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A taproot is a large and dominant root from which other roots sprout laterally. A taproot is somewhat straight and thick, is tapering in shape, grows directly downward. In some plants, such as the carrot, the taproot is a storage organ so well developed that it has been cultivated as a vegetable; the taproot system contrasts with the adventitious or fibrous root system of plants with many branched roots, but many plants that grow a taproot during germination go on to develop branching root structures, although some that rely on the main root for storage may retain the dominant taproot for centuries, for example Welwitschia. Dicots, one of the two divisions of flowering plants, start with a taproot, one main root forming from the enlarging radicle of the seed; the tap root can be persistent throughout the life of the plant but is most replaced in the plant's development by a fibrous root system. A persistent taproot system forms when the radicle keeps growing and smaller lateral roots form along the taproot.

The shape of taproots can vary but the typical shapes include: Conical root: this type of root tuber is conical in shape, i.e. widest at the top and tapering towards the bottom: e.g. carrot. Fusiform root: this root is widest in the middle and tapers towards the top and the bottom: e.g. radish. Napiform root: the root has a top-like appearance, it is broad at the top and tapers like a tail at the bottom: e.g. turnip. Many taproots are modified into storage organs; some plants with taproots: Beetroot Burdock Carrot Sugar beet Dandelion Parsley Parsnip Poppy mallow Radish Sagebrush Turnip Common milkweed trees such as oaks, elms and firs Taproots develop from the radicle of a seed, forming the primary root. It branches off to secondary roots; these may further branch to form rootlets. For most plants species the radicle dies some time after seed germination, causing the development of a fibrous root system, which lacks a main downward-growing root. Most trees begin life with a taproot, but after one to a few years the main root system changes to a wide-spreading fibrous root system with horizontal-growing surface roots and only a few vertical, deep-anchoring roots.

A typical mature tree 30–50 m tall has a root system that extends horizontally in all directions as far as the tree is tall or more, but as much as 100% of the roots are in the top 50 cm of soil. Soil characteristics influence the architecture of taproots. Many plants with taproots are difficult to transplant, or to grow in containers, because the root tends to grow deep and in many species comparatively slight obstacles or damage to the taproot will stunt or kill the plant. Among weeds with taproots dandelions are typical. 2006-01-13, Sciencedaily: Deep-rooted Plants Have Much Greater Impact On Climate Than Experts Thought Citation: "... The tap roots transfer rainwater from the surface to reservoirs deep underground and redistribute water... increases photosynthesis and the evaporation of water... by 40 percent in the dry season... During the wet season, these plants can store as much as 10 percent of the annual precipitation as deep as 13 meters underground, to be tapped during the dry months... tree roots acting like pipes to allow water to shift around much faster than it could otherwise percolate through the soil."

Fullerton Arboretum on taproots

1973 Hanafi Muslim massacre

The 1973 Hanafi Muslim massacre took place on the afternoon of January 18, 1973. Two adults and a child were shot to death. Four other children ranging in age from nine days to ten years old were drowned. Two others were injured; the murder took place at 7700 16th Street NW, a Washington, D. C. house purchased for a group of Hanafi Muslims to use as the "Hanafi American Mussulman's Rifle and Pistol Club". The property was purchased and donated by Milwaukee Bucks basketball player, Kareem Abdul-Jabbar; the target of the attack was the son-in-law of Reginald Hawkins. Khaalis had written and sent fifty letters calling Nation of Islam leader Elijah Muhammad "guilty of'fooling and deceiving people - robbing them of their money, besides that dooming them to Hell.'" The letters were mailed to ministers of all fifty mosques of the Nation of Islam, a sect that Khaalis had infiltrated and once led. The letters were critical of Wallace D. Fard and urged the ministers to leave the sect. At the time of the murders Black Muslims were known as the Nation of Islam and changed their name to World Community Islam in the West.

