The English name Nile and the Arabic names en-Nîl and an-Nîl both derive from the Latin Nilus and the Ancient Greek Νεῖλος, beyond that, the etymology is disputed. One possible etymology derives it from a Semitic Nahal, meaning river, the standard English names White Nile and Blue Nile, to refer to the rivers source, derive from Arabic names formerly applied only to the Sudanese stretches which meet at Khartoum. Above Khartoum, the Nile is known as the White Nile, at Khartoum the river is joined by the Blue Nile. The White Nile starts in equatorial East Africa, and the Blue Nile begins in Ethiopia, both branches are on the western flanks of the East African Rift. The drainage basin of the Nile covers 3,254,555 square kilometers, the source of the Nile is sometimes considered to be Lake Victoria, but the lake has feeder rivers of considerable size. It is either the Ruvyironza, which emerges in Bururi Province, Burundi, or the Nyabarongo, the two feeder rivers meet near Rusumo Falls on the Rwanda-Tanzania border.
Gish Abay is reportedly the place where the water of the first drops of the Blue Nile develop. The Nile leaves Lake Nyanza at Ripon Falls near Jinja, Uganda and it flows north for some 130 kilometers, to Lake Kyoga. For the remaining part it flows westerly through the Murchison Falls until it reaches the very northern shores of Lake Albert where it forms a significant river delta
Thebes, known to the ancient Egyptians as Waset, was an ancient Egyptian city located east of the Nile about 800 kilometers south of the Mediterranean. Its ruins lie within the modern Egyptian city of Luxor, Thebes was the main city of the fourth Upper Egyptian nome. It was close to Nubia and the desert, with their valuable mineral resources. It was a center and the wealthiest city of ancient Egypt at its heyday. The Ancient Egyptians originally knew Thebes as Wose or Wase A was was the scepter of the pharaohs, a staff with an animals head. Thebes is the Latinized form of the Greek Thebai, the form of the Demotic Egyptian Ta-pe. This was the name not for the city itself but for the Karnak temple complex on the northern east bank of the city. As early as Homers Iliad, the Greeks distinguished the Egyptian Thebes as Thebes of the Hundred Gates, as opposed to the Thebes of the Seven Gates in Boeotia, from the end of the New Kingdom, Thebes was known in Egyptian as Niwt-Imn, the City of Amun. Amun was the chief of the Theban Triad of gods whose other members were Mut and this name appears in the Bible as the Nōʼ ʼĀmôn of the Book of Nahum and probably as the No mentioned in Ezekiel and Jeremiah.
In the interpretatio graeca, Amun was seen as a form of Zeus, the name was therefore translated into Greek as Diospolis, the City of Zeus. To distinguish it from the other cities by this name. The Greek names came into use after the conquest of Egypt by Alexander the Great. Thebes was located along the banks of the Nile River in the part of Upper Egypt about 800 km from the Delta. It was built largely on the plains of the Nile Valley which follows a great bend of the Nile. As a natural consequence, the city was laid in a northeast-southwest axis parallel to the river channel. Thebes had an area of 93 km2 which included parts of the Theban Hills in the west that culminates at the sacred 420-meter al-Qurn, in the east lies the mountainous Eastern Desert with its wadis draining into the valley. Significant of these wadis is Wadi Hammamat near Thebes and it was used as an overland trade route going to the Red Sea coast. In the fourth Upper Egyptian nome, Thebes was found to have neighboring towns such as Per-Hathor, Djerty, Sumenu, according to George Modelski, Thebes had about 40,000 inhabitants in 2000 BC
Wahibre Psamtik I, known by the Greeks as Psammeticus or Psammetichus, who ruled 664–610 BC, was the first of three kings of that name of the Saite, or Twenty-sixth Dynasty of Egypt. From cuneiform texts, it was discovered that twenty local princelings were appointed by Esarhaddon, the labyrinth built by Amenemhat III of the Twelfth Dynasty of Egypt is ascribed by Herodotus to the Dodecarchy, which must represent this combination of rulers. Necho I died in 664 BC when the Kushite king Tantamani tried unsuccessfully to control of lower Egypt from the Assyrian Empire. After his fathers death, Psamtik both united all of Egypt and freed it from Assyrian control within the first ten years of his reign, psamtiks victory destroyed the last vestiges of the Nubian Twenty-fifth Dynastys control over Upper Egypt under Tantamani since Thebes now accepted his authority. Nitocris would hold her office for 70 years from 656 BC until her death in 585 BC, Psamtik campaigned vigorously against those local princes who opposed his reunification of Egypt.
