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Taoiseach

The Taoiseach is the prime minister and head of government of Ireland. The Taoiseach is appointed by the President upon the nomination of Dáil Éireann, the lower house of the Oireachtas, must, to remain in office, retain the support of a majority in the Dáil; the word taoiseach means "chief" or "leader" in Irish and was adopted in the 1937 Constitution of Ireland as the title of the "head of the Government, or Prime Minister". Taoiseach is the official title of the head of government in both English and Irish, is not used for other countries' prime ministers; the Irish form, An Taoiseach, is sometimes used in English instead of "the Taoiseach". Leo Varadkar TD is the current Taoiseach. Varadkar is the youngest Taoiseach in the history of the Irish state, having taken office at the age of 38. Under the Constitution of Ireland, the Taoiseach is nominated by a simple majority of the voting members of Dáil Éireann. He/she is formally appointed to office by the President, required to appoint whomever the Dáil designates, without the option of declining to make the appointment.

For this reason, the Taoiseach may, informally, be said to have been "elected" by Dáil Éireann. If the Taoiseach loses the support of a majority in Dáil Éireann, he/she is not automatically removed from office. Instead, he/she is compelled either to persuade the President to dissolve the Dáil. If the President refuses to grant a dissolution, this forces the Taoiseach to resign. To date, no president has exercised this prerogative, although the option arose in 1944 and 1994, twice in 1982; the Taoiseach may lose the support of Dáil Éireann by the passage of a vote of no confidence, or implicitly, through the failure of a vote of confidence. Alternatively, the Dáil may refuse supply. In the event of the Taoiseach's resignation, he/she continues to exercise the duties and functions of his/her office until the appointment of a successor; the Taoiseach nominates the remaining members of the Government, who are with the consent of the Dáil, appointed by the President. The Taoiseach is authorised to advise the President to dismiss cabinet ministers from office.

The Taoiseach is further responsible for appointing eleven members of the Seanad. The Department of the Taoiseach is the government department which supports and advises the Taoiseach in carrying out his/her various duties. Since 2013, the Taoiseach's annual salary is €185,350, it was cut from €214,187 to €200,000 when Enda Kenny took office, before being cut further to €185,350 under the Haddington Road Agreement in 2013. A proposed increase of €38,000 in 2007 was deferred when Brian Cowen became Taoiseach and in October 2008, the government announced a 10% salary cut for all ministers, including the Taoiseach; however this was a voluntary cut and the salaries remained nominally the same with both ministers and Taoiseach refusing 10% of their salary. This courted controversy in December 2009 when a salary cut of 20% was based on the higher figure before the refused amount was deducted; the Taoiseach is allowed an additional €118,981 in annual expenses. There is no official residence of the Taoiseach.

In 2008 it was reported speculatively that the former Steward's Lodge at Farmleigh adjoining the Phoenix Park would become the official residence of the Taoiseach. The house, which forms part of the Farmleigh estate acquired by the State in 1999 for €29.2m, was renovated at a cost of nearly €600,000 in 2005 by the Office of Public Works. Former Taoiseach Bertie Ahern did not use it as a residence, but his successor Brian Cowen used it "from time to time". "Mór Chluana" is a traditional air collected by Patrick Weston Joyce in 1873. "Amhrán Dóchais" is a poem set to the air. John A. Costello chose the air as his salute; the salute is played by army bands on the arrival of the Taoiseach at state ceremonies. Though the salute is called "Amhrán Dóchais", Brian Ó Cuív argues "Mór Chluana" is the correct title; the words Tánaiste are both from the Irish language and of ancient origin. Though the Taoiseach is described in the Constitution of Ireland as "the head of the Government or Prime Minister", its literal translation is chieftain or leader.

Although Éamon de Valera, who introduced the title in 1937, was neither a Fascist nor a dictator, it has sometimes been remarked that the meaning leader in 1937 made the title similar to the titles of Fascist dictators of the time, such as Führer and Caudillo. Tánaiste, in turn, refers to the system of tanistry, the Gaelic system of succession whereby a leader would appoint an heir apparent while still living. In Scottish Gaelic, tòiseach translates as clan chief and both words had similar meanings in the Gaelic languages of Scotland and Ireland; the related Welsh language word tywysog has meaning. It is hypothesized that both derive from the proto-Celtic *towissākos "chieftain, leader"; the plural of taoiseach is taoisigh. Although the Irish form An Taoiseach is sometimes used in English instead of "the Taoiseach", the English version of the Constitution states that he or she "shall be called... the Taoiseach". In 1937 when