Hamas Abdul Khaalis was a Roman Catholic and Seventh-day Adventist born in Gary, Indiana as Ernest Timothy McGhee. He converted to Sunni Islam and on the advice of his Islamic teacher, Tasibur Uddein Rahman infiltrated the Black Muslims, he changed his name to Ernest 2x McGhee and served as principal of the sect's school, went on to become Elijah Muhammad's national secretary at their Chicago national headquarters from 1954-1957. In an interview, Khaalis said, "Elijah once said that I was next in line to him, that it was me, not Malcolm X." Elijah Mohammad was born Elijah Poole. In 1957 he was demoted or lost influence in a dispute after unsuccessfully trying to convince Muhammad to change the direction of the movement, he moved to New York City where he ran the Hanafi Midh-hab center in Harlem under his Sunni Muslim name Hamaas Abdul Khaalis. In New York, he continued trying to convince members to defect from Muhammad. In 1970, Khaalis converted Kareem Abdul Jabbar, known as Lew Alcindor. In 1971 Jabbar donated a $78,000 field stone mansion for Khaalis' headquarters in Washington, D.

C. Police believe the continued efforts to convert people in New York to be a reason for the growing conflict between Sunni Muslims and Black Muslims, may have contributed to the murders. In an interview Khaalis spoke of Malcolm X, "When Malcolm was killed I was teaching him the Sunni way," and "He used to come to my house on Long Island and we would sit in his car for hours, he would meet me. Never in public because he knew they were after him, he was saying the wrong things." On January 12, 1973 several Black Mafia affiliates traveled to Washington, D. C and scouted the home. On January 17, 1973, Ronald Harvey, John Clark, James "Bubbles" Price, John Griffin, Theodore Moody, William Christian, Jerome Sinclair traveled in two vehicles from Philadelphia to Washington, D. C. One of the men called claiming to be interested in purchasing literature about the Hanafi and arranged to come to the residence to purchase the literature. Two of them came to purchase material. Khaalis' son, left the room to get change, upon his return he was told, "this is a stick up."

The two men let five or six additional people into the residence. Daud was killed first, he was taken to shot. Abdu Nur was shot in a bedroom. Bibi was forced to watch them drown two of the children in an upstairs bathtub and she was taken to the basement where she was forced to watch them drown her nine day old granddaughter in a sink. Bibi was bound and shot eight times. Amina, Khaalis' daughter, was shot three times, she was told, "You know your father wrote those letters, don't you? Don't you know he can't do anything like that?" Unsure if she was dead, she was shot two more times, the gun jammed. Amina survived the shooting. Seven Philadelphia Black Muslims were charged for the crime. Kareem Abdul-Jabbar was a pall bearer at the funeral for Khaalis' children. H. Price, 23, Jerome Sinclair, 22 known as Jerome 5X, they all had extensive police records and, with the exception of Christian, they all had served prison sentences at Holmesburg Prison. Of the six defendants, one was acquitted when a key witness, Price, an unindicted co-conspirator, refused to testify.

Price was not happy with the lifestyle afforded as a protected witness. Price thought that if he could get out from the witness protection program he could reintegrate with his black Muslim brothers and they would stop threatening violence against him. Minister Louis Farrakhan on behalf of Elijah Muhammad, aired a threat during his radio broadcast: Let this be a warning to the opponents of Muhammad.. Let this be a warning to those of you who would be used as an instrument of a wicked government against our rise. Be careful, because when the government is tired of using you, they're going to dump you back into the laps of your people, and although Elijah Muhammad is a merciful man and will say, "Come in," and forgive you, yet in the ranks of black people today there are younger men and women rising up who have no forgiveness in them for traitors and stool pigeons. And they will execute you as soon. Be careful because nothing shall prevent the rise of the messiah, The Nation of Islam, the black man the world over.

