An isthmus is a narrow piece of land connecting two larger areas across an expanse of water by which they are otherwise separated. A tombolo is an isthmus that consists of a spit or bar, a strait is the sea counterpart of an isthmus. Canals are built across isthmuses, where they may be a advantageous shortcut for marine transport. For example, the Panama Canal crosses the Isthmus of Panama, connecting the North Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Another example is the Welland Canal in the Niagara Peninsula, it connects Lake Ontario to Lake Erie. The city of Auckland in the North Island of New Zealand is situated on an isthmus. Isthmus and land bridge are related terms with isthmus having a broader meaning. A land bridge is an isthmus connecting the Earth's major landmasses; the term land bridge is used in biogeology to describe land connections that used to exist between continents at various times and were important for migration of people, various species of animals and plants, e.g. Bering Land Bridge.
An isthmus is a land connection between two bigger landmasses, while a peninsula is rather a land protrusion, connected to a bigger landmass on one side only and surrounded by water on all other sides. Technically, an isthmus can have canals running from coast to coast, thus resemble two peninsulas. Major isthmuses include the Isthmus of Panama and the Isthmus of Tehuantepec in the Americas, the Isthmus of Kra in South-East Asia, the Isthmus of Suez between Africa and Asia, the Karelian Isthmus in Europe. Of historic importance was the Isthmus of Corinth in Greece. Land bridge List of isthmuses List of straits
Christianity is an Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth, as described in the New Testament. Its adherents, known as Christians, believe that Jesus Christ is the Son of God and savior of all people, whose coming as the Messiah was prophesied in the Old Testament. Depending on the specific denomination of Christianity, practices may include baptism, prayer, confirmation, burial rites, marriage rites and the religious education of children. Most denominations hold regular group worship services. Christianity developed during the 1st century CE as a Jewish Christian sect of Second Temple Judaism, it soon attracted Gentile God-fearers, which lead to a departure from Jewish customs, the establishment of Christianity as an independent religion. During the first centuries of its existence Christianity spread throughout the Roman Empire, to Ethiopia and some parts of Asia. Constantine the Great decriminalized it via the Edict of Milan; the First Council of Nicaea established a uniform set of beliefs across the Roman Empire.
By 380, the Roman Empire designated Christianity as the state religion. The period of the first seven ecumenical councils is sometimes referred to as the Great Church, the united full communion of the Roman Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox Church, Oriental Orthodoxy, before their schisms. Oriental Orthodoxy split after the Council of Chalcedon over differences in Christology; the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Catholic Church separated in the East–West Schism over the authority of the Pope. In 1521, Protestants split from the Catholic Church in the Protestant Reformation over Papal primacy, the nature of salvation, other ecclesiological and theological disputes. Following the Age of Discovery, Christianity was spread into the Americas, sub-Saharan Africa, the rest of the world via missionary work and colonization. There are 2.3 billion Christians in the world, or 31.4% of the global population. Today, the four largest branches of Christianity are the Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church and Oriental Orthodoxy.
Christianity and Christian ethics have played a prominent role in the development of Western civilization around Europe during late antiquity and the Middle Ages. In the New Testament, the names by which the disciples were known among themselves were "brethren", "the faithful", "elect", "saints" and "believers". Early Jewish Christians referred to themselves as'The Way' coming from Isaiah 40:3, "prepare the way of the Lord." According to Acts 11:26, the term "Christian" was first used in reference to Jesus's disciples in the city of Antioch, meaning "followers of Christ," by the non-Jewish inhabitants of Antioch. The earliest recorded use of the term "Christianity" was by Ignatius of Antioch, in around 100 AD. While Christians worldwide share basic convcitions, there are differences of interpretations and opinions of the Bible and sacred traditions on which Christianity is based. Concise doctrinal statements or confessions of religious beliefs are known as creeds, they began as baptismal formulae and were expanded during the Christological controversies of the 4th and 5th centuries to become statements of faith.
