Newcomen atmospheric engine
The atmospheric engine was invented by Thomas Newcomen in 1712, often referred to simply as a Newcomen engine. The engine operated by condensing steam drawn into the cylinder, thereby creating a partial vacuum and it was the first practical device to harness steam to produce mechanical work. Newcomen engines were used throughout Britain and Europe, principally to pump out of mines. Hundreds were constructed through the 18th century, James Watts engine design was an improved version of the Newcomen engine that roughly doubled fuel efficiency. Many atmospheric engines were converted to the Watt design, for a price based on a fraction of the savings in fuel, as a result, Watt is today better known than Newcomen in relation to the origin of the steam engine. Prior to Newcomen a number of small devices of various sorts had been made. Around 1600 a number of experimenters used steam to power small fountains working like a coffee percolator, first a container was filled with water via a pipe, which extended through the top of the container to nearly the bottom.
The bottom of the pipe would be submerged in the water, the container was heated to make the water boil. These devices had limited effectiveness but illustrated the principles viability, in 1662 Edward Somerset, second Marquess of Worcester, published a book containing several ideas he had been working on. One was for a pump to supply water to fountains. A fresh charge of steam under pressure drove the water from the container up another pipe to a header before that steam condensed. By working the two containers alternately, the rate to the header tank could be increased. In 1698 Thomas Savery patented a steam-powered pump he called the Miners Friend, essentially identical to Somersets design, the process of cooling and creating the vacuum was fairly slow, so Savery added an external cold water spray to quickly cool the steam. Saverys invention cannot be regarded as the first steam engine since it had no moving parts. There were evidently high hopes for the Miners Friend, which led Parliament to extend the life of the patent by 21 years, Saverys device proved much less successful than had been hoped.
This was insufficient to pump out of a mine. In Saverys pamphlet, he suggests setting the boiler and containers on a ledge in the mineshaft, obviously these were inconvenient solutions and some sort of mechanical pump working at surface level – one that lifted the water directly instead of sucking it up – was desirable. Such pumps were common already, powered by horses, but required a vertical reciprocating drive that Saverys system did not provide, the more practical problem concerned having a boiler operating under pressure, as demonstrated when the boiler of an engine at Wednesbury exploded, perhaps in 1705
Leawood Pump House
The Leawood Pump House was built near Cromford, England in 1849 to supply water to the Cromford Canal, built some 50 years previously. It is a Grade II* listed building, the Watt-type beam engine was designed and erected by Graham and Company of Milton Works, Sheffield. The beam length is 33 feet, the piston diameter 50 inches, stroke of 10 feet, the boilers, replaced in 1900, have a pressure of 40 p. s. i. Water is drawn from the River Derwent through a 150-yard tunnel to a reservoir in the basement and it is lifted 30 feet and discharged into the canal. The immense size of the pump is explained by the fact there were restrictions on removing water from the Derwent river. The pumphouse worked continuously from 1849 until 1944 when the canal closed and it was restored in 1979 by the Cromford Canal Society and is run periodically. Leawood Pumphouse website DerbyPhotos website with history and photographs A video of the pump working
A beam engine is a type of steam engine where a pivoted overhead beam is used to apply the force from a vertical piston to a vertical connecting rod. This configuration, with the engine driving a pump, was first used by Thomas Newcomen around 1705 to remove water from mines in Cornwall. Beam engines were first used to pump out of mines or into canals. The rotative beam engine is a design of beam engine where the connecting rod drives a flywheel. These beam engines could be used to power the line-shafting in a mill. They could be used to steam ships. The first beam engines were water-powered, and used to water from mines. A preserved example may be seen at Wanlockhead in Scotland, the first steam-related beam engine was developed by Thomas Newcomen. This was not, strictly speaking, steam powered, as the steam introduced below the piston was condensed to create a partial vacuum thus allowing atmospheric pressure to push down the piston and it was therefore called an Atmospheric Engine. The Newcomen atmospheric engine was adopted by many mines in Cornwall and elsewhere, technically this was still an atmospheric engine until he enclosed the upper part of the cylinder, introducing steam to push the piston down.
