The Persians are an Iranian ethnic group that make up over half the population of Iran. They share a cultural system and are native speakers of the Persian language. The ancient Persians were originally a branch of the ancient Iranian population who entered modern-day Iran by the early 10th century BC. The English term Persian derives from Latin Persia, itself deriving from Greek Persís, in the Bible, it is referred to as Parás —sometimes Paras uMadai —within the books of Esther, Daniel and Nehemya. Although Persis was originally one of the provinces of ancient Iran, varieties of this term were adopted through Greek sources, thus, in the Western world, the term Persian came to refer to all inhabitants of the country. 10th-century Iraqi historian Al-Masudi refers to Pahlavi and Azari as dialects of the Persian language, in 1333, medieval Moroccan traveler and scholar Ibn Battuta, referred to the people of Kabul as a specific sub-tribe of Persians. Lady Mary Sheil, in her observation of Iran during the Qajar era, describes Persians and Leks to identify themselves as descendants of the ancient Persians.
On March 21,1935, the king of Iran, Reza Shah Pahlavi, issued a decree asking the international community to use the term Iran. However, the term Persian is still used to designate the predominant population of the Iranian peoples living in the Iranian cultural continent. The earliest known written record attributed to the Persians is from the Black Obelisk of Shalmaneser III, the inscription mentions Parsua as a tribal chiefdom in modern-day western Iran. The ancient Persians were originally a branch of the Iranian population that, in the early 10th century BC. They were initially dominated by the Assyrians for much of the first three centuries after arriving in the region, they played a role in the downfall of the Neo-Assyrian Empire. The Medes, another branch of population, founded the unified empire of Media as the regions dominant cultural and political power in c.625 BC. Meanwhile, the Persian dynasty of the Achaemenids formed a state to the central Median power. In c.552 BC, the Achaemenids began a revolution which led to the conquest of the empire by Cyrus II in c.550 BC.
They spread their influence to the rest of what is called the Iranian Plateau, at its greatest extent, the Achaemenid Empire stretched from parts of Eastern Europe in the west, to the Indus Valley in the east, making it the largest empire the world had yet seen. The Achaemenids developed the infrastructure to support their growing influence, including the creation of Pasargadae and its legacy and impact on the kingdom of Macedon was notably huge, even for centuries after the withdrawal of the Persians from Europe following the Greco-Persian Wars. The empire collapsed in 330 BC following the conquests of Alexander the Great, until the Parthian era, the Iranian identity had an ethnic and religious value, however, it did not yet have a political import
Shapur III, was the twelfth king of the Sasanian Empire from 383 to 388. He was the son of Shapur II and had succeeded his uncle Ardashir II, shapurs cousin Zruanduxt married the King Khosrov IV of Armenia. Shapur III, knowing about the murder of many Sasanian kings by the nobles, declared to them in his accession speech, however, in the opinion of the nobility, this was unacceptable. Negotiations between the Romans and the Sasanians which had begun in the reign of Ardashir II culminated in a treaty of friendship in the year 384. The Persian diplomat who was part of this negotiation was a certain Yazdan-Friy-Shabuhr, according to this treaty, Armenia was partitioned between the Romans and the Persians. Therefore, two kingdoms were formed, one a vassal of Rome and the other, of Persia. The larger portion, which consisted of the regions lying towards the east, passed under the suzerainty of Persia, and was handed over to an Arshakuni, named Khosrov IV, thus friendly relations were established between Rome and Persia which survived for thirty-six years.
Shapur III died in 388, after reigning a little more than five years and he was a man of simple tastes, and was fond of spending his time outdoors in his tents. He died when some nobles cut the ropes of a tent that he had erected in one of his palace courts. He was shortly succeeded by his son Bahram IV, Shapur III left behind him a sculptured memorial, which is still to be seen in the vicinity of Kermanshah. It consists of two similar figures, looking towards each other, and standing in an arched frame. On either side of the figures are inscriptions in the Old Pahlavi character, whereby we are enabled to identify the individuals represented with the second and the third Shapur. They are identical in form, with the exception that the names in the inscription are Shapur, Narseh, while those in the left-hand one are Shapur, Shapur. Inscription of Shapour II and Shapour III in Taq-e Bostan Pourshariati and Fall of the Sasanian Empire, The Sasanian-Parthian Confederacy and the Arab Conquest of Iran.
