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Tape bias

Tape bias is the term for two techniques, AC bias and DC bias, that improve the fidelity of analogue tape recorders. DC bias is the addition of a direct current to the audio signal, being recorded. AC bias is the addition of an inaudible high-frequency signal to the audio signal. Most contemporary tape recorders use AC bias; when recording, magnetic tape has a nonlinear response as determined by its coercivity. Without bias, this response results in poor performance at low signal levels. A recording signal which generates a magnetic field strength less than tape's coercivity is unable to magnetise the tape and produces little playback signal. Bias increases the signal quality of most audio recordings by pushing the signal into more linear zones of the tape's magnetic transfer function. Magnetic recording was proposed as early as 1878 by Oberlin Smith, who on 4 October 1878 filed, with the U. S. patent office, a caveat regarding the magnetic recording of sound and who published his ideas on the subject in the 8 September 1888 issue of The Electrical World as "Some possible forms of phonograph".

By 1898 Valdemar Poulsen had demonstrated proposed magnetic tape. Fritz Pfleumer was granted a German patent for a non-magnetic "Sound recording carrier" with a magnetic coating, on 1 January 1928, but it was overturned in favor of an earlier US patent by Joseph A. O'Neill; the earliest magnetic recording systems applied the unadulterated input signal to a recording head, resulting in recordings with poor low-frequency response and high distortion. Within short order, the addition of a suitable direct current to the signal, a DC bias, was found to reduce distortion by operating the tape within its linear-response region; the principal disadvantage of DC bias was that it left the tape with a net magnetization, which generated significant noise on replay because of the grain of the tape particles. Some early DC-bias systems used a permanent magnet, placed near the record head, it had to be swung out of the way for replay. DC bias was replaced by AC bias but was re-adopted by some low-cost cassette recorders.

Although the improvements with DC bias were significant, an better recording is possible if an AC bias is used instead. While several people around the world rediscovered AC bias, it was the German developments that were used in practice and served as the model for future work; the original patent for AC bias was filed by Wendell L. Carlson and Glenn L. Carpenter in 1921 resulting in a patent in 1927; the value of AC bias was somewhat masked by the primitive state of other aspects of magnetic recording and Carlson and Carpenter's achievement was ignored. The first rediscovery seems to have been by Dean Wooldrige at Bell Telephone Laboratories, around 1937, but the BTL lawyers found the original patent, kept silent about their rediscovery of AC bias. Teiji Igarashi, Makoto Ishikawa, Kenzo Nagai of Japan published a paper on AC biasing in 1938 and received a Japanese patent in 1940. Marvin Camras rediscovered high-frequency bias independently in 1941 and received a patent in 1944; the reduction in distortion and noise provided by AC bias was rediscovered in 1940 by Walter Weber while working at the Reichs-Rundfunk-Gesellschaft.

The German pair received several related patents, including DE 743411 for "high-frequency treatment of the sound carrier". Independently of Weber and Braunmühl, the UK company Boosey & Hawkes produced a steel-wire recorder under government contract during the Second World War, equipped with AC bias. Examples still surface from time to time, many having been disposed of as government surplus stock. After the war and Hawkes produced a "Reporter" tape recorder in the early 1950s using magnetic tape, rather than wire, based on German wartime technology; as the tape leaves the trailing edge of the gap in the tape head, the oscillating magnetic field due to the applied AC bias is reduced to the average magnetic field of the much slower-changing audio signal, the tape particles are therefore left in this magnetic condition. The non-linearity of the magnetic particles in the tape coating is overcome by having the AC bias field greater by at least an order of magnitude, which saturates these particles in both magnetic directions while they pass the gap in the recording head.

The AC bias level is quite critical and, after being adjusted for a particular tape formulation with a specific recording machine, is left unchanged. The mechanism is similar to the demagnetizing signal, used to erase the tape except that the desired audio signal is retained on the tape during the recording process; the large AC bias acts as a demagnetizing signal which decays exponentially as the tape moves beyond the head, while the audio signal is the residual field that remains imprinted on the magnetic medium. A quantitative explanation of AC bias has been given by Bertram; the characteristics of the recording system change quite markedly as the level of the bias current is changed. There is a level. There is a level at which the high-frequency response is at maximum; these conditions do not occur at the same bias level. Professional reel-to-reel and cassette recorders are always set up for minimal distortion. Consumer equipment Compact Cassette recorders, have the bias set at a compromise level to give good frequency response and acceptably low distortion.