The Apostles' Creed is the most accepted statement of the articles of Christian faith. It is used by a number of Christian denominations for both liturgical and catechetical purposes, most visibly by liturgical churches of Western Christian tradition, including the Latin Church of the Catholic Church, Lutheranism and Western Rite Orthodoxy, it is used by Presbyterians and Congregationalists. This particular creed was developed between the 9th centuries, its central doctrines are those of God the Creator. Each of the doctrines found in this creed can be traced to statements current in the apostolic period; the creed was used as a summary of Christian doctrine for baptismal candidates in the churches of Rome. Its main points include: Belief in God the Father, Jesus Christ as the Son of God, the Holy Spirit The death, descent into hell and ascension of Christ The holiness of the Church and the communion of saints Christ's second coming, the Day of Judgement and salvation of the faithful; the Nicene Creed was formulated in response to Arianism, at the Councils of Nicaea and Constantinople in 325 and 381 and ratified as the universal creed of Christendom by the First Council of Ephesus in 431.
The Chalcedonian Definition, or Creed of Chalcedon, developed at the Council of Chalcedon in 451, though rejected by the Oriental Orthodox churches, taught Christ "to be acknowledged in two natures, unchangeably, inseparably": one divine and one human, that both natures, while perfect in themselves, are also united into one person. The Athanasian Creed, received in the Western Church as having the same status as the Nicene and Chalcedonian, says: "We worship one God in Trinity, Trinity in Unity. Many evangelical Protestants reject creeds as definitive statements of faith while agreeing with some or all of the substance of the creeds. Most Baptists do not use creeds "in that they have not sought to establish binding
Berneray (North Uist)
Berneray is an island and community in the Sound of Harris, Scotland. It is one of fifteen inhabited islands in the Outer Hebrides, it is famed for its colourful history which has attracted much tourism. It lies within the South Lewis and North Uist National Scenic Area, one of 40 such areas in Scotland which are defined so as to identify areas of exceptional scenery and to ensure its protection from inappropriate development. With an area of 10.1 square kilometres, Berneray rises to a height of 305 feet at Beinn Shlèibhe and 278 feet at Borve Hill. There is strong evidence that points to Berneray being inhabited since the Bronze Age, before; the island is scattered with ancient sacred sites, stone circles, signs of Viking inhabitation and historical buildings, some several centuries old. The name "Berneray" is from the Old Norse Bjarnar-øy and means either "Bjorn's island" or "bear island". Traditionally this island was known by Gaelic speakers as Beàrnaraigh na Hearadh, meaning "Berneray of Harris" to distinguish it from Beàrnaraigh Cheann Bharraigh "Berneray of Barra Head ", now known in English as Barra Head.
More Gaelic speakers have used Beàrnaraigh Uibhist, i.e. "Berneray of Uist" to refer to the northern Berneray. In common with most islands in the Outer Hebrides, the population declined during the 19th and 20th centuries. However, the past few years has seen a stabilisation; the island's population was 138 as recorded by the 2011 census a small rise since 2001 when there were 136 usual residents. During the same period Scottish island populations as a whole grew by 4% to 103,702. Most people on Berneray speak Scottish Gaelic, many as a first language. Berneray is known as the birthplace of the giant Angus MacAskill and for its sandy beaches backed with sand dunes; the west beach, a three-mile stretch of wide and deserted sand, is acclaimed. The main industries are fishing, media/IT and tourism. Broadband internet provision became available in January 2006, giving an incentive to people wishing to relocate to Berneray and helping sustain the population and community. A key feature of Berneray is its machair.
The machair is a coastal plain made up of windblown shell sand. Traditional crofting practice, which involves summer agriculture using seaweed together with dung from winter grazing animals as natural fertiliser, over time, bound together and stabilised the land; the machair is ploughed in rotation, giving a patchwork of crops and fallow of different ages which supports a wide range of flowers. Berneray has a fine machair, a result of careful husbandry by the island's crofters, helped by the absence of rabbits; the youth hostel on Berneray is part of the Gatliff Hebridean Hostels Trust. The hostel consists of two restored black houses and is located at a magnificent setting overlooking the sound of Harris; the greatest change in modern times occurred in 1999 when the causeway opened between Berneray and Otternish on North Uist. This has eased travelling on and off the island, improving employment prospects and accelerating the carriage of produce; the causeway contains culverts that allow the easy passage of otters and fish from one side of the structure to the other.