Greatrex, Lieu, Samuel N. C, the Roman Eastern Frontier and the Persian Wars. New York, New York and London, United Kingdom, the Civilizations of the Ancient Near East by George Rawlinson, Project Gutenberg This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Hugh, ed. article name needed
An equestrian statue is a statue of a rider mounted on a horse, from the Latin eques, meaning knight, deriving from equus, meaning horse. A statue of a horse is strictly an equine statue. A full-sized equestrian statue is a difficult and expensive object for any culture to produce, Equestrian statuary in the West goes back at least as far as Archaic Greece. Found on the Athenian acropolis, the sixth century BC statue known as the Rampin Rider depicts a kouros mounted on horseback, a number of ancient Egyptian and Persian reliefs show mounted figures, usually rulers, though no free standing statues are known. The Chinese Terracotta Army has no mounted riders, though cavalrymen stand beside their mounts, the Regisole was a bronze classical or Late Antique equestrian monument of a ruler, highly influential during the Italian Renaissance but destroyed in 1796 in the wake of the French Revolution. It was originally erected at Ravenna, but removed to Pavia in the Middle Ages, a fragment of an equestrian portrait sculpture of Augustus has survived.
Equestrian statues were not very frequent in the Middle ages, there are some examples, like the Bamberg Horseman, located in Bamberg Cathedral. Another example is the Magdeburg Reiter, in the city of Magdeburg, there are a few roughly half-size statues of Saint George and the Dragon, including the famous ones in Prague and Stockholm. The Scaliger Tombs in Verona include Gothic statues at less than lifesize, a well-known small bronze in Paris may be a contemporary portrait of Charlemagne, although its date and subject are uncertain. Leonardo da Vinci had planned an equestrian monument to the Milanese ruler. The The Wax Horse and Rider is a model for an equestrian statue of Charles dAmboise. Titians equestrian portrait of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor of 1548 applied the form again to a ruler, taccas studio would produce such models for the rulers in France and Spain. His last public commission was the equestrian bronze of Philip IV, begun in 1634. The near life-size equestrian statue of Charles I of England by Hubert Le Sueur of 1633 at Charing Cross in London is the earliest large English example, which was followed by many.
The Bronze Horseman is an equestrian statue, on a huge base, of Peter the Great of 1782 by Étienne Maurice Falconet in Saint Petersburg. Mills was the first American sculptor to overcome the challenge of casting a rider on a rearing horse, the resulting sculpture was so popular he repeated it, for Washington, D. C. New Orleans and Nashville, cyrus Edwin Dallin made a specialty of equestrian sculptures of American Indians, his Appeal to the Great Spirit stands before the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. The Robert Gould Shaw Monument in Boston, Massachusetts is a famous relief including an equestrian portrait, as the 20th century progressed, the popularity of the equestrian monument declined sharply, as monarchies fell, and the military use of horses virtually vanished
Shah is a title given to the emperors, kings and lords of Iran. In Iran the title was used, rather than King in the European sense. The full, Old Persian title of the Achaemenid rulers of the First Persian Empire was Xšāyathiya Xšāyathiyānām or Šāhe Šāhān and this word is commonly confused with the unrelated and distinct Indian surname Shah, which is derived from the Sanskrit Sadhu or Sahu, meaning gentleman. Šāh, or Šāhanšāh to use the term, was the title of the Persian emperors. While the Ottoman Sultans never styled themselves as Shah, but rather Sultan, their male offspring received the title of Şehzade, or prince. The full title of the Achaemenid rulers was Xšāyaθiya Xšāyaθiyānām, literally King of Kings in Old Persian, corresponding to Middle Persian Šāhān Šāh, in Greek, this phrase was translated as βασιλεὺς τῶν βασιλέων, King of Kings, equivalent to Emperor. Both terms were often shortened to their roots shah and basileus, in Western languages, Shah is often used as an imprecise rendering of Šāhanšāh.