Bang & Olufsen invented and patented the so-called Do

Joseph PĂ©rez

Joseph Pérez is a French historian specializing in Spanish history. Pérez has specialized in the births of the Latin American nations. Among his books, he examines the independence movements of Latin America. Joseph Pérez was born in Laroque-d'Olmes in the Ariège department, in the south of France near the Spanish border, his parents were Spaniards. In 1955, he was named a lecturer of Spanish by the Superior University of Saint-Cloud, he completed his doctoral thesis in 1970. His thesis studied the Revolt of the Comuneros, remains one of the leading scholarly books on the topics. Pérez became, still is, a professor of Spanish and Latin American civilization at the University of Bordeaux 3. Pérez served as a member of the Directorio del Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique. Pérez has worked to spread Spanish culture in both directions, he founded the La Maison des Pays Iberiques, a center for Spanish culture in France, between 1989 and 1996 Pérez directed the Casa de Velázquez in Madrid, a French cultural institution funded by the French government dedicated to supporting interplay between France and Hispanic cultures.

Pérez's doctoral thesis won the Saintour prize that year. He has served as honorary president of the University of Bordeaux 3. Pérez is a corresponding member of the Real Academia de la Historia, he was awarded an honorary doctorate by the University of Valladolid. Other honors include being Order of Alfonso X the Wise, a Commander of the Order of Isabella the Catholic, a member of the French Legion of Honor. On January 25, 2007 the board of the Municipality of Bocairent, voted unanimously to grant Pérez the title of "Adopted son of Bocairent." Bocairent was the birthplace of his three brothers. The ceremony celebrating the event was held on March 2007 at the town hall. In 2014, Pérez won the Princess of Asturias Awards in Social Sciences. Aside from books, Pérez has written numerous articles in Bulletin Hispanique, such as his well-received notes and introduction to El caballero de Olmedo by Lope de Vega. La révolution des "Comunidades" de Castille Bordeaux: Institut d'Etudes Ibériques et Ibero-Américaines de l'Université, 1970, translated as La revolución de las comunidades de Castilla, Madrid: Siglo XXI de España, 1978 Los movimientos precursores de la emancipación en Hispanoamérica, Madrid: Alhambra, Madrid: Alhambra, 1977.

Histoire de l'Espagne, Paris: Fayard, 1997, translated as Historia de España, Barcelona: Crítica, 1999. Isabel y Fernando, los Reyes Católicos, Fuenterrabía: Nerea, 2001 Historia de una tragedia: la expulsión de los judíos de España, Barcelona: Crítica, 1993 El humanismo de Fray Luis de León, Madrid: Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, 1994. Lope de Vega, El caballero de Olmedo. Madrid: Castalia, 1970 Charles Quint: empereur des deux mondes, coll. "Découvertes Gallimard", París: Gallimard, 1994, translated to Spanish as Carlos V, Madrid: Temas de Hoy, 1999. L'Espagne de Philippe II Paris: Le grand livre du mois, 1999. L'Espagne des Rois Catholiques Paris: Bordas, 1971 L'Espagne du XVIe siècle Paris: Armand Colin, 1973 updated as La España del siglo XVI, Madrid: Anaya, 1998 Isabelle et Ferdinand, Rois Catholiques d'Espagne Paris: Fayard, 1988, translated to Spanish as Isabel y Fernando, los Reyes Católicos Crónica de la Inquisición en España, Barcelona: Martínez Roca, 2002 Isabelle la Catholique: un modèle de chrétienté?

Paris: Payot & Rivages, 2004 Los judíos en España, Madrid: Marcial Pons, 2005 ISBN 84-96467-03-1 La Inquisición española: crónica negra del Santo Oficio, Madrid: Martínez Roca, 2005 ISBN 84-270-3174-2 De l'humanisme aux Lumières: études sur l'Espagne et l'Amérique, Madrid: Casa de Velázquez, 2000. This article incorporates text translated from the Spanish Wikipedia article Joseph Pérez, licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike. General biographical details are confirmed in La révolution des "Comunidades" de Castille, "About the Author."