The causeway was formally opened by Prince Charles in April 1999. Berneray is served by regular local bus services from Lochmaddy on North Uist, many of which form part of the "Spine Route" from Eriskay. Most services are operated with funding from Comhairle nan Eilean Siar. Berneray is linked to Harris, Scotland via Leverburgh by the ferry MV Loch Portain, operated by Caledonian MacBrayne; the CalMac ferry MV Loch Bhrusda is named after the largest loch on Berneray. It can be seen relieving for MV Loch Portain; the crofting practices encourage a wide array of wildlife on Berneray. On early summer evenings you can sometimes hear snipe drumming, the rasp of a corncrake. Mute swans can be seen on Loch Brusda, greylag geese are common. In the winter they are joined by barnacle, a few brent geese. Ravens and buzzards are to be seen. Golden eagles and hen harriers are rarer sights in the winter. Wading birds on the shore include redshanks, turnstones, oyster catchers, curlews, ringed plovers and herons.
Further out, around the shores of Berneray, are mallards, red-breasted mergansers, more black-throated and great northern divers. Shags and cormorants fish in the seas around Berneray throughout the year, in summer you can see gannets diving. Common seals congregate at low tide on the rocks in Bays Loch, can be seen from the parking area a little way beyond the Post Office or by taking a boat trip out into the bay. Grey seals, which are larger and can be distinguished by the long "Roman" noses haul out there but are more common off the West Beach. Though the otters of Berneray are out during the day more than on the mainland, they are still elusive, it takes patience and luck to see one. A documentary entitled Shepherds of Berneray was aired on UK television in 1981. Berneray was in world news in 1987 when it was found that Charles, Prince of Wales had visited the island to live a normal Berneray life as a crofter, he lived and worked with a crofter for one week and his visit spawned the television documentary, A Prince Among Islands in 1991.
In 2007 a DVD called The Old New Year – a living tradition on the Isle of Berneray - was released about the island's Oidhche Challainn celebration of New Year on 12 January in
Muck is the smallest of four main islands in the Small Isles, part of the Inner Hebrides of Scotland. The larger part of the island is formed from olivine-phyric basalt flows erupted during the Palaeocene. Flows of hawaiite can be found around the south coast. Together these form the Eigg Lava Formation, a greater part of, exposed on Eigg itself; the lava flows are cut through by a swarm of Palaeocene age basalt and dolerite dykes aligned NNW-SSE. A handful of faults are mapped on a similar alignment, the most significant one of which stretches SE from Bagh a Ghallanaichy of Laig. Gabbro is exposed along the eastern side of the bay of Camas Mor whilst on its western side are a suite of sedimentary rocks including small exposures of the Valtos Sandstone and Kilmaluag formations representing the upper part of the middle Jurassic Great Estuarine Group, more extensively exposed on nearby Eigg. There are some peat and till deposits on the island, albeit restricted in extent. Muck is adjacent to the other Small Isles.
It measures 2.5 miles east to west. The island's main hill is Beinn Airein; the island's population was 27 as recorded by the 2011 census four fewer that the 31 usual residents in 2001. The populace live near the harbour at Port Mòr; the other settlement on the island is the farm at Gallanach. The island's only road, about 2.5 kilometres long, connects the two. Muck is known for its seal population, for the porpoises in the surrounding waters. A causeway and slipway were built at Port Mòr in 2005; this allows vehicles to be driven on and off the Caledonian MacBrayne ferry, MV Lochnevis, which links Muck and the neighbouring Small Isles with the mainland port of Mallaig. However, visitors are not permitted to bring vehicles to the Small Isles. During the summer months the islands are served by Arisaig Marine's ferry MV Sheerwater from Arisaig, 10 miles south of Mallaig, it is featured in the on-line newspaper West Word. The island has no church, shop or post office, uniquely among Scottish islands with a population of this size, it has no post box.