The term was first recorded in English in 1564 as a title for the King of Persia, for a long time, Europeans thought of Shah as a particular royal title rather than an imperial one, although the monarchs of Persia regarded themselves as emperors of the Persian Empire. In the twentieth century, the Shah of Persia, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, officially adopted the title شاهنشاه Šāhanšāh and, in western languages and he styled his wife شهبانو Shahbānu. Iran no longer had a shah after the 1979 Islamic Revolution, from the reign of Ashot III, the Bagratid kings of Armenia used the title shahanshah, meaning king of kings. The title padishah was adopted from the Iranians by the Ottomans and by other monarchs claiming imperial rank. Another subsidiary style of the Ottoman and Mughal rulers was Shah-i-Alam Panah, meaning King, the Shah-Armens, used the title Shāh-i Arman. Georgian title mepetmepe was inspired by the shahanshah title, however the precise full styles can differ in the court traditions of each shahs kingdom.
This title was given to the princes of the Ottoman Empire and was used by the princes of the Mughal Empire in India. Thus, in Oudh, only sons of the sovereign shah bahadur were by birth-right styled Shahzada Mirza Bahadur, though this style could be extended to individual grandsons, other male descendants of the sovereign in the male line were merely styled Mirza or Mirza. This could even apply to non-Muslim dynasties, for example, the younger sons of the ruling Sikh maharaja of Punjab were styled Shahzada Singh Bahadur. Shahbanu, Persian term using the word shah and the Persian suffix -banu, Empress, in modern times, shahdokht is another term derived from shah using the Persian patronymic suffix -dokht daughter, female descendant, to address the Princess of the imperial households. Shahpur been derived from using the archaic Persian suffix -pur son, male descendant
The Zagros Mountains form the largest mountain range in Iran and southeastern Turkey. This mountain range has a length of 1,500 km. The highest point in the Zagros Mountains is Dena, the Zagros fold and thrust belt was formed by collision of two tectonic plates, the Eurasian Plate and the Arabian Plate. This collision primarily happened during the Miocene and folded the rocks that had been deposited from the Carboniferous to the Miocene in the geosyncline in front of the Iranian Plate. The process of collision continues to the present and as the Arabian Plate is being pushed against the Eurasian Plate, the Zagros Mountains, a relatively dense GPS network which covered the Iranian Zagros proves a high rate of deformation within the Zagros. The GPS results show that the current rate of shortening in the southeast Zagros is ~10 mm/yr, the north-south Kazerun strike-slip fault divides the Zagros into two distinct zones of deformation. The GPS results show different shortening directions along the belt, normal shortening in the southeast, the sedimentary cover in the SE Zagros is deforming above a layer of rock salt whereas in the NW Zagros the salt layer is missing or is very thin.
This different basal friction is partly responsible for the different topographies on either side of the Kazerun fault. Higher topography and narrower zone of deformation in the NW Zagros is observed whereas in the SE, deformation was spread more, stresses induced in the Earths crust by the collision caused extensive folding of the preexisting layered sedimentary rocks. Subsequent erosion removed softer rocks, such as mudstone and siltstone while leaving harder rocks, such as limestone and this differential erosion formed the linear ridges of the Zagros Mountains. The depositional environment and tectonic history of the rocks were conducive to the formation and trapping of petroleum, salt domes and salt glaciers are a common feature of the Zagros Mountains. Salt domes are an important target for exploration, as the impermeable salt frequently traps petroleum beneath other rock layers. The Zagros Mountains have a totally sedimentary origin and are primarily of limestone. In the Elevated Zagros or the Higher Zagros, the Paleozoic rocks could be found mainly in the upper and higher sections of the peaks of the Zagros Mountains along the Zagros main fault.