Eamonn Coleman

Eamonn Coleman was an Irish Gaelic footballer and manager. He had two separate stints as manager the Derry senior football team, his chief success was guiding the county to the victory in the 1993 All-Ireland Championship – Derry's first All-Ireland Senior Football Championship title, he had spells as manager of Armagh, Cavan and various club sides. Before moving into management he has an accomplished playing career with Derry and his club team Ballymaguigan, he was born in the small County Londonderry townland of Ballymaguigan on the western shores of Lough Neagh in 1947 or 1948. His son Gary, was a talented footballer and was left half back on the victorious 1993 Derry team. Coleman was part of the Derry minor team that won the Ulster Minor and All-Ireland Minor Championships in 1965, beating Cavan and Kerry in the respective finals, he won an Ulster Under 21 Championship medal with Derry under-21s in 1967. The following year the team defended their Ulster Championship and went on to win the All-Ireland Under-21 Football Championship.

Coleman soon progressed into the senior team and in 1970 helped Derry win the Dr. McKenna Cup and Ulster Senior Football Championship, he won a second McKenna Cup medal in 1971. The same side won the Wembley Tournament in both these years. At underage level Coleman competed for Ballinderry, he was first asked into the Ballymaguigan senior side at just 14 years of age in 1962. That year as a 14/15-year-old he won the Derry Senior Football Championship with the club, scoring 1–2 in the final replay against Castledawson. Ballymaguigan won that year's Derry League title, he helped the club to win Derry Junior and Derry Intermediate Championships in 1969 and 1971. Coleman played for Ballinderry in the early 1980s and won a second Derry Championship medal in 1981. While working in County Westmeath, Coleman lined out for Athlone, with whom he won two Westmeath Senior Football Championships in 1979 and 1982. In 1983 he led the Derry minor side to success in the Ulster Minor and All-Ireland Minor Football Championships.

Four of this team would be in his senior winning panel ten years later. They defended the Ulster title with Coleman at the helm in 1984, he led Derry under 21s to victory in the 1985 Ulster Under-21 Football Championship. In 1989 he became Armagh manager alongside Fr. Sean Hegarty, he took over as Derry senior manager in November 1990. In November 1990 Derry were managerless and the Derry County Board rang Coleman and asked him to return home to manage Derry; when he took on the Derry job, the team was languishing in Division 3 of the National Football League. After consecutive promotions, he achieved his first national trophy as Derry senior manager by winning the NFL in 1992. Anthony Tohill scored a late winning goal for Derry in a two-point victory over neighbours Tyrone; the following year Coleman guided Derry to their best year, winning both Ulster and All-Ireland Championships. After beating Donegal in the Ulster Senior Football Championship final, he led Derry to success in the 1993 All-Ireland Championship, beating Dublin in the semi-final and Cork in the final 1–14 to 2–08.

Fergal P. McCusker, on the All-Ireland winning side said "The Derry team would not have been brought together without his skills, he stitched a bunch of guys together and we would have gone through brick walls. We'd have done anything for him, he was the man that inspired you to go that extra yard". Despite his success with Derry in 1993, he was removed as the manager in 1994 after a loss against Down, a game, described by many as the greatest match of all time. GAA journalist John Haughey described the Derry Board's decision to sack Coleman as "both disgraceful and shortsighted". Many claim if he had been allowed to remain, Derry won have won at least one more All-Ireland in the mid-1990s, he was replaced by Mickey Moran, his assistant. Following a brief flirtation with Longford in the mid-1990s, Coleman drifted into club management in County Cavan. Alongside Adrian McGuckin, Coleman replaced former Dublin footballer Brian Mullins as Derry manager in 1999 and steered Derry to another National League title in 2000.

In 2001 Derry were beaten by Galway. Coleman won Personality of the Year at the 2001 Ulster GAA Writer's Association Awards, having won the award in 1993, he stood down as Derry manager in 2002. In 2003 Coleman was forced to stand down in 2005, after becoming ill. In 2005 he led Cavan under 21s to the Ulster Under 21 Championship final, but they were defeated by Down. Despite going through chemotherapy at the time, Coleman came into the Derry dressing room before Derry's opening game of the 2006 Championship against reigning All-Ireland champions Tyrone. Joe Brolly said "He delivered a thundering oration and with all the Derry boys, the hairs were standing up on the back of the necks, it was a genuinely motivational speech and to think that just a year on, he's gone. It's distressing." Derry went on to beat Tyrone comfortably. Coleman was manager of the Kildress team that won the 1978 Tyrone Intermediate Football Championship, he emigrated to England to look for work in the late 1980s. He managed the Round Tower's club that won the London Senior Football Championship in 1987.