Until 1970 it didn't have electricity, then it was by means of diesel generators. There is a hotel, Gallanach Lodge, a range of other holiday accommodation; the name of the island may derive from the Gaelic word Mouach. In 1785, James Boswell took this to mean; the laird in Boswell's era disliked the name as it meant him being referred to as Muck, thus had attempted to persuade Samuel Johnson and Boswell that the authentic name was "Isle of Monk". A thumbnail scraper found at Toaluinn on Muck indicates possible occupation in the Neolithic Era; this appears to have continued into the Bronze Age, if a dagger found on Muck, dating between 800 and 400 BC, is anything to go by. A number of cairns, of ambiguous date, are scattered around Port Mòr, elsewhere on the island. At some point in the Iron Age, a natural stack - Caistel nan Duin Bhan - in a commanding position near Port Mòr, was fortified by construction of a thick wall around the summit. According to local traditions, after Columba, a 6th-century Irishman, established a campaign to Christianise the region, he himself visited Muck.
A field adjacent to the ancient graveyard in Kiel was named Dail Chill Fionain, in reference to Columba's tutor. The name of Glen Martin is traditionally ascribed to a hermit who lived there at this time. In the 9th century, Vikings invaded the Small Isles, along with the rest of the Hebrides, the gaelic kingdom of Dál Riata to the south, establishing the Kingdom of the Isles throughout these lands. For a long time, the only known evidence of Viking presence in Muck were Norse-based placenames such as Godag and Lamhraig, but more limited remains were found in Northern Muck of a building which could date to this era. Following Norwegian unification, the Kingdom of the Isles became a crown dependency of the Norwegian king. Malcolm III of Scotland acknowledged in writing that Suðreyjar was not Scottish, king Edgar quitclaimed any residual doubts. However, in the mid 12th century, Somerled, a Norse-Gael of uncertain origin, launched a coup, which made Suðreyjar independent. Following his death, Norwegian authority was nominally restored, but in practice the kingdom was divided between Somerled's heirs.
In 1209, the MacRory donated Muck to the Bishop of the Isles. Little is recorded of how the Bishop dealt with Muck, but in 1266, by the Treaty of Perth, the Scottish king purchased the whole of Suðreyjar. At the turn of the century, William I had created the position of Sheriff of Inverness, to be responsible for the Scottish highlands, which theoretically now extended to Muck. Awkwardly, the Bishopric remained part of the Norwegian Archdiocese of Niðarós
The red deer is one of the largest deer species. The red deer inhabits most of Europe, the Caucasus Mountains region, Asia Minor, parts of western Asia, central Asia, it inhabits the Atlas Mountains region between Morocco and Tunisia in northwestern Africa, being the only species of deer to inhabit Africa. Red deer have been introduced to other areas, including Australia, New Zealand, United States, Peru, Uruguay and Argentina. In many parts of the world, the meat from red deer is used as a food source. Red deer are ruminants, characterized by a four-chambered stomach. Genetic evidence indicates the red deer as traditionally defined is a species group, rather than a single species, although it remains disputed as to how many species the group includes; the related and larger American elk or wapiti, native to North America and eastern parts of Asia, had been regarded as a subspecies of red deer, but it has been established as a distinct species. It is probable that the ancestor of all red deer, including wapiti, originated in central Asia and resembled sika deer.
Although at one time red deer were rare in parts of Europe, they were never close to extinction. Reintroduction and conservation efforts, such as in the United Kingdom and Portugal, have resulted in an increase of red deer populations, while other areas, such as North Africa, have continued to show a population decline; the red deer is the fourth-largest deer species behind moose and sambar deer. It is a ruminant, eating its food in two stages and having an number of toes on each hoof, like camels and cattle. European red deer have a long tail compared to their Asian and North American relatives. Subtle differences in appearance are noted between the various subspecies of red deer in size and antlers, with the smallest being the Corsican red deer found on the islands of Corsica and Sardinia and the largest being the Caspian red deer of Asia Minor and the Caucasus Region to the west of the Caspian Sea; the deer of central and western Europe vary in size, with some of the largest deer found in the Carpathian Mountains in Central Europe.