This made it a steam engine and arguably confirms him as the inventor of the steam engine. He patented the centrifugal governor and the parallel motion, the latter allowed the replacement of chains round an arch head and thus allowed its use as a rotative engine. His patents remained in place until the start of the 19th Century, however, in reality development had been ongoing by others and at the end of the patent period there was an explosion of new ideas and improvements. Watts beam engines were used commercially in much larger numbers and many continued to run for 100 years or more, Watt held patents on key aspects of his engines design, but his rotative engine was equally restricted by the patent by an other of the simple crank. The beam engine went on to be improved and enlarged in the tin- and copper-rich areas of south west England. Consequently, the Cornish beam engines became world-famous, as they remain among the most massive beam engines ever constructed, in a rotative beam engine, the piston is mounted vertically, and the piston rod drives the beam as before. A connecting rod from the end of the beam, rather than driving a pump rod.
Early Watt engines used Watts patent sun and planet gear, rather than a simple crank, once the patent had expired, the simple crank was employed universally
A rocker arm is an oscillating lever that conveys radial movement from the cam lobe into linear movement at the poppet valve to open it. One end is raised and lowered by a lobe of the camshaft while the other end acts on the valve stem. When the camshaft lobe raises the outside of the arm, the inside presses down on the valve stem, when the outside of the arm is permitted to return due to the camshafts rotation, the inside rises, allowing the valve spring to close the valve. The drive cam is driven by the camshaft and this pushes the rocker arm up and down about the trunnion pin or rocker shaft. Friction may be reduced at the point of contact with the stem by a roller tip. A similar arrangement transfers the motion via another roller tip to a second rocker arm and this rotates about the rocker shaft, and transfers the motion via a tappet to the poppet valve. In this case this opens the valve to the cylinder head. Current automotive design favors rocker arm ratios of about 1.5,1 to 1.8,1, however, in the past smaller positive ratios and even negative ratios have been used.
Many pre-World War II engines use a 1,1 ratio, for car engines the rocker arms are generally steel stampings, providing a reasonable balance of strength and economical cost. Because the rocker arms are, in part, reciprocating weight, truck engines use stronger and stiffer rocker arms made of cast iron, or forged carbon steel. Dating back to the 19th century, rocker arms have been made with and without roller tips that press upon the valve
The Triumph Dolomite is a popular small saloon car that was produced by the Triumph Motor Company division of the British Leyland Corporation in Canley, Coventry between October 1972 and August 1980. The Dolomite was the addition to Triumphs small-car range, which had started in 1965 with the Triumph 1300. Designed to be a replacement for the rear-wheel drive Triumph Herald, the model, introduced in September 1970 as the Triumph 1500, featured a remodelled front and rear, styled by Michelotti, and a larger 1,493 cc engine. In an attempt to improve matters, the car was comprehensively re-engineered, launched in September 1970, the Triumph Toledo was a cheaper and more basic variant of the 1300, but with conventional rear-wheel drive. This new model was assembled alongside the now larger-engined front-wheel drive version which was launched at the time as the Toledo. However, due to a number of strikes and other industrial upsets, the name Dolomite had been used by Triumph for a range of models prior to the Second World War and this name was revived for the new car.
The Dolomite used the bodyshell of the front wheel drive Triumph 1500. Initially, the version available used the new slant-four 1854 cc engine. This was a version of the engine that the company was providing to Saab for use in their 99 model. Styling was similar to the Triumph 1500, with updates such as a black painted rear panel, vinyl D-posts. The car was capable of 100 mph, with 60 mph coming up in just over 11 seconds, an overdrive gearbox was soon made available as an option, offering relaxed motorway cruising and improved fuel economy, and there was an optional automatic transmission. Although the Dolomite proved to be refined and rapid, competitors such as the BMW2002 had an advantage which was costing Triumph dearly. To remedy this, Triumph unveiled the Dolomite Sprint in June 1973, although the launch had been delayed by a year, it had been due to go on sale in 1972. A team of engineers led by Spen King developed a 16-valve cylinder head with all of the valves being actuated using a single rather than the more conventional DOHC arrangement.