On the both sides of this fault, there are Mesozoic rocks, a combination of Triassic and Jurassic rocks that are surrounded by Cretaceous rocks on the both sides. The Folded Zagros is formed mainly of Tertiary rocks, with the Paleogene rocks south of the Cretaceous rocks, the mountains are divided into many parallel sub-ranges, and orogenically have the same age as the Alps. Irans main oilfields lie in the central foothills of the Zagros mountain range. The southern ranges of the Fars Province have somewhat lower summits and they contain some limestone rocks showing abundant marine fossils
Ardashir II, was the eleventh Sassanid King of Persia from 379 to 383. He was the brother of his predecessor, Shapur II, during the reign of Shapur II, Ardashir had served as governor-King of Adiabene, where he had reportedly persecuted Christians. However, the acts of brutality against Christians attributed to him severely contradict the view that he was the most kind. Ardashir II was given the epithet Nihoukar or Beneficent by the Persians, the Arabs called him Al Djemil or the Virtuous. According to the Modjmel-al-Tewarikh, he took no taxes from his subjects during the four years of his reign, before becoming king of Persia, he was governor-King of Adiabene from 344 to 376. In 379 Shapur II, the brother of Ardashir appointed him as his successor. It is believed that Ardashir took part in the defense of the Sasanian Empire with Shapur II when it was invaded by Emperor Julian, when Ardashir became king he ordered a rock relief to be made at Taq-e Bostan showing him flanked by Mithra and Ahura Mazda.
During his reign as Shah of Persia, events in Armenia seemed to occupy Ardashirs attention, the son of Arsaces II, Papas had been murdered during Shapurs reign and the Romans had replaced him with a certain Varasdates who was a member of the Arsacid family. However, real power was in the hands of Mushegh I Mamikonian, Mushegh was suspected of having conspired with the Emperor of Rome and was murdered by Varasdates. In return for their services, Manuel allowed the Persians to maintain a garrison in Armenia, but this arrangement did not work for long. A nobleman named Merujan wrongly informed Manuel that the commandant of the Persian garrison desired to capture him, Manuel fell upon the ten thousand Persian soldiers stationed in Armenia and murdered them. But Manuel died soon afterwards and confusion followed, desirous of maintaining peace in the borderlands, the Roman Emperor Theodosius I and Ardashir decided upon a treaty. But Ardashir died in 383 before the treaty could be signed, the treaty was eventually signed and ratified by his nephew Shapur III in the year 384.
His daughter Zruanduxt married the King Khosrov IV of Armenia and Fall of the Sasanian Empire, The Sasanian-Parthian Confederacy and the Arab Conquest of Iran
The chang is a Persian musical instrument similar to harp. It was very popular and used widely during the times of ancient Persia, the chang has appeared in paintings and wall art in Persia since its introduction in about 4000 B. C. In these paintings and mosaics, the chang went from the arched harp to an angular harp in the early 1900s B. C. with vertical or horizontal sound boxes. By the beginning of the Common Era, the chang had changed shape to be less of an instrument and more of a large, Hellenistic. Sassanian courts were enamored with the more Hellenistic chang and increased its popularity, but by the end of the Sasanian period, the chang had been redesigned to be as light as possible. Becoming more elegant, the chang lost much of its rigidity and structural soundness, the chang that is used today resembles the last documented transformation. In medieval Azerbaijan, the chang had 18-24 strings but varies based on how far the chang dates back. In the design of some ancient changs, sheep skin or goat skin was used to amplify the sound making it closer to an eastern harp.
In modern days the chang is made out of string or the tail of a horse. The past structure of the chang was typically goat or sheep skin, the skins used on the chang give it a different sound. The chang was predominantly played by women during ancient times, the chang is being revived and is now starting to make its way back into the field of contemporary Persian music. There are records from as far back as 4000 B. C. that depict pictures of the chang being played, along with other instruments and a singer. Since the playing style of the chang does not share any similarities with other Persian instruments, it is an instrument to pick up, play. As a result, the number of players is small. There are a few players of the chang including Mrs. Parvin Ruhi. Today the chang is played in ensembles, such as religious ceremonies and parties. In recent years, the Iranian scholars and instrument makers have been trying to revive the ancient chang back to its former glory, the chang is a name given to the fangxiang, a Chinese metallophone played in China since ancient times.