Herzgruft

The Herzgruft is a burial chamber that protects 54 urns containing the hearts of members of the House of Habsburg. The crypt is located behind the Loreto Chapel in the Augustinian Church within the Hofburg Palace complex in Vienna, Austria; the first heart, belonging to King Ferdinand IV, was placed in the Augustinian Church on 10 July 1654, according to his wishes. The last heart, belonging to Archduke Franz Karl of Austria, was placed in the crypt on 8 March 1878; the bodies of all but three of the hearts are in the Imperial Crypt a few blocks away. King Ferdinand IV instructed that his heart would be interred at the foot of the Holy Mother in the Augustinian Church in Vienna. Following the death of the king on 9 July 1654, the corpse was embalmed and the heart was placed in a goblet and displayed on the death bed; the next day, around 9:00 pm, the heart was transferred to the Loreto Chapel and buried at the foot of the Madonna in a simple celebration. With this simple act of piety, a custom was started to bury the hearts of all members of the House of Habsburg in the crypt alongside the heart of King Ferdinand IV.

By 1878, 54 hearts had been brought to this simple crypt. In the upper row, arranged in sequence of death date: Daughter of Ferdinand II, Duke of Tyrol and wife of her cousin Emperor Matthias.2 Buried in tomb 1 in the Imperial Crypt. Third son of Emperor Maximilian II. Husband of Empress Anna.1 Buried in tomb 2 in the Imperial Crypt. Eldest son of Archduke Charles II of Styria. Buried in the Grazer Dom, Graz. Eldest son of Emperor Ferdinand III. Founder of this Herzgruft. Buried in tomb 29 in the Imperial Crypt. Son of Emperor Ferdinand II.3 Named at age 13 to take over his uncle Leopold's renounced see of Halberstaedt and became Bishop of Olomouc, Bishop of Breslau, Grand Master of the Teutonic Knights. Buried in tomb 115 in the Imperial Crypt. Niece and first wife of Emperor Leopold I11 at age 15. Buried in tomb 20 in the Imperial Crypt. Third wife of Emperor Ferdinand III. Foundress of the Order of the Starry Cross. Buried in tomb 19 in the Imperial Crypt. Daughter of Emperor Leopold I11 and wife of Maximilian II Emanuel, Elector of Bavaria.

Buried in tomb 28 in the Imperial Crypt. Twelve-year-old daughter of Emperor Leopold I.11 Buried in tomb 25 of the Imperial Crypt. Daughter of Emperor Leopold I.11 Buried in tomb 16 in the Imperial Crypt. Second son of Emperor Ferdinand III and father of Emperors Joseph I12 and Karl IV.13 Buried in tomb 37 in the Imperial Crypt. Son of Emperor Leopold I.11 Buried in tomb 35 in the Imperial Crypt. Younger son of Emperor Leopold I.11 Buried in tomb 40 in the Imperial Crypt. Daughter of Emperor Leopold I.11 Buried in tomb 38 in the Imperial Crypt. Daughter of Emperor Karl VI.13 and sister of Empress Maria Theresia.21 Buried in tomb 39 in the Imperial Crypt. Daughter of Prince Charles of Lorraine and Archduchess Maria Anna.15 Buried in tomb 47 in the Imperial Crypt. Wife of Emperor Karl VI13 and mother of Empress Maria Theresa.21 Buried in tomb 36 in the Imperial Crypt. Second son of Emperor Franz I Stephen20 and Empress Maria Theresa.21 Buried in tomb 44 in the Imperial Crypt. Eighth daughter of Emperor Franz I Stephen20 and Empress Maria Theresa.21 Buried in tomb 45 in the Imperial Crypt.

Duke of Lorraine and Grand Duke of Tuscany. Husband of Empress Maria Theresa,21 Buried in tomb 55 in the Imperial Crypt. Eldest surviving descendant of Emperor Karl VI,13→Family Tree her ascension was contested and the crown of the Empire went to her husband Emperor Franz I Stephen.20 Buried in tomb 56 in the Imperial Crypt. Infant first daughter of Emperor Franz II43 and Empress Maria Theresia Caroline.35 Buried in tomb 66 in the Imperial Crypt. Third son of Empress Maria Theresia.21 →Family Tree Buried in tomb 113 in the Imperial Crypt. Wife of Emperor Leopold II23 and mother of Emperor Franz II43. Buried in tomb 114 in the Imperial Crypt. Daughter of Emperor Franz II43 and Maria Theresia Caroline.35 Buried in tomb 95 in the Imperial Crypt. Fourth son of Emperor Leopold II23 and Empress Maria Ludovika.24 Buried in tomb 64 in the Imperial Crypt. Daughter of Emperor Leopold II23 and Empress Maria Ludovika.24 Buried in tomb 65 in the Imperial Crypt. Favorite daughter of Empress Maria Theresia.21 and wife of Duke Albert of Teschen.40 The famous and moving monument he erected to her memory is in the nave of this Augustinerkirche church.