The capacity was increased to 1,998 cc. This represented a significant power increase over the smaller 1850cc variant and this led to the original model designation, the Dolomite 135, being replaced at short notice with the Sprint name. As a result of the use of engine, the Dolomite Sprint has been claimed to be the worlds first mass-produced multi-valve car. While other multi-valve engines were produced in volume, they were not used in production vehicles until after the introduction of the Dolomite Sprint
Internal combustion engine
An internal combustion engine is a heat engine where the combustion of a fuel occurs with an oxidizer in a combustion chamber that is an integral part of the working fluid flow circuit. In an internal combustion engine the expansion of the high-temperature and high-pressure gases produced by combustion applies direct force to some component of the engine, the force is applied typically to pistons, turbine blades, rotor or a nozzle. This force moves the component over a distance, transforming chemical energy into mechanical energy. The first commercially successful internal combustion engine was created by Étienne Lenoir around 1859, firearms are a form of internal combustion engine. Working fluids can be air, hot water, pressurized water or even liquid sodium, ICEs are usually powered by energy-dense fuels such as gasoline or diesel, liquids derived from fossil fuels. While there are many applications, most ICEs are used in mobile applications and are the dominant power supply for vehicles such as cars, aircraft.
Typically an ICE is fed with fossil fuels like natural gas or petroleum products such as gasoline, there is a growing usage of renewable fuels like biodiesel for compression ignition engines and bioethanol or methanol for spark ignition engines. Hydrogen is sometimes used, and can be made from fossil fuels or renewable energy. Various scientists and engineers contributed to the development of internal combustion engines, in 1791, John Barber developed a turbine. In 1794 Thomas Mead patented a gas engine, in 1794 Robert Street patented an internal combustion engine, which was the first to use liquid fuel, and built an engine around that time. In 1798, John Stevens built the first American internal combustion engine, in 1807, Swiss engineer François Isaac de Rivaz built an internal combustion engine ignited by electric spark. In 1823, Samuel Brown patented the first internal combustion engine to be applied industrially, in 1860, Belgian Jean Joseph Etienne Lenoir produced a gas-fired internal combustion engine.
In 1864, Nikolaus Otto patented the first atmospheric gas engine, in 1872, American George Brayton invented the first commercial liquid-fuelled internal combustion engine. In 1876, Nikolaus Otto, working with Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach, patented the compressed charge, in 1879, Karl Benz patented a reliable two-stroke gas engine. In 1892, Rudolf Diesel developed the first compressed charge, compression ignition engine, in 1926, Robert Goddard launched the first liquid-fueled rocket. In 1939, the Heinkel He 178 became the worlds first jet aircraft, at one time, the word engine meant any piece of machinery — a sense that persists in expressions such as siege engine. A motor is any machine that produces mechanical power, electric motors are not referred to as Engines, combustion engines are often referred to as motors. In boating an internal combustion engine that is installed in the hull is referred to as an engine, reciprocating piston engines are by far the most common power source for land and water vehicles, including automobiles, ships and to a lesser extent, locomotives
Ford CVH engine
The CVH engine was introduced by Ford in 1980 in the third generation European Ford Escort and for the 1981 North American Escort. It was used in the Ford Sierra as well as the second generation Ford Fiesta, engines were built in the Dearborn Engine Plant for the North American market, and in Fords then-new engine plant in Bridgend in Wales for the European market. The engine was conceived in 1974 and had a single overhead cam. Its valves were mounted at an angle in hemispherical combustion chambers. It featured hydraulic valve lifters, a first for a European Ford engine, the engine was given different names throughout its production. From 1991 to 1996 in the Ford Escort, it was 1. 9L SEFI, from 2000 to 2004 in the Ford Focus, it was Split Port. The naturally aspirated 1.6 L was a choice for the kit car industry. The CVH was produced in different capacities from 1.1 to 2.0 L. The 1.1 L CVH was the shortest lived of the different variants, displacing 1117cc, uniquely it was sold in parallel in the Escort with the Valencia version of the Ford Kent OHV unit with the same displacement.
It offered an improvement in terms of either performance or economy over the older Kent engine which was cheaper to manufacture. The 1.3 L CVH was introduced in the 1980 European Escort and in the Orion, bore was 80 mm and stroke was 64.5 mm. The 1.4 L CVH replaced the 1.3 L CVH in the Escort, bore was 77.2 mm and stroke was 74.3 mm. In European trim, this engine produced 75 bhp and it was widely known as the Lean Burn engine as it was designed primarily for fuel economy and featured a different cylinder head which was aimed less at power output than other CVH engines. In South Africa, the 1.4 L CVH was fitted to the Ford Laser and Meteor and it replaced the 1.3 L Mazda E-series engine used in these cars and was itself replaced by the 1.3 L Mazda B-series engines. The 1.6 L CVH was used in the 1980 European Escort and 1981 North American Escort, bore was 80 mm and stroke was 79.5 mm. A115 hp version was offered only in the very rare Escort RS1600i – a car developed by Ford Motorsport Germany and this version featured a reworked cylinder head, solid cam followers and bronze bearings for high-revving applications and a host of other motorsport features.