The Uzbek chang is a dulcimer, similar to the Santur
Tāq Kasrā and Ayvān-e Kasrā, meaning Iwan of Khosrow) are names given to the remains of a Sasanian Persian monument, which is sometimes called the Archway of Ctesiphon. It is located near the town of Salman Pak, Iraq. It is the only remaining structure of the ancient city of Ctesiphon. The archway is considered to be a landmark in the history of architecture, the exact time of construction is not known with certainty. Construction possibly began during the reign of Anushiruwan the Just after a campaign against the Byzantines in 540 AD. The arched iwan hall, open on the side, was about 37 meters high 26 meters across and 50 meters long. The arch was part of the palace complex. The throne room—presumably under or behind the more than 30 m high. The top of the arch is about 1 meter thick while the walls at the base are up to 7 meters thick and it is the largest vault ever constructed in the world. The catenary arch was built without centring, in order to make this possible a number of techniques were used.
The bricks were laid about 18 degrees from the vertical which allowed them to be supported by the rear wall during construction. The quick drying cement used as mortar allowed the fresh bricks to be supported by those that were previously laid. The structure was captured by the Arabs in AD637 and they used it as a mosque for a while until the area was gradually abandoned. The monument is the subject of a poem by Khaqani who visited the ruins in the twelfth century. In 1851 French artist Eugène Flandin visited and studied the structure with Pascal Coste who remarked the Romans had nothing similar or of the type, in 1888, a serious flood demolished the greater part of the edifice. I even got a big bronze medal from the Egyptian Photographic Society in Cairo. It is a picture of one of the so-called Seven Wonders of the World and this is the largest unsupported arch on earth and I took the photograph while I was training out there for the RAF in 1940. I was flying over the solo in an old Hawker Hart biplane
Bishapur was an ancient city in Iran on the ancient road between Persis and Elam. The road linked the Sassanid capitals Estakhr and Ctesiphon and it is located south of modern Faliyan in the Kazerun County of Pars Province, Iran. Bishapur was built near a crossing and at the same site there is a fort with rock-cut reservoirs. The name Bishapur derives from Bay-Šāpūr, which means Lord Shapur, in his native province of Fars, he built a new capital that would measure up to his ambitions, Shapurs City. Outside the city, Shapur decorated the sides of the Bishapur River gorge with huge historical reliefs commemorating his triple triumph over Rome. One of these reliefs, in a shape, has rows of registers with files of soldiers and horses. The city, as the dam bridge in Shushtar, was built by Roman soldiers who had been captured after Valerians defeat in 260. However, it was not a new settlement, archaeologists have found remains from the Parthian. The city remained important until the Arabian invasions and the rise of Islam in the quarter of the 7th century.
There were still living there in the 10th century. The main part of the excavations took place in the royal sector, a fire altar, sometimes interpreted as a shrine to Anahita, was erected near the palace. In the center there is a space with eight large square exedrae decorated with 64 alcoves. The French excavators believed it had covered with a dome roof. To the west lies a courtyard decorated with mosaics, to the east and its walls must have been covered with small stucco ornaments, rows of medallions, bands of foliage, and topped with merlons inherited from Achaemenid architecture. All these decorative techniques were used after the Islamic conquest of Iran. The floor was paved with marble slabs, with a mosaic border. Along the walls runs a band featuring a series of heads and masks, in a frontal or profile view. At the top of each there was a picture of women naked under their transparent veils, musicians, women twisting garlands
The Qajar dynasty was an Iranian royal dynasty of Turkic origin, specifically from the Qajar tribe, which ruled Persia from 1785 to 1925. The state ruled by the dynasty was known as the Sublime State of Iran. The Qajar family took control of Iran in 1794, deposing Lotf Ali Khan, the last of the Zand dynasty. In the Caucasus, the Qajar dynasty permanently lost many of Irans integral areas to the Russians over the course of the 19th century, comprising modern-day Georgia, Dagestan and Armenia. The Qajar rulers were members of the Karagöz or Black-Eye sect of the Qajars, Qajars first settled during the Mongol period in the vicinity of Armenia and were among the seven Qizilbash tribes that supported the Safavids. The Safavids left Arran to local Turkic khans, and, in 1554 Ganja was governed by Shahverdi Soltan Ziyadoglu Qajar, Qajars filled a number of diplomatic missions and governorships in the 16–17th centuries for the Safavids. The Qajars were resettled by Shah Abbas I throughout Iran, the great number of them settled in Astarabad near the south-eastern corner of the Caspian Sea, and it would be this branch of Qajars that would rise to power.