This broadcast led Price to refuse to testify. He was murdered in Holmesburg prison, where he was housed with other Black Muslims. Another defendant was granted a retrial after the

Gerard Fortune

Gerard Fortune known by his first name Gerard, is a Haitian artist. His exact date of birth is uncertain, though Gerard has said he was alive during the Haitian dictatorship of Jean Claude Duvalier, which would put his age at about 50–60 years old. Gerard was born and raised in the city of Petionville, a suburb of the Haitian capital Port-au-Prince; as an adult, Gerard worked as a pastry chef before starting to paint in 1978. He continued making new pieces, always in naive style – a brightly colored, style of painting; the subjects of Gerard’s paintings are vast, ranging from everyday matters, Biblical scenes, portraits of Haitian generals and politicians and athletes. Gerard himself has said, "I'm obligated to paint flowers and the sea, and villages and anything that comes to mind.” “God tells me what to paint, the feeling of each painting.” He says. “Inspiration comes from God at all hours.” His work has been exhibited internationally in places like Nottingham Contemporary. Two of the places that include Gerard’s work in their permanent collections are Ramapo College, New Jersey and the Waterloo Center for the Arts in Waterloo, Iowa.

Title: Famille Bebe Doc Medium: Oil on canvas Date: c. 1986 Location: Waterloo Center for the Arts, Waterloo, IA Description: Depicts a large white building with an orange picket fence in front of it. There is seven figures scattered throughout the scene, hills and trees in the background. Title: Girls Waving Flags Medium: Paint on canvas Date: c. 2005 Location: Waterloo Center for the Arts, Waterloo, IA Description: Two girls, one in a red dress, the other in a blue dress, stand against a colorful background waving flags. Title: Jonah And The Whale Medium: Paint on canvas Date: n.d. Location: Waterloo Center for the Arts, Waterloo, IA Description: This painting depicts the prophet Jonah being swallowed by a massive, pink fish; the background dotted with pink flowers. Title: Jesus King Medium: Oil on canvas Date: n.d. Location: Waterloo Center for the Arts, Waterloo, IA Description: Jesus is painted wearing a crown and dressed in an orange robe with a red sash, he is portrayed coming out a cluster of clouds.

Gerard Fortune. Philippe Bécoulet, Dialogue du Réel et de L’imaginaire

Royal Philharmonic Orchestra

The Royal Philharmonic Orchestra, based in London, is a British Orchestra, formed by Sir Thomas Beecham in 1946. In its early days, the orchestra secured profitable recording contracts and important engagements including the Glyndebourne Festival Opera and the concerts of the Royal Philharmonic Society. After Beecham's death in 1961 the orchestra's fortunes declined steeply. Since Beecham's death, the RPO has had seven chief conductors, including Rudolf Kempe, Antal Doráti, André Previn and Vladimir Ashkenazy. Others associated with the orchestra have included Sir Charles Groves, Sir Charles Mackerras, Peter Maxwell Davies, Yehudi Menuhin and Leopold Stokowski. In 2004, the orchestra acquired its first permanent London base, at the new Cadogan Hall in Chelsea; the RPO gives concerts at the Royal Festival Hall, the Royal Albert Hall and venues around the UK and other countries. From its earliest days, the orchestra has been active in the recording studios, making film soundtracks and numerous gramophone recordings.

In 1932 the conductor Sir Thomas Beecham had founded the London Philharmonic Orchestra, with the backing of rich supporters, he ran until 1940, when finances dried up in wartime. Beecham left to conduct in Australia and the US. On Beecham's return to England in September 1944 the LPO welcomed him back, in October they gave a concert together that drew superlatives from the critics. Over the next months Beecham and the orchestra gave further concerts with considerable success, but the LPO players, now their own employers, declined to give him the unfettered control he had exercised in the 1930s. If he were to become chief conductor again it would be as a paid employee of the orchestra. Beecham responded, "I emphatically refuse to be wagged by any orchestra... I am going to found one more great orchestra to round off my career." In 1945 he conducted the first concert of Walter Legge's new Philharmonia Orchestra, but was not disposed to accept a salaried position from Legge, his former assistant, any more than from his former players in the LPO.