An uprated, turbocharged version of the 1.6 L which was developed by Ford Europe for the hugely popular RS Turbo version of the Escort and it made 132 hp at 6,000 rpm, and 133 ft·lbf of torque at a very tractable 3,000 rpm. The boosted engine was smoother than its normally aspirated cousins
A flathead engine is an internal combustion engine with valves placed in the engine block beside the piston, instead of in the cylinder head, as in an overhead valve engine. As the cylinder cross-section has the shape of an upside-down L, the sidevalves poppet valves are usually sited on one side of the cylinder. A recess in the head creates a corridor connecting the valves. The valve gear comprises a camshaft which operates the valves via simple tappets, however, employs both rocker arms and pushrods to transmiit motion from the cam lobes to the valve stems. Flathead designs are commonly built new for many small engine applications of one. The main advantages of an engine are simplicity, low cost, responsive low-speed power, low mechanical engine noise. The absence of an overhead valve valvetrain allows a compact engine that is less expensive to manufacture. Even today, flatheads are common in lawnmowers and basic farm machinery, if a valve head breaks off, it may become lodged between the piston and the head causing severe damage.
At top dead centre, the piston gets very close to the portion of the cylinder head above. The typical flathead engine has its valves adjacent, but the T-head variant acts as a cross-flow head, the main disadvantages of a sidevalve engine are poor gas flow, poor combustion chamber shape, and low compression ratio, all of which result in a low power output. The sidevalve configuration makes intake and exhaust gases follow a route, with low volumetric efficiency. Although a sidevalve engine can operate at high speed, its volumetric efficiency swiftly deteriorates. High volumetric efficiency was important for early cars because their engines rarely sustained extended high speeds. A compromise used by Willys and Rolls-Royce in the 1950s was the F-head, in there is one side valve. An advance in technology resulted from experimentation in the 1920s by Sir Harry Ricardo. Because the exhaust follows a path to leave the engine. In a T-head engine, the pairs have a crossflow configuration. American LaFrance powered their fire engines with T-head engines from the 1920s to the 1950s, the Cleveland Motorcycle Manufacturing Company produced a T-head four-cylinder in-line motorcycle engine in the 1920s, and early Stutz engines were T heads
Alan Dower Blumlein was an English electronics engineer, notable for his many inventions in telecommunications, sound recording, stereophonic sound and radar. He received 128 patents and was considered as one of the most significant engineers and inventors of his time, Alan Dower Blumlein was born on 29 June 1903 in Hampstead, London, to Semmy Blumlein, a German-born naturalised British subject. Semmy was born to Joseph Blumlein, a German of Jewish descent, and Phillippine Hellmann, alans mother, Jessie Dower, was Scottish, daughter of a missionary. He was christened as a Presbyterian, though he married in a Church of England parish. His future career seems to have determined by the age of seven. His sister claimed that he could not read proficiently until he was 12 and he replied no, but I knew a lot of quadratic equations. After leaving Highgate School in 1921, he studied at City and he won a Governors scholarship and joined the second year of the course. He graduated with a First-Class Honours BSc two years later, in mid-1930, Blumlein met Doreen Lane, a preparatory school teacher five years his junior.
After two-and-a-half years of courtship the two were married in 1933, Lane was warned by acquaintances before the wedding that, There was a joke amongst some of his friends, they used to call it Blumlein-itis or First Class Mind. It seems that he didnt want to know anyone who didnt have a first class mind, who was Blumleins closest friend and best man at the wedding, thought the couple were well matched. In 1924 Blumlein started his first job at International Western Electric, the company subsequently became International Standard Electric Corporation and then, on, Standard Telephones and Cables. During his time there, he measured the response of human ears. In 1924 he published the first of his only two IEE papers, on high-frequency resistance measurement and this won him the IEEs Premium award for innovation. The following year he wrote a series of seven articles for Wireless World, in 1925 and 1926, Blumlein and John Percy Johns designed an improved form of loading coil which reduced loss and crosstalk in long-distance telephone lines.