Western European red deer grew to large size given ample food supply, descendants of introduced populations living in New Zealand and Argentina have grown quite large in both body and antler size. Large red deer stags, like the Caspian red deer or those of the Carpathian Mountains, may rival the wapiti in size. Female red deer are much smaller than their male counterparts; the male red deer is 175 to 250 cm long and weighs 160 to 240 kg. The tail adds another 12 to 19 cm and shoulder height is about 95 to 130 cm. In Scotland, stags average 201 cm in head-and-body length and 122 cm high at the shoulder and females average 180 cm long and 114 cm tall. Size varies in different subspecies with the largest, the huge but small-antlered deer of the Carpathian Mountains, weighing up to 500 kg. At the other end of the scale, the Corsican red deer weighs about 80 to 100 kg, although red deer in poor habitats can weigh as little as 53 to 112 kg. European red deer tend to be reddish-brown in their summer coats.
The males of many subspecies grow a short neck mane during the autumn. The male deer of the British Isles and Norway tend to have most noticeable manes. Male Caspian red deer and Spanish red deer do not carry neck manes. Male deer of all subspecies, tend to have stronger and thicker neck muscles than female deer, which may give them an appearance of having neck manes. Red deer hinds do not have neck manes; the European red deer is adapted to a woodland environment. Only the stags have antlers, which start growing in the spring and are shed each year at the end of winter. Antlers measure 71 cm in total length and weigh 1 kg, although large ones can grow to 115 cm and weigh 5 kg. Antlers, which are made of bone, can grow at a rate of 2.5 cm a day. A soft covering known as velvet helps to protect newly forming antlers in the spring. European red deer antlers are distinctive in being rather straight and rugose, with the fourth and fifth tines forming a "crown" or "cup" in larger males. Any tines in excess of the fourth and fifth tine will grow radially from the cup, which are absent in the antlers of smaller red deer, such as Corsican red deer.
Western European red deer antlers feature "bez" tines that are either absent or smaller than the brow tines. However, bez tines occur in Norwegian red deer. Antlers of Caspian red deer carry large bez tines and form less-developed cups than western European red deer, their antlers are thus more like the "throw back" top tines of the wapiti, known as maraloid characteristics. A stag can have antlers with no tines, is known as a switch. A stag that does not grow antlers is a hummel; the antlers are testosterone-driven and as the stag's testosterone levels drop in the autumn, the velvet is shed and the antlers stop growing. With the approach of autumn, the antlers begin to calcify and the stags' testosterone production builds for the approaching rut. During the autumn, all red deer subspecies grow thicker coats of hair, which helps to insulate them during the winter. Autumn is when some of the stags grow their neck manes; the autumn/winter coat of most subspecies are most
Demography of Scotland
The demography of Scotland includes all aspects of population and present, in the area, now Scotland. Scotland has a population of 5,295,000; the population growth rate in 2011 was estimated as 0.6% per annum according to the 2011 GROS Annual Review. Covering an area of 78,782 square kilometres, Scotland has a population density of 67.2/km2. Around 70% of the country's population live in the Central Lowlands—a region stretching in a northeast-southwest orientation between the major cities of Edinburgh and Glasgow, including the major settlements of Paisley, Falkirk and Dundee. Other concentrations of population include the northeast coast of Scotland, principally the regions around the cities of Aberdeen and Inverness, the west coast around the town of Ayr; the Highlands of Scotland and the island group of Eilean Siar have the lowest population densities at 9/km2. Glasgow has the highest population density at 3,289/km2; until April 2011, responsibility for estimating the population of Scotland, as well as recording births and marriages, was overseen by the General Register Office for Scotland, headed by the Registrar-General for Scotland.
