The Very Rev Mackintosh MacKay LLD was a Scottish minister and author who served as Moderator of the General Assembly of the Free Church of Scotland in 1849. He edited the Highland Society's prodigious Gaelic dictionary in 1828, he was born on 18 November 1793 at Duardbeg on Edrachillis Bay in Sutherland, one of seven children to Cpt Alexander Mackay and his wife Helen. He studied at St Andrews University at Divinity Hall in Edinburgh, he was ordained by the Church of Scotland at Laggan in 1825 and translated to the far larger parish of Dunoon in 1832. He was one of the many ministers who split from the established Church of Scotland in the Disruption of 1843. In 1849, he succeeded the Very Rev Patrick Clason of Buccleuch Church as Moderator of the General Assembly; the Assembly was held at Tanfield Hall in Canonmills. He was succeeded in turn by Very Rev Nathaniel Paterson in 1850. In the early 1850s he travelled to Australia to spread the views of the Free Church. From 1854 he was minister of the Gaelic Free Church in Melbourne.
He became minister of St George's Church in Sydney in May 1856, being responsible for its first permanent purpose-built church in 1860. Returning to Scotland in the 1860s, he spent his final years preaching in Tarbert on the Isle of Harris, he died at 3 Bellfield in Portobello, Edinburgh on 17 May 1873. He is buried in Duddingston Kirkyard in south Edinburgh; the grave lies against the western boundary wall. A second memorial stands in the Grange Cemetery in south Edinburgh, east of the eastern path, next to the large obelisk to Christian Isobel Johnstone. *Dictionarium Scoto-Celticum: A Dictionary of the Gaelic Language Memoir of Robert Donn Exposition of Matthew 5
Emergency medical services in the United Kingdom
Emergency medical services in the United Kingdom provide emergency care to people with acute illness or injury and are predominantly provided free at the point of use by the four National Health Services of England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Emergency care including ambulance and emergency department treatment is free to everyone, regardless of immigration or visitor status; the NHS commissions most emergency medical services through the 14 NHS organisations with ambulance responsibility across the UK. As with other emergency services, the public access emergency medical services through one of the valid emergency telephone numbers. In addition to ambulance services provided by NHS organisations, there are some private and volunteer emergency medical services arrangements in place in the UK, the use of private or volunteer ambulances at public events or large private sites, as part of community provision of services such as community first responders. Air ambulance services in the UK are not part of the NHS and are funded through charitable donations.
Paramedics are seconded from a local NHS ambulance service, with the exception of Great North Air Ambulance Service who employ their own paramedics. Doctors are provided by their home hospital and spend no more than 40% of their time with an air ambulance service. Public ambulance services across the UK are required by law to respond to four types of requests for care, which are: Emergency calls Doctor's urgent admission requests High dependency and urgent inter-hospital transfers Major incidentsAmbulance trusts and services may undertake non-urgent patient transport services on a commercial arrangement with their local hospital trusts or health boards, or in some cases on directly funded government contracts, although these contracts are fulfilled by private and voluntary providers; the National Health Service Act 1946 gave county and borough councils a statutory responsibility to provide an emergency ambulance service, although they could contract a voluntary ambulance service to provide this, with many contracting the British Red Cross, St John Ambulance or another local provider.
The last St John Division, to be so contracted is reputed to have been at Whittlesey in Cambridgeshire, where the two-bay ambulance garage can still be seen at the branch headquarters. The Regional Ambulance Officers’ Committee reported in 1979 that “There was considerable local variation in the quality of the service provided in relation to vehicles and equipment. Most Services were administered by Local Authorities through their Medical Officer of Health and his Ambulance Officer, a few were under the aegis of the Fire Service, whilst others relied upon agency methods for the provision of part or all of their services.” The 142 existing ambulance services were transferred by the National Health Service Reorganisation Act 1973 from local authority to central government control in 1974, consolidated into 53 services under regional or area health authorities. This led to the formation of predominantly county based ambulance services, which merged up and changed responsibilities until 2006, when there were 31 NHS ambulance trusts in England.
The June 2005 report "Taking healthcare to the Patient", authored by Peter Bradley, Chief Executive of the London Ambulance Service, for the Department of Health led to the merging of the 31 trusts into 13 organisations in England, plus one organisation each in Wales and Northern Ireland. Following further changes as part of the NHS foundation trust pathway, this has further reduced to 10 ambulance service trusts in England, plus the Isle of Wight which has its own provision. Following the passage of the Health and Social Care Act 2012, commissioning of the ambulance services in each area passed from central government control into the hands of regional clinical commissioning groups; the commissioners in each region are responsible for contracting with a suitable organisation to provide ambulance services within their geographical territory. The primary provider for each area is held by a public NHS body, of which there are 11 in England, 1 each in the other three countries. In England there are now ten NHS ambulance trusts, as well as an ambulance service on the Isle of Wight, run directly by Isle of Wight NHS Trust, with boundaries following those of the former regional government offices.
The ten trusts are: East Midlands Ambulance Service NHS Trust East of England Ambulance Service NHS Trust London Ambulance Service NHS Trust North East Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust North West Ambulance Service NHS Trust South Central Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust South East Coast Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust South Western Ambulance Service NHS Foundation Trust West Midlands Ambulance Service University NHS Foundation Trust Yorkshire Ambulance Service NHS TrustThe English ambulance trusts are represented by the Association of Ambulance Chief Executives, with the Scottish and Northern Irish providers all associate members. On the 14 November 2018 West Midlands Ambulance Service became the UK's first university-ambulance trust; the service was operated before reorganisation in 1974 by the St Andrews’ Ambulance Association under contract to the Secretary of State for Scotland. The Scottish Ambulance Service is a Special Health Board that provides ambulance services throughout whole of Scotland, on behalf of the Health and Social Care Directorates of the Scottish Government.