These were used until the end of the analogue telephony era, the same duo invented an improved form of AC measurement bridge which became known as the Blumlein Bridge. These two inventions were the basis for Blumleins first two patents and his inventions while working at STC resulted in another five patents, which were not awarded until after he left the company in 1929. In 1929 Blumlein handed in his notice at STC and joined the Columbia Graphophone Company and his first project was to find a method of disc cutting that circumvented a Bell patent in the Western Electric moving-iron cutting head used, and on which substantial royalties had to be paid. He invented the disc cutting head, which not only got around the patent
A shim is a thin and often tapered or wedged piece of material, used to fill small gaps or spaces between objects. Shims are typically used in order to support, adjust for better fit, shims may be used as spacers to fill gaps between parts subject to wear. Many materials make suitable shim stock, or base material, depending on the context, stone, metal, or even paper. High quality shim stock can be commercially, for example as laminated shims. Laminated shim stock is stacked foil that can be peeled off one layer at a time to adjust the thickness of the shim, in automobiles, shims are commonly used to adjust the clearance or space between two parts. For example, shims are inserted into or under bucket tappets to control valve clearances, clearance is adjusted by changing the thickness of the shim. In Assembly and Weld Fixtures precision metal shims are used two parts so that the final production parts are created within the product drawings specified tolerances. In carpentry, small pieces of wood may be used to align gaps between larger timbers, in luthiery, shims made of various materials are often used to adjust neck alignment and can be used beneath a nut or saddle to raise the height of either.
In masonry, small stones may be used to align or fill gaps between larger bricks or slabs, special CPU shims are used to protect the central processing unit when installing a heat sink. This is accomplished by manual shimming of individual shims, or automatic shimming procedure, to the Point, A Brief History of the Shim
Ford Taunus V4 engine
The Taunus V4 was a 60° V4 piston engine with one balance shaft, introduced by Ford Motor Company in Germany in 1962. The German V4 was built in the Cologne plant and powered the Ford Taunus and German versions of the Consul and Transit. In common with other V4 and V6 engines, but unlike longer V engines with more cylinders, the V4 engine was used in industrial applications, electrical generators, and in agricultural machinery and snowcats. In automobiles, the Taunus V4 was replaced by the Ford OHC/Pinto engine, initially the V4 engine was designed by Ford for a new entry compact car intended for the US market to be called the Ford Cardinal, which eventually evolved into the Taunus 12m P4. Ford abandoned the Cardinal project and instead built the Ford Falcon for North America, Ford sought other uses for the V4 engine which was initially tested in the Saab 96. Ford bought several Saab 96s for testing and eventually sold the cars back to Saab with the V4 engines in them. Saab tested the V4s at their Trollhattan test track which stimulated Saab to acquire the V4 engine for their 95,96, the V4 engine eliminated the need to mix oil with fuel for the two-cyle Saab Shrike engine and provided better low end torque.
Saab dealers offered the first owner a Lifetime Warranty for the V4 for US$50. Applications, Ford Taunus Ford Consul Ford Transit Ford Capri Saab 95 Saab 96 Saab Sonett Matra 530 Ford Mustang I The 1.2 L version features an 80.0 mm bore and 58.86 mm stroke. Output was 40 hp and 80 N·m or 45 hp and 82 N·m, applications,1962 -1966 Ford Taunus 12M P41967 -1968 Ford Taunus 12M P6 The 1.3 L version had an 84.00 mm bore and 58.86 mm stroke. Output was 50 hp and 95 N·m or 53 hp and 98 N·m, applications,1966 -1970 Ford Taunus 12M P61969 -1972 Ford Capri Ford Transit 600 The 1.5 L V4 had a 90.0 mm bore and 58.86 mm stroke. It produced 55 hp and 107 N·m,60 hp and 114 N·m or 65 hp and 117 N·m at 2500 rpm.7 L V4 had a 90.0 mm bore and 66.8 mm stroke. It produced 65 hp and 129 N·m,70 hp and 137 N·m or 75 hp and 130 N·m, since the Saab 96 was used for rallying it was tuned. SAAB tuned the engine to 240 hp