Buried in tomb 112 in the Imperial Crypt. Fourth daughter of Emperor Franz II43 and Maria Theresia.35 Buried in tomb 87 in the Imperial Crypt. Youngest son of Empress Maria Theresia.21 Archbishop of Cologne. Buried in tomb 118 in the Imperial Crypt. Daughter of Emperor Franz II43 and Maria Theresia.35 Buried in tomb 79 in the Imperial Crypt. Daughter of Queen Maria Karolina of Naples and Sicily.38 First wife of Ferdinand III, Grand Duke of Tuscany. →Family Tree Buried in tomb 84 in the Imperial Crypt. In the lower row, arranged in sequence of death date: Daughter of Empress Maria Theresia.21 Buried in St. Vitus Cathedral in Prague. Fourth son of Empress Maria Theresia.21 Buried in tomb 105 in the Imperial Crypt. Second wife at age 18 of Emperor Franz II.43 Buried in tomb 60 in the Imperial Crypt. Second son of Emperor Franz II43 and Empress Maria Theresia Carolina.35 Buried in tomb 69 in the Imperial Crypt. Fourth son of Emperor Franz II43 and Empress Maria Theresia Carolina.35 Buried in tomb 71 in the Imperial Crypt.

Daughter of Empress Maria Theresia.21 Buried in tomb 107 in the Imperial Crypt. Third wife at age 20 of 40-year-old cousin Emperor Franz II.43 Buried in tomb 58 in the Imperial Crypt. Husband of Archduchess Maria Christina.28 Buried in tomb 111 in the Imperial C

2004 in Norwegian music

The following is a list of notable events and releases of the year 2004 in Norwegian music. 1 – The pop/country singer Kurt Nilsen, whom won the first season of the Norwegian version of the reality television show Pop Idol in May 2003, wins the World Idol competition, a one-off international version of Pop Idol featuring winners of the various national Idol shows. 22 – The 7th Polarjazz started in Longyearbyen, Svalbard. 30 – The 23rd annual Djangofestival started on Cosmopolite in Oslo. 5 – Kristiansund Opera Festival opened. 6 – The election of the participant for Norway in the Eurovision Song Contest 2004. 12 – The annual By:Larm started in Oslo. 2 The 31st Vossajazz started at Voss. Magne Thormodsæter was awarded Vossajazzprisen 2004. 3 – Svein Folkvord performs the commissioned work Across for Vossajazz 2004. 23 – Ole Blues started in Bergen. 11 – The 15th MaiJazz started in Stavanger. 19 The start of Bergen International Music Festival Festspillene i Bergen. The 32nd Nattjazz started in Bergen.

16 – The Norwegian Wood started in Oslo. 30 – The 40th Kongsberg Jazzfestival started in Kongsberg. 12 – The 44th Moldejazz started in Molde. 20 – Maria Mena performs "You're the Only One" on Late Show with David Letterman. 9 – The 19th Oslo Jazzfestival started in Oslo. 11 – The 18th Sildajazz started in Haugesund. 1 – The Trondheim Jazz Festival started in Trondheim. 14 – The DølaJazz started in Lillehammer. 30 – The 2nd Ekkofestival started in Bergen (September 30 – Oktober 3. 3 – The Ultima Oslo Contemporary Music Festival started in Oslo. 26 – The 3rd Insomnia Festival started in Tromsø. 2 – The Oslo World Music Festival started in Oslo. 11– The Nobel Peace Prize Concert was held in Oslo Spektrum. A Eivind AarsetConnected S Karl SeglemNew North January14 – Terje Bakken, rock singer known as "Valfar", Windir. February20 – Ørnulf Gulbransen, classical flautist. May13 – Kjell Bækkelund, classical pianist. July2 – Carsten Klouman, jazz pianist and band leader. October2 – Bjørnar Andresen, jazz bassist.

13 – Erik Bye, artist, film actor, folk singer and radio and television personality. 16 – Jon Bratt Otnes, opera singer and diplomat. December21 – Arild Nyquist, singer and visual artist. 26 – Sigurd Køhn, jazz saxophonist, tsunami. 2004 in Norway Music of Norway Norway in the Eurovision Song Contest 2004