Due to the remote nature of many areas of Scotland compared to the other Home Nations, the Scottish Ambulance Service has Britain's only publi
Scalpay, Outer Hebrides
Scalpay is an island in the Outer Hebrides of Scotland. Scalpay rises to a height of 104 metres at Beinn Scorabhaig; the area of Scalpay is 653 hectares. The main settlement on the island is at the north, near the bridge, clustered around An Acairseid a Tuath; the island is peppered with small lochans. The largest of these is Loch an Duin which has a tiny island in it, with the remains of the fort still visible. Eilean Glas, a tiny peninsula on Scalpay's eastern shore, is home to the first lighthouse to be built in the Outer Hebrides. Scalpay's nearest neighbour, Harris, is just 300 metres away across the narrows of Caolas Scalpaigh. In 1997, a bridge from Harris to Scalpay was built. Mac an Tàilleir suggests. However, Haswell-Smith states that the Old Norse name was Skalprøy, meaning "scallop island"; the vast majority of the locals in Scalpay are Protestants. The island is home to two Presbyterian churches, the Free Church of Scotland and the Free Church of Scotland. In 2001, the island had 322 people, whose main employment was fish prawn fishing.
By 2011 the population had declined by 9% to 291 whilst during the same period Scottish island populations as a whole grew by 4% to 103,702. Scalpay is home to psalm precentors; the island used to have more than 10 shops over 30 years ago but due to lack of people and work, the last shop closed in 2007. There used to be a salmon factory, a major local employer from 2001 until its closure in 2005. In the spring of 2009, local newspapers reported that the factory was to reopen as a net washing facility to support the local fish farming industry. In 2012, the Scalpay community opened a community shop/café, Buth Scalpaigh. Photographer Marco Secchi lived on Scalpay for few years between 2002-2008 and documented life and landscape of the Outer Hebrides. In 2011 the island's owner, Fred Taylor, announced that he proposed handing over the land to the local population. One proposal was. Islanders voted to assume community ownership of the island, they will go into partnership with the North Harris Community Trust to run the island.
The village of Uig lies at the head of the sheltered inlet of Uig Bay on the west coast of the Trotternish peninsula on the Isle of Skye, Scotland. The name is thought to be derived from Old Norse vík, which means inlet, it was thus the same placename as Wick, Vik, Sogn og Fjordane and Vík í Mýrdal. Uig is situated on the raised beach around the head of the bay and on the steep slopes behind it. Two watercourses enter the bay at Uig; the lower courses of both of these small rivers are characterised by waterfalls. Uigg, Prince Edward Island, Canada was named by settlers from Uig; the population is estimated to be between 200–300 inhabitants. Uig is served by the A87 road from Portree and Kyle of Lochalsh to the south and the A855 road which runs northwards around the end of the Trotternish peninsula before turning south to Portree; as of August, 2006, Uig is accessible via intercity buses on Skye, Scottish Citylink buses, which travel as far south as Fort William and Glasgow. From its sheltered port, Caledonian MacBrayne ferries run to Tarbert on Harris and Lochmaddy on North Uist providing links with the Outer Hebrides.
Uig Tower is a prominent local landmark associated with the Highland Clearances. Google map Google Satellite Photo
Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland
The Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland was an executive non-departmental public body of the Scottish Government, "sponsored" through Historic Scotland, an executive agency of the Scottish Government. As one of the country's National Collections, it was responsible for recording and collecting information about the built and historic environment; this information, which relates to buildings and ancient monuments of archaeological and historical interest, as well as historical aspects of the landscape, was made available to the public at no cost. It was established by a Royal Warrant of 1908, revised in 1992; the RCAHMS merged with government agency Historic Scotland to form Historic Environment Scotland, a new executive non-departmental public body on 1 October 2015. The Royal Commission was established in 1908, twenty-six years after the passage of the Ancient Monuments Protection Act 1882, which provided the first state protection for ancient monuments in the United Kingdom, eight years after the passage of the wider-ranging Ancient Monuments Protection Act 1900.
Critics – including David Murray in his Archaeological Survey of the United Kingdom and Gerard Baldwin Brown in his Care of Ancient Monuments – had argued that, for the legislation to be effective, detailed lists of significant monuments needed to be compiled. Brown, Professor of Fine Art at the University of Edinburgh, explicitly proposed that the issues should be addressed by a Royal Commission, comparable to the Royal Commission on Historical Manuscripts, his suggestion was favourably received by Sir John Sinclair, Secretary for Scotland, following a brief period of consultation, the Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland was established on 14 February 1908, with Brown as one of its first Commissioners. The equivalent Royal Commission for Wales was established in August 1908; the Commission was based in Edinburgh where it had a huge selection of photographs and drawings for consultation. It published a range of books and documents on Scottish architecture and archaeology.
Study was increasingly conducted of neglected industrial and agricultural constructions, as well as 20th-century buildings, including high-rise tower blocks. RCAHMS maintained a database/archive of the sites and buildings of Scotland's past, known as the National Monuments Record of Scotland. A growing proportion of RCAHMS's own survey material and material deposited in the archive by others was made available through online databases such as Canmore. Since 1976, RCAHMS conducted intensive aerial survey of archaeological sites, buildings and natural features. In addition to its holdings of its own aerial photographs, it held the National Collection of Aerial Photography, one of the largest and most important aerial imagery collections in the world, containing over 1.8 