From 1 April 2011 onwards, the GROS merged with the National Archives of Scotland to become the National Records of Scotland. The new organisation is still required under the terms of the Registration of Births and Marriages Act 1965, to present a Registrar-General's annual report of demographic trends to Scottish Ministers.. In conjunction with the rest of the United Kingdom, the National Records for Scotland is responsible for conducting a decadal census of population; the most recent one took place in March 2011, with the next due to take place in 2021. In the United Kingdom, a census was taken every ten years from 1801 onwards. Population data for years prior to, provided from directories and gazetteers Notes a. There was no census in 1941 however there was a National Registrar of the Civilian Population in 1939 b. Data for 1961 onwards rounded to nearest thousand c. Data for 1991 mid-year estimate Table of birth and mortality since 1900 Source: General Register Office for Scotland Birth and Mortality statistics from 1900 Births for January-February 2018 = 8,630 Births for January-February 2019 = 8,671Deaths for January-February 2018 = 12,601 Deaths for January-February 2019 = 10,669Natural increase for January-February 2018 = -3,971 Natural increase for January-February 2019 = -1,998 Places of birth given by respondents to the 2001 and 2011 censuses were as follows: Below are the 5 largest foreign-born groups in Scotland according to 2017 ONS estimates.
The age distribution based on the 2011 census was. The 2001 and 2011 censuses recorded the following ethnic groups: A question on national identity was asked in the 2011 census: "what do you feel is your national identity?". Respondents could identify themselves as having more than one national identity. In the 2011 census: 62% identified themselves as'Scottish only' 18% identified themselves as'Scottish' and'British' 8% identified themselves as'British only' 2% identified themselves as'Scottish' together with some other identity; the remainder chose other national identities. The council areas with at least 90% of the population stating some'Scottish' national identity were North Lanarkshire, East Ayrshire and West Dunbartonshire; the lowest proportions of people stating some'Scottish' national identity were in Edinburgh and Aberdeen. The council areas with the highest proportions of people stating'British' as their only national identity were Argyll and Bute and Shetland, each with 12%. Below is a table of national identity sorted by council area based on the results of the 2011 census: The statistics from the 2011 census and the 2001 census are set out below.
English is by far the most spoken language in Scotland. Two regional languages of Scotland, Scottish Gaelic and Scots, are protected under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. Abilities in these languages for those aged three and above were recorded in the UK census 2011 as follows. Several other languages are spoken amongst immigrants to Scotland; the most spoken of these is Polish. In the 2011 census 54,186 respondents aged three and over said that Polish was their main language, amounting to 1.06% of the total population of Scotland aged three and over. At times during the last interglacial period Europe had a climate warmer than today's, early humans may have made their way to what is now Scotland, though archaeologists have found no traces of this. Glaciers scoured their way across most of Britain, only after the ice retreated did Scotland again become habitable, around 9600 BC. Mesolithic hunter-gatherer encampments formed the first known settlements, archaeologists have dated a site near Biggar to around 8500 BC.
Numerous other sites found around Scotland build up a picture of mobile boat-using people making tools from bone and antlers with a low density of population. Neolithic farming brought permanent settlements, such as the stone house at Knap of Howar on Papa Westray dating from 3500 BC, greater concentrations of population. Extensive analyses of Black Loch in Fife indicate that arable land spread at the expense of forest from about 2000 BC until the period of the first century AD Roman advance into lowland Scotland, suggesting an expanding settled population. Thereafter, there was re-growth of birch and hazel for a period of five centuries, suggesting that the Roman invasions had a neg
Adomnán or Adamnán of Iona known as Eunan, was an abbot of Iona Abbey, statesman, canon jurist, saint. He was the author of the most important book on the life of his cousin St Columba and the promulgator of the Law of Adomnán or "Law of Innocents". Adomnán was born a relative on his father's side of Columba, he was the son of Rónán mac Tinne by Ronat, a woman from the Northern Uí Néill lineage known as the Cenél nÉnda. Adomnán's birthplace was a town in County Donegal in Ulster; some of Adomnán's childhood anecdotes seem to confirm at least an upbringing in this area. It is thought that Adomnán may have begun his monastic career at a Columban monastery called Druim Tuamma, but any Columban foundation in northern Ireland or Dál Riata is a possibility, although Durrow is a stronger possibility than most, he joined the Columban familia around the year 640. Some modern commentators believe that he could not have come to Iona until sometime after the year 669, the year of the accession of Fáilbe mac Pípáin, the first abbot of whom Adomnán gives any information.