The immediate ancestor of the Qajar dynasty, Shah Qoli Khan of the Quvanlu of Ganja and his son, Fath Ali Khan was a renowned military commander during the rule of the Safavid shahs Sultan Husayn and Tahmasp II. He was killed on the orders of Shah Nader Shah in 1726, Fath Ali Khans son Mohammad Hasan Khan Qajar was the father of Mohammad Khan Qajar and Hossein Qoli Khan, father of Baba Khan, the future Fath-Ali Shah Qajar. Mohammad Hasan Khan was killed on the orders of Karim Khan of the Zand dynasty, like virtually every dynasty that ruled Persia since the 11th century, the Qajars came to power with the backing of Turkic tribal forces, while using educated Persians in their bureaucracy. In 1779 following the death of Karim Khan of the Zand dynasty, Mohammad Khan Qajar, Mohammad Khan was known as one of the cruelest kings, even by the standards of 18th century Iran. In his quest for power, he razed cities, massacred entire populations, the Qajar armies at that time were mostly composed of Turkomans and Georgian slaves.
By 1794, Mohammad Khan had eliminated all his rivals, including Lotf Ali Khan and he reestablished Persian control over the territories in the entire Caucasus. Agha Mohammad established his capital at Tehran, a village near the ruins of the ancient city of Rayy, in 1796, he was formally crowned as shah. In 1797, Mohammad Khan Qajar was assassinated in Shusha, the capital of Karabakh Khanate, between 1747 and 1795, Erekle was, therefore, by the turn of events in Iran following the ongoing turmoil there, able to maintain Georgias autonomy through the Zand period. In 1783, Heraclius placed his kingdom under the protection of the Russian Empire in the Treaty of Georgievsk. In the last few decades of the 18th century, Georgia had become an important element in Russo-Iranian relations than some provinces in northern mainland Persia. On top of that, having another port on the Georgian coast of the Black Sea would be ideal, the consequences of these events came a few years later, when a new Iranian dynasty under the Qajars, emerged victorious in the protracted power struggle in Persia
Mohammad Ali Mirza Dowlatshah was a famous Persian Prince of the Qajar Dynasty. He is the progenitor of the Dowlatshahi Family of Persia and he was born at Nava, in Mazandaran, a Caspian province in the north of Iran. He was the first son of Fath-Ali Shah, the second Qajar king of Persia, and Ziba Chehr Khanoum and he was the elder brother of Abbas Mirza. Dowlatshah was the governor of Fars at age 9, Qazvin and Gilan at age 11, Khuzestan and Lorestan at age 16, and Kermanshah at age 19. In the battles with Russia and Persias arch rival, the Ottoman Empire, he defeated the Ottomans in Baghdad and Basra, Dowlatshah developed and improved the city of Kermanshah and established the city of Dowlat-Abad which was renamed to Malayer. His descendants live in different countries in the world and carry the last names دولتشاهی, though older than his brother Abbas Mirza, Mohammad Ali Mirza Dowlatash was never heir to the Persian throne, because his mother was not of the royal dynasty. However, his father Fath-Ali Shah appointed Dowlatshah to rule and protect the boundaries of the two Iraqs and adjoined Khuzestan province to his territories, in fact, during Dowlatshahs time, Kermanshah had become a citadel against the Ottomans.