His new orchestra to rival the Philharmonia would, he told Legge, be launched in "the most auspicious circumstances and éclat". In 1946 Beecham reached an agreement with the Royal Philharmonic Society: his orchestra would replace the LPO at all the Society's concerts, he thus gained the right to name the new ensemble the "Royal Philharmonic Orchestra", an arrangement approved by George VI. Beecham arranged with the Glyndebourne Festival that the RPO should be the resident orchestra at Glyndebourne seasons, he secured backing, including that of record companies in the US as well as Britain, with whom lucrative recording contracts were negotiated. The music critic Lyndon Jenkins writes: Naturally, it became known that he was planning another orchestra, at which the cry "He'll never get the players!" went up just as it had done in 1932. Beecham was unmoved: "I always get the players," he retorted. "Among other considerations, they are so good they refuse to play under anybody but me". Beecham appointed Victor Olof as his orchestral manager, they started recruiting.

At the top of their list were leading musicians with whom Beecham had worked before the war. Four had been founder members of the LPO fifteen years previously: Reginald Kell, Gerald Jackson, James Bradshaw and Jack Silvester. From the current LPO they engaged the oboist Peter Newbury. Beecham persuaded the veteran bassoonist Archie Camden, pursuing a solo career, to return to orchestral work; the cellos were led by Raymond Clark, enlisted from the BBC Symphony Orchestra. The principal horn player was Dennis Brain, who held the same post in Legge's Philharmonia, but managed to play for both orchestras. Jenkins speculates that as Beecham knew all Britain's orchestral leaders at first hand he decided not to try to lure any of them away, his choice was John Pennington, first violin of the London String Quartet from 1927 to 1934, had had a career in the US as concertmaster, successively, of the San Francisco Symphony, Los Angeles Philharmonic and Paramount Pictures orchestras. On 11 September 1946 the Royal Philharmonic assembled for its first rehearsal.

Four days it gave its first concert, at the Davis Theatre, Croydon. Beecham telegraphed a colleague, "Press unanimous in praise of orchestra. First Croydon concert huge success". Beecham and the orchestra played a series of out-of-town engagements before venturing a first London concert on 26 October; the Times spoke of "a hall filled with golden tone which enveloped the listener". Before its London debut the orchestra made its first recording, within two years had made more than 100. Within a few months Pennington was forced to resign when the British Musicians' Union discovered that he was not one of its members, he was succeeded by his deputy Oscar Lampe, "a man who eschewed most social graces but played the violin divinely", according to Jenkins. In the early days the orchestra comprised 72 players all on yearly contract to Beecham, giving him first call on their services, subject to reasonable notice, but not otherwise restricting their freedom to play for other ensembles. A review of the London orchestral scene of the late 1940s said of the RPO and its main rival: "The Philharmonia and Royal Philharmonic share a

Ignacio Vergara

Ignacio Vergara Gimeno was a Spanish Baroque sculptor. He began his artistic apprenticeship in the studios of his father, Francisco Vergara, a sculptor, his brother, José Vergara Gimeno went on to be a painter. Other influences during his formative years include Konrad Rudolf, he was one of the founders and Director-General of the Academia de Bellas Artes de Santa Bárbara, which became the Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Carlos de Valencia. He was an Academician of Merit at the Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando in Madrid, his best known work is the portal at the Palace of the Marqués de Dos Aguas, from an architectural design by Hipólito Rovira. Other notable works, all in stone, include the "Angels Venerating Mary" at Valencia Cathedral, several works at the Iglesia de las Escuelas Pías, a ststue of saint Anthony the Great at the Iglesia de San Martín y San Antonio and one of Saint Bruno in the chapel at the University of Valencia, he did large scale wood carvings. All of these works Rococo.