However, Richard Sharpe argues that he came to Iona during the abbacy of Ségéne. Whenever or wherever Adomnán received his education, Adomnán attained a level of learning rare in Early Medieval Northern Europe, it has been suggested by Alfred Smyth that Adomnán spent some years teaching and studying at Durrow, while this is not accepted by all scholars, it remains a strong possibility. In 679, Adomnán became the ninth abbot of Iona after Columba. Abbot Adomnán enjoyed a friendship with King Aldfrith of Northumbria. In 684, Aldfrith had been staying with Adomnán in Iona. In 686, after the death of Aldfrith's brother King Ecgfrith of Northumbria and Aldfrith's succession to the kingship, Adomnán was in the Kingdom of Northumbria on the request of King Fínsnechta Fledach of Brega in order to gain the freedom of sixty Gaels, captured in a Northumbrian raid two years before. Adomnán, in keeping with Ionan tradition, made several more trips to the lands of the English during his abbacy, including one the following year.
It is sometimes thought, after the account given by Bede, that it was during his visits to Northumbria, under the influence of Abbot Ceolfrith, that Adomnán decided to adopt the Roman dating of Easter, agreed some years before at the Synod of Whitby. Bede implies that this led to a schism at Iona, whereby Adomnán became alienated from the Iona brethren and went to Ireland to convince the Irish of the Roman dating. Jeffrey Wetherill sees Adomnán's long absences from Iona as having led to something of an undermining of his authority, it is clear that Adomnán did adopt that Roman dating, moreover did argue the case for it in Ireland. It is believed that in 697, Adomnán promulgated the Cáin Adomnáin, meaning the "Canons" or "Law of Adomnán"; the Cáin Adomnáin was promulgated amongst a gathering of Irish, Dál Riatan and Pictish notables at the Synod of Birr. It is a set of laws designed, among other things, to guarantee the safety and immunity of various types of non-combatants in warfare. For this reason it is known as the "Law of Innocents".
Adomnán's most important work, the one for which he is best known, is the Vita Columbae, a hagiography of Iona's founder, Saint Columba written between 697 and 700. The format borrows to some extent from Sulpicius Severus' Life of Saint Martin of Tours. Adomnán adapted traditional forms of Christian biography to group stories about Columba thematically rather than chronologically, present Columba as comparable to a hero in Gaelic mythology. Wetherill suggests that one of the motivations for writing the Vita was to offer Columba as a model for the monks, thereby improve Adomnán's standing as abbot; the biography is by far the most important surviving work written in early medieval Scotland, is a vital source for our knowledge of the Picts, as well as a great insight into the life of Iona and the early medieval Gaelic monk. However, the Vita was not his only work. Adomnán wrote the treatise De Locis Sanctis, an account of the great Christian holy places and centres of pilgrimage. Adomnán got much of his information from a Frankish bishop called Arculf, who had visited the Egypt, Rome and the Holy Land, visited Iona afterwards.
Adomnán gave a copy to the scholar-king Aldfrith of Northumbria. Attributed to him is a good deal of Gaelic poetry, including a celebration of the Pictish King Bridei's victory over the Northumbrians at the Battle of Dun Nechtain. Adomnán died in 704, became a saint in Scottish and Irish tradition, as well as one of the most important figures in either Scottish or Irish history, his death and feast day are commemorated on 23 September. Along with St. Columba, he is joint patron of the Diocese of Raphoe, which encompasses the bulk of County Donegal in the north west of Ireland; the Cathedral of St. Eunan and St. Columba, the Catholic cathedral in that diocese, is in Letterkenny. In his native Donegal, the saint has given his name to several institutions and buildings including: The Cathedral of St. Eunan and St Columba in Letterkenny, Co. Donegal.