Dowlatshah carried the last, and initially successful, attack on the Ottoman Iraq in 1821. Persia was resentful of the inability of the Ottoman government to protect the Shia population of Iraq against the Saudi-Wahhabi attacks that had begun in 1801, many of the Shias killed in the raids were Iranians, some of whom closely related to the ruling Qajar dynasty of Persia. His forces quickly occupied Shahrazur and Kirkuk, and laid siege to Baghdad and his skills and ambitions mirrored those of his younger brother. He was a military leader and a patron of the arts, poetry. The origin of the family names Dowlatshah and close variations such as Dolatshahi are from this ancestors title, in recent years this mosque has been repaired. It consists of separate areas along with a courtyard. The city of Kermanshah is located in the center of the province and has a temperate climate and it is one of the ancient cities of Iran and it is said that Tahmores Divband, a mythical ruler of the Pishdadian, had constructed it.
Some attribute its constructions to Bahram Sassanid, during the reign of Qobad I and Anushirvan Sassanid, Kermanshah was at the peak of its glory. But in the Arab attack suffered great damage, concurrent with the Afghan attack and the fall of Esfahan, Kermanshah was destroyed due to the Ottoman invasion. But from the beginning of the 11th century AH it began to flourish, in order to prevent a probable aggression of the Zangeneh tribe and due to its proximity with the Ottoman Empire, the Safavid ruler paid great attention to this city. But in the Zandieh period upheavals increased, whereas during the Qajar era, Mohammad Ali Mirza in 1221 AH was seated in Kermanshah in order to prevent Ottoman aggression, and Khuzestan came under his realm
Narseh was the seventh Sasanian king of Ērānshahr. He was the son of Shapur I, during the rule of his father Shapur I, Narseh had served as the governor of Sakastan and Turan. Prior to becoming King of Persia, he held the title Great King of Armenia, Narseh overthrew the increasingly unpopular Bahram III in 293 with the support of most of the nobility. The circumstances of Narsehs rise to power are detailed in the Paikuli inscription, Narseh was known for his tolerance of other religions. Narseh is quoted in an inscription by his father Shapur I as the governor of Sindh, Narseh was appointed as governor of Armenia. Following the death of Bahram II in 293 CE, his son Bahram III was proclaimed king in Pars by a group of nobles led by Wahnam and supported by Adurfarrobay, governor of Mesan. Four months into Bahram IIIs reign, Narseh was summoned to Ctesiphon by the request of members of the Persian nobility. According to the Paikuli inscription these nobles swore their allegiance to him there. In a brief revolt, Wahnam was captured and executed and Bahram was removed from the throne and it is assumed Bahram III was killed in the uprising though there is no documentation of this so his fate remains uncertain.
During Narsehs time, Rome was ruled by Diocletian and it was with Diocletian, in 296, fed up with incursions made by the Armenian monarch Tiridates III, Narseh invaded Armenia. Surprised by the attack, Tiridates fled his kingdom. The Roman Emperor Diocletian dispatched his son-in-law Galerius with an army to Tiridatess aid. Galerius invaded Mesopotamia, which Narseh had occupied hoping to check his advance, three battles were fought subsequently, the first two of which were indecisive. In the third fought at Callinicum, Galerius suffered a defeat and was forced to retreat. Galerius crossed the Euphrates into Syria to join his father-in-law Diocletian at Antioch, on his arrival at Antioch, Galerius was rebuked by Diocletian who disgraced him for his shameful defeat at the hands of Narseh. Vowing to take revenge, Galerius made preparations throughout the winter of 297, supported by the Armenians, Galerius surprised Narseh in his camp at the Battle of Satala and inflicted a crushing defeat on the latter forcing him to flee in haste.
His wife, his sisters and a number of his children were captured apart from his prodigious military chest, eastern Mesopotamia was recovered by the Romans and Tiridates was reinstated as the monarch of Armenia. In the meantime, he consulted Diocletian at Nisibis who persuaded Galerius to offer terms of peace to the Persians, accordingly terms of peace were agreed upon, and were ratified by a treaty concluded by Narseh with the Romans