Coleman led Cavan club side Gowna to five Cavan Senior Football Championship titles – 1996, 1997, 1999, 2000 and 2002. In the late 1980s Coleman was a key figure in the University of Ulster, Jordanstown Sigerson Cup breakthrough team. Along with Belfast man Charlie Sweeney, "wee Eamonn" steered Jordanstown to inter-varsity wins in 1986 a

Eisenhower High School (Yakima, Washington)

Dwight David Eisenhower High School is located in Yakima, United States. It is named after U. S. President Dwight Eisenhower, it is one of five high schools in the Yakima School District, the others being Davis High School, Stanton Academy, Yakima Online, Yakima Valley Technical Skills Center. Students and community members refer to the school as "Ike." Ted Murphy 1957-1970 - First Principal of Eisenhower Dr Dennis Peterson Mark Bontrager - Interim Principal permanent principal Owen Hurst Bob Alexander Dan Organ Dave Betzing Stacey Locke Clinton Endicott Jewel Brumley Eric Diener Eisenhower High School holds an 82% graduation rate and is ranked 174th among 884 public high schools in the state. Eisenhower High School is one of five high schools in the Yakima Valley to offer the Advanced Placement Program for juniors and seniors. Nine percent of the students body is enrolled in AP courses. AP courses that are offered include: Chemistry, U. S. History, English and Physics; the high school maintains a 37% AP Exam pass rate - the percentage of students who pass at least one AP Exam.

Juniors and seniors who do not enroll in AP courses have the opportunity to enroll in other college preparation courses or participate in the running start program at Yakima Valley Community College. The running start program allows high school students to start on college credits while fulfilling high school graduation requirements. Yakima Valley Community College credits are transferable to universities such as the University of Washington, Washington State University, Eastern Washington University, Central Washington University, many others. In 2013, Eisenhower High School was torn down and replaced with a new building Northwest of the former school; the project cost the Yakima School District over $108 million. The development of the athletic amenities was a large reason to why the district had went over the initial budget of $108 million. New athletic amenities included on campus baseball fields, tennis courts, soccer practice fields and football practice fields; these amenities added $7.3 million to the total cost of the project.

The new high school was built in a L-shaped configuration with the student commons being located at the corner. This design was incorporated to create loop circulation for the reduction of congestion and giving students alternate pathways to their destinations. By the student commons are the auditorium, gym, entry spaces, the administrative offices, security offices; as a focal point, the school's entrance has a prominently positioned glass-enclosed public entry and second-story library. The academic spaces surround the central courtyard on three sides; this design allows natural light to shine into all of the classrooms. The fitness and weight facilities are located on the second floor and overlook the outdoor sports fields; the locker rooms are right underneath. The auditorium seats 800 people and has practice spaces down the hall. Following these practice space are practice spaces for the band and choir. Since its unveiling in 2013, the new Eisenhower High School building has won several awards for its concept and design execution.

These awards include the following: the AIA Central Washington Merit Award, the Learning by Design Outstanding Project Award, the MIW Excellence in Masonry Design Honor Award, the Inland Northwest AGC Build Northwest Award, the Robert Faser Masonry Design Award. Six years after its opening in August, 2013, the Yakima School District filed a lawsuit against KDA Architecture because of design issues, property damage of the building's signature blue wall; the lawsuit was about the specific changes. These changes contributed to the problems found throughout the building; the district involved Graham Construction in the lawsuit for failing to install and implement all elements of the design. The lawsuit states that in April of 2013, the water-resistant material behind the tiles of the blue wall was melting. After further investigation, it was found that the tiles on the blue wall were heating up to 180 degrees Fahrenheit and causing them to melt; the Blue Wall hadn't been repaired until September of 2017.

The 750 foot wall cost the Yakima School District $547,280. Additional flaws in the building were spotted by Eisenhower staff and faculty members after they had moved into the building in late August, 2013. After two months inside the new location, there were multiple reports of severe flaws, most notably water had been leaking through the wall and into the school's interior; the lawsuit states that the leaking and damages were occurring because of the improper design, poor workmanship, a lack of flashing. In turn, the district had sued for over breach of contract and professional negligence amongst other things. KDA Architecture and Graham Construction have yet to respond publicly on the lawsuit filed against them. Both have contributed in making repairs to the blue wall, but not free of expenses. Both companies have continued projects including YV-Technical Institute. Eisenhower High School offers sports for student all throughout the year and provides students the opportunity to compete with other schools in Washington state.

