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Tanzimat

The Tanzimât was a period of reform in the Ottoman Empire that began in 1839 and ended with the First Constitutional Era in 1876. The Tanzimat era began with the purpose, not of radical transformation, but of modernization, desiring to consolidate the social and political foundations of the Ottoman Empire, it was characterised by various attempts to modernise the Ottoman Empire and to secure its territorial integrity against internal nationalist movements and external aggressive powers. The reforms encouraged Ottomanism among the diverse ethnic groups of the Empire and attempted to stem the tide of nationalist movements within the Ottoman Empire; the reforms sought to emancipate the empire's non-Muslim subjects and more integrate non-Turks into Ottoman society by enhancing their civil liberties and granting them equality throughout the empire. In the midst of being forced to recognize the supremacy of Western power, the Ottoman elite intellectuals attempted to bring reconciliation between the West and the East within the framework of Islam.

Part of the reform policy was an economic policy based on the Treaty of Balta Liman of 1838. Many changes were made to improve civil liberties, but many Muslims saw them as foreign influence on the world of Islam; that perception complicated reformist efforts made by the state. During the Tanzimat period, the government's series of constitutional reforms led to a modern conscripted army, banking system reforms, the decriminalization of homosexuality, the replacement of religious law with secular law and guilds with modern factories; the Ottoman Ministry of Post was established in Constantinople on 23 October 1840. The reforms emerged from the minds of reformist sultans like Mahmud II, his son Abdulmejid I and prominent European-educated bureaucrats, who recognised that the old religious and military institutions no longer met the needs of the empire. Most of the symbolic changes, such as uniforms, were aimed at changing the mindset of imperial administrators. Many of the officials affiliated with the government were encouraged to wear a more western style of dress.

Many of the reforms were attempts to adopt successful European practices. The reforms were influenced by the Napoleonic Code and French law under the Second French Empire as a direct result of the increasing number of Ottoman students being educated in France. Changes included the elimination of the devshirme system of conscription in favour of universal conscription. A policy called Ottomanism was meant to unite all the different peoples living in Ottoman territories, "Muslim and non-Muslim and Greek, Armenian and Jewish and Arab"; the policy began with the Edict of Gülhane of 1839, declaring equality before the law for both Muslim and non-Muslim Ottomans. The ambitious project was launched to combat the slow decline of the empire that had seen its borders shrink and its strength weaken in comparison to the European powers. There were both external reasons for the reforms. Internally, the Ottoman Empire hoped that getting rid of the millet system would lead to direct control of all of its citizens by the creation of a more-centralized government and an increase of the legitimacy of Ottoman rule.

Another major hope was that being more open to various demographics would attract more people into the empire. There was fear of internal strife between Muslims and non-Muslims, allowing more religious freedom to all was supposed to diminish this threat. Giving more rights to the Christians was considered to reduce the danger of outside intervention on their behalf; the Ottomans became worried of an escalating intervention of the European powers in Ottoman affairs, another reason for the reforms. After the Crimean War, caused by Russia's incursion into the Ottoman Empire in the 1850s, Ottoman leaders tried to avoid a repeat, they thought. Although the motives for the implementation of Tanzimât were bureaucratic, it was impulsed by liberal ministers and intellectuals like Dimitrios Zambakos Pasha, Kabuli Mehmed Pasha, the secret society of the Young Ottomans, liberal minded like Midhat Pasha, often considered as one of the founders of the Ottoman Parliament. Thanks to the emerging internal and diplomatic crises of 1875–1876, Midhat Pasha introduced the constitution of 1876, ending the Tanzimat.

The Tanzimât reforms began under Sultan Mahmud II. On November 3, 1839, Sultan Abdulmejid I issued a hatt-i sharif or imperial edict called the Edict of Gülhane or Tanzimât Fermânı; this was followed by several statutes enacting its policies. In the edict the Sultan stated that he wished "to bring the benefits of a good administration to the provinces of the Ottoman Empire through new institutions". Among the reforms were: guarantees to ensure the Ottoman subjects perfect security for their lives and property.

Sophie Turner Laing

Sophie Henrietta Turner Laing, is a British businesswoman and media executive. She has been chief executive officer of global content creator and distributor Endemol Shine Group since December 2014. Prior to taking up her current role, she held a number of senior positions at Sky in the UK, including director of movies and managing director of content, she had worked for the BBC as acting director of television and, along with Peter Orton, was a founder of HiT Entertainment. Turner Laing was born on 7 September 1960 to G. V. Turner Laing, she was educated at a boarding school in Buckinghamshire. She didn't attend a university. After finishing school, Turner Laing completed a secretarial course and worked as an events secretary for the Variety Club of Great Britain, she spent two years working in public relations and radio in Australia. She returned to the United Kingdom in 1982, she began her television career as a secretary at Elstree Studios in the distribution side of Henson International Television, a division of The Jim Henson Company.

She rose to become the sales director. During this time she worked on The Muppet Show. In 1989, she and Peter Orton established HiT Entertainment, after purchasing the Henson International Television division from The Jim Henson Company. In 1995, she joined Flextech Television working as a buyer of content. In 1998, she moved to the British Broadcasting Corporation, where she worked as controller of programme acquisitions for five years, she was involved in the buying of programmes such as Band of Brothers and the first season of 24 for the company. From December 2000 to March 2001, she held the additional role of acting director of marketing and communications, she ended her time at the BBC as acting director of television. In 2003, she left the BBC for BSkyB. In March of that year she was appointed director of movies. In April 2004, she became deputy managing director of Sky Networks, therefore deputy head of all Sky channels except Sky Sports. In March 2007, she joined the executive of the company as managing director of content.