One of his victories over certain Libyan marauders is mentioned in a Year 10, Psamtik won Egypts independence from the Assyrian Empire and restored Egypts prosperity during his 54-year reign. The pharaoh proceeded to close relations with archaic Greece and encouraged many Greek settlers to establish colonies in Egypt. In particular, he settled some Greeks at Tahpanhes, the Greek historian Herodotus conveyed an anecdote about Psamtik in the second volume of his Histories. During his travel to Egypt, Herodotus heard that Psammetichus sought to discover the origin of language by conducting an experiment with two children, the hypothesis was that the first word would be uttered in the root language of all people. When one of the children cried βεκός with outstretched arms, the shepherd concluded that the word was Phrygian because that was the sound of the Phrygian word for bread. Thus, they concluded that the Phrygians were a people than the Egyptians. There are no other extant sources to verify this story, psamtiks chief wife was Mehytenweskhet, the daughter of Harsiese, the vizier of the North and High Priests of Atum at Heliopolis.
Psamtik and Mehytenweskhet were the parents of Necho II, Harsiese was the son of vizier Harkhebi, and was related to two other Harsieses, both viziers, who were a part of the family of the famous Mayor of Thebes Montuemhat. On 9 March 2017, Egyptian and German archaeologists discovered a colossal statue about 7.9 metres in height at the Heliopolis site in Cairo. Made of quartzite, the statue was found in a state, with the bust, the lower part of the head. It is suggested to be of Psamtik I due to engravings found that one of the pharaohs names on the base of the statue. A spokesperson at the time commented that If it does belong to this king, the head and torso are expected to be moved to the Grand Egyptian Museum. This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Hugh
Shebitku was the third king of the Twenty-fifth Dynasty of Egypt who ruled from 707/706 BC-690 BC, according to Danel Kahns most recent academic research of the Tang-i Var inscription. Shebitku was the nephew and successor of Shabaka and he was a son of Piye, the founder of this dynasty. Shebitkus prenomen or throne name, means Enduring is the Soul of Re, in 1999, an Egypt-Assyrian synchronism from the Great Inscription of Tang-i Var in Iran was re-discovered and re-analysed. The pertinent section of the inscription by Sargon II reads, The Tang-i Var inscription dates to Sargons 15th year between Nisan 707 BC to Adar 706 BC. As Jansen-Winkeln writes, there has never been the slightest hint at any form of coregency of the Nubian kings of Dynasty 25, Sargon can be expected to have named the regent of Egypt and senior king, rather than the distant viceroy Shebitku. If, on the hand, Shebitku was already Shabakas successor in 707/706. It had hitherto been assumed that the Nubian king handed over Yamani more or less immediately after his flight to Egypt, now it appears.
certain that Yamani was only turned over to the Assyrians a couple of years later. Consequently, Shebitkus reign should be dated to c.707 or 706 BC to 690 BC, murnanes 1977 book on Ancient Egyptian Coregencies. However, the Turin Museum has subsequently acknowledged the statue to be a forgery, if correct, this would demonstrate that Shebitku had truly served as a coregent to Shabaka for 2 years. William Murnane endorsed this interpretation by noting that Shebitkus Year 3 Nile Text need not refer to an accession or coronation at all. Rather, it simply to record an appearance of Shebitku in the temple of Amun during his third year. In other words, Shebitku was already king of Egypt and the purpose of his visit to Karnak was to receive, the evidence for a possible coregency between Shabaka and Shebitku is illusory at present. Recently the arguments for reversing the order of Shabaka and Shebitku have been taken up by Bányai, shebitku’s reign would cover the years 712-704 BC. During Shebitkus reign, there was initially a policy of conciliation with Assyria which was marked by the extradition of Iamanni back into Sargon IIs hands.
After Sargon IIs death, Shebitku appears to have adopted a different policy by actively resisting any new Assyrian expansion into Canaan under Sargons son, a stela from Kawa relates that Shebitku asked his brothers, including Taharqa, to travel north to Thebes from Nubia. The Nubian army travelled along with Taharqa presumably to fight the Assyrians at the Battle of Eltekeh in 701 BC, another stela records that when Jerusalem was under attack by the Assyrians, the king of Kush marched against Sennacherib. Shebitku joined in the resistance against Sennacherib and an Egyptian army was sent to Palestine, led by Shebitkus brother, Shebitku completed the decoration of the Temple of Osiris Heqadjet in Thebes during his reign. The Temple had been constructed under Osorkon III, in 690 BC, Shebitku died and was succeeded by Taharqa, his younger brother