One of his last works, an allegory of King Charles III, accompanied by Justice and Prudence, at the Palace of Justice, contains elements that are Neoclassical in nature. Media related to Ignacio Vergara at Wikimedia Commons

Declaration on Crimes of Communism

The Declaration on Crimes of Communism is a declaration signed on 25 February 2010 by several prominent European politicians, former political prisoners, human rights advocates and historians, which calls for the condemnation of communism. It concluded the international conference Crimes of the Communist Regimes, that took place at the Czech Senate and the Office of the Government of the Czech Republic from 24 to 26 February 2010; the declaration reiterated many of the suggestions set forth by the Prague Declaration on European Conscience and Communism. The conference was hosted by Jiří Liška, Vice President of the Czech Senate, the Office of the Government of the Czech Republic, organized by the Institute for the Study of Totalitarian Regimes under the patronage of Jan Fischer, Prime Minister of the Czech Republic, Heidi Hautala, Chairwoman of the Human Rights Subcommittee of the European Parliament, Göran Lindblad, Vice President of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe, among others.

The cooperation partners included the Konrad Adenauer Foundation, the Information Office of the European Parliament, the Representation of the European Commission in the Czech Republic, the Robert Schuman Foundation of the European People's Party, the Polish Institute in Prague, the Federal Commissioner for the Stasi Records and the National Endowment for Democracy. The declaration both called for condemnation of communism, education about communist crimes, prosecution of communist criminals by establishing an international court within the EU for communist crimes, construction of a memorial to the victims of world communism, reduction of pensions and social security benefits for communist perpetrators; the declaration stated that: "Communist regimes have committed, are in some cases still committing, crimes against humanity in all countries of Central and Eastern Europe and in other countries where communism is still alive" "Crimes against humanity are not subject to statutory limitations according to international law.

Communist crimes against humanity must be condemned by this court in a similar way as the Nazi crimes were condemned and sentenced by the Nuremberg tribunal, as the crimes committed in former Yugoslavia were condemned and sentenced" "Not punishing the communist criminals means disregard of and thus weakening of international law" "As an act of reparation and restitution, European countries must introduce legislation that equalizes the pensions and social security benefits of perpetrators of communist crimes so that they are equal to or smaller than those of their victims" "As democracy must learn to be capable of defending itself, Communism needs to be condemned in a similar way as Nazism was. We are not equating the respective crimes of Nazism and Communism, including the Gulag, the Laogai and the Nazi concentration camps, they should each be judged on their own terrible merits. Communist ideology and communist rule contradict the European Convention of Human Rights and the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the EU.

Just as we are not willing to relativise crimes of Nazism, we must not accept a relativisation of crimes of Communism." "We call upon EU member states to increase the awareness raising and education about crimes of communism. "We call upon the European Commission and European Council of Justice and Home Affairs to adopt a Framework Decision introducing a pan-European ban on excusing, denying or trivializing the crimes of communism." "The creation of the Platform of European Memory and Conscience, as supported by the European Parliament and the EU Council in 2009, must be completed at EU level. Individual governments must live up to their commitments regarding the work of the Platform." "As an act of recognition of the victims and respect for the immense suffering inflicted upon half of the continent, Europe must erect a memorial to the victims of world Communism, following the example of the memorial in the USA in Washington, D. C." The signatories included: Jiří Liška, Vice President of the Czech Senate Harry Wu, human rights activist Nikita V. Petrov, Vice Chairman of Memorial Heidi Hautala, Chairwoman of the Human Rights Subcommittee, European Parliament Ivana Janů, Justice of the Constitutional Court, former judge of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia Joachim Gauck, former Federal Commissioner for the Stasi Records Vytautas Landsbergis, former President of Lithuania Göran Lindblad, Vice President of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe Hubert Gehring, Director of the Konrad Adenauer Foundation in Prague Naděžda Kavalírová, Chairwoman of the Confederation of Political Prisoners of the Czech Republic Prague Declaration on European Conscience and Communism European Day of Remembrance for Victims of Stalinism and Nazism Council of Europe resolution 1481 European Public Hearing on Crimes Committed by Totalitarian Regimes Vilnius Declaration Act on Lawlessness of the Communist Regime and on Resistance Against It