In that role, she is responsible for the companies portfolio of news channels. She launched a new channel, Sky Atlantic, in 2011. In May 2014, she left BSkyB. Turner Laing has been honoured with a Royal Television Society Fellowship for her "outstanding contribution" to British television, as well as the inaugural MIPTV Médaille d'Honneur for her contribution to television globally. In January 2016 she received the Brandon Tartikoff Legacy Award in recognition of "extraordinary passion, leadership and vision in the process of creating television programming."In the 2018 Queen's Birthday Honours, she was appointed an Officer of the Order of the British Empire "for services to the media"

Quinto Martini (artist)

Quinto Martini was an Italian artist and writer, born in Seano, Tuscany. He was a self-taught artist, born in a farming family and raised among the hills behind Leonardo da Vinci's land. Martini was discovered by the artist Ardengo Soffici in 1926, when he went to visit Soffici's workshop in Poggio a Caiano, close to Seano, where the latter retired to paint the nature and traditional Tuscan farmers' world. Looking at the young Martini's first experiments, the maestro Soffici recognised the kind of genuine and intimate traits he valued in traditional Italian art. Quinto Martini was taught drawing and art techniques, exposed to art and literature with Soffici as his patron and mentor. In Soffici's library, Quinto Martini studied the French Impressionists and other modern artists: Cézanne, Degas and the cubists, as well as Italian artists such as Giorgio Morandi, Armando Spadini, the futurists. In Prato, the closest city to his hometown, Quinto Martini joined a group of workers and artists spontaneously formed in 1925.

Among those artists were Oscar Gallo, Leonetto Tintori, Gino Brogi, Arrigo Del Rigo. All of them studied at the "Leonardo" Art School of Prato, were inspired by Ardengo Soffici and by the movement "Il Selvaggio". In February 1927, still under the aegis of Soffici, Martini was invited to participate in the collective exhibition il Selvaggio, together with Mino Maccari, Carlo Carrà, Ottone Rosai, Giorgio Morandi, Achille Lega, Pio Semenghini, Nicola Galante and Evaristo Boncinelli, he published in the same review il Selvaggio etchings and drawings, entering the Florence artists' and intellectuals' world. Between 1928 and 1929 Quinto Martini went to Turin for military service, where he moved in bohemian cafés and cultural circles enlivened by a Parisian avant-garde atmosphere. There Martini met Felice Casorati, Cesare Pavese and "The Six Painters" group, who were typical interpreters of an anti-fascist and communist-oriented culture inspired by the French Cézanne and Manet. In Turin the young artist encountered the intellectual Carlo Levi who would be, together with Soffici, one of the fundamental interlocutors of his life.

After a period of military service in Turin, in the early 1930s he started working on the "Mendicanti" series which he investigated again and again throughout his whole life production. Martini's mendicants are painted in a realistic manner, where their poverty is described through poverty of tools, the figures are symbolically lengthened and bent to the earth; the sculptures of Quinto Martini were inspired by the Etruscan style, rooted in his area where there are important Etruscan archeological sites. In 1935 Martini relocated from the Tuscan countryside to Florence, where he died in 1990. Across the 1930s and'40s, the artist's attention shifted progressively to sculpture, he used simple and "poor" terracotta, a material typical of his rural environment, common in the Seano area when the Etruscans settled and expressed their culture millenniums before. Terracotta was like the mud from which Martini had moulded animal figures as a child, playing in the farm yard. One terracotta sculpture was "la ragazza seanese", unveiled at the XIX Biennale di Venezia in 1934.

From that moment on, Quinto Martini gained the appreciation of the public. From 1935 onward, Quinto Martini was present in all editions of the Quadriennale di Roma until the 1972–73 edition. At the 1939 edition, an entire salon was dedicated to his sculptures alone. In the same year, the artist published some of his etchings in the review Frontespizio, gathering together the most relevant contemporary artists from Ottone Rosai to Giorgio Morandi, from Giacomo Manzù to Fiorenzo Tomea, important writers like Mario Luzi and Carlo Bo. Quinto Martini participated in the XXth Biennale di Venezia edition, where his work was appreciated by the important Italian critic Giuseppe Marchiori; the review Domus published an interview with him, he was the protagonist of some exhibitions in Florence and Rome at the "Quadriennale d'arte nazionale". In the same years, the artist will continue publishing drawings and etchings in the cultural reviews il Selvaggio, Frontespizio of the writer and politician Piero Bargellini, in the art and literature review l'Orto from Bologna.

The "Mendicanti" series, some of which were displayed at the "Lyceum" in Florence in 1943, were considered to be against the regime warlike propaganda. Quinto Martini was jailed shortly after the exhibition, together with Carlo Levi, in the same prison where his brother had been kept for fifteen years. Once released, the artist went into hiding in the Chianti countryside to avoid being captured by the Nazis. In that period he wrote the novel I giorni sono lunghi to render that experience memorable, published in 1957 with a preface from Levi himself. Intimate reflections expressed in verses, opened Martini's road to poetry. Across the'50s and'60s, Quinto Martini published some tales and poems for the "Nuovo Corriere" of Firenze, while many more remain still unpublished. In 1974, his second novel Chi ha paura va alla guerra is printed in Catanzaro for the Frama's Publisher edited by Pasquino Crupi, where Quinto Martini tells the story of a deserter during the First World War. With clear inspiration and sound form of expression, the artist animated the "Nuovo Umanesimo" art group with Ugo Capocchini, Emanuele Cavalli, Giovanni Colacicchi, Oscar Gallo, Onofrio Martinelli in 1947.

Their "manifesto" announced their opposition to any concept of abstract art. Late in the 1940s Martini's sculptures won some first prizes at the national level, early in the 1950s they started to be exposed abroad. Quinto Martini's paintings turned into a matur