Men's sports include: football, marching band, cross country, swimming/diving, baseball, soccer and track. Women's sports include: cross country, marching band, volleyball, swimming/diving, bowling, golf and track. Outside of sports, the school offers plenty of clubs and activities for students to partake

Legislative districts of Sultan Kudarat

The Legislative districts of Sultan Kudarat are the representations of the province of Sultan Kudarat in the various national legislatures of the Philippines. The province is represented in the lower house of the Congress of the Philippines through its first and second congressional districts. Prior to gaining separate representation, areas now under the jurisdiction of Sultan Kudarat were represented under the Department of Mindanao and Sulu and Cotabato; the enactment of Presidential Decree No. 341 on November 22, 1973 created the Province of Sultan Kudarat out of the reduced Cotabato Province's southern municipalities. This new province was represented in the Interim Batasang Pambansa as part of Region XII from 1978 to 1984. Sultan Kudarat first gained separate representation in 1984, when it returned one representative, elected at large, to the Regular Batasang Pambansa. Under the new Constitution, proclaimed on February 11, 1987, the province constituted a lone congressional district, elected its member to the restored House of Representatives starting that same year.

The approval of Republic Act No. 9357 on October 10, 2006 increased Sultan Kudarat's representation by reapportioning the province into two congressional districts, which elected their separate representatives starting in the 2007 elections. City: Tacurong Municipalities: Columbio, Lambayong, President Quirino Population: 403,706 Municipalities: Bagumbayan, Kalamansig, Palimbang, Senator Ninoy Aquino Population: 408,389 Legislative district of Mindanao and Sulu Legislative district of Cotabato

Drylongso (film)

Drylongso is 1998 film by African American filmmaker Cauleen Smith and Salim Akil and is “part love story” and “part murder mystery” and deals with numerous issues relating to race and identity. The film was screened at numerous film festivals around the United States and was nominated for and received numerous awards including The Independent Spirit Award, Silver Armadillo, Best Picture and Best Feature, it was the early 1990s and Cauleen Smith was working at the Haight Asbury Free Clinic and the Glide Memorial Church in San Francisco and she kept hearing about young African American men who were being murdered or going to prison at the same time she was seeing young African American girls who were dealing with teen pregnancy and bureaucratic welfare system. The young African American males were seen as victims in need of defense yet the young African American girls were “being talked about in terms of blame”, she felt. Yet here they were suffering and she wanted to find a way to tell their story.

Drylongso which comes from an old African word that means “Ordinary" is a coming of age drama, “part love story” and “part murder mystery”. Pica is a young art student growing up in a dysfunctional household in Oakland California. In order to deal with the dysfunction, she starts photographing young African American men believing they are an "endangered species” and might one day be extinct and wants to capture them as proof of their existence. At the same time, a serial killer is claiming victims in the neighborhood with some of the victims being the young African American men she has photographed. Pica befriends another African American women, disguising herself as a man to escape an abusive boyfriend. Cauleen Smith as Writer & Director Salim Akil as Writer Toby Smith as Pica Sullivan April Barnett as Tobi Will Power as Malik Channel Schafer as Gloria Sullivan Salim Akil as Mr Yamada Stacy Marbrey as Tiffany Keith Williams as Mohamed Sayyed Yusuf Bey as Muslim Brother Earl Ford as Tide Keilan Matthews as Tyson Patrick Pulliam as Kev Timothy Braggs as Jefferson Drylongso had its premier at the 1999 Sundance Film Festival where it was selected to be part of the American Spectrum and received an Independent Spirit Award.

The film was screened and won awards at numerous film festivals around the United States including receiving the Silver Armadilo at the South by Southwest Film Festival in Austin Texas, receiving Best Picture at both the Pan-African Film Festival and Urbanworld Film Festivals and the Grand Jury Prize for Best Feature at the Urbanworld Film Festival. The film was selected to be the opening feature at the Film Arts Foundation Film Festival held at the Castro Theatre in San Francisco. A number of props created for the film including a banner titled "In the Wake", created by Cauleen Smith as part of a procession for the film were displayed at the Whitney Museum of American Art in New York as part of their 2017 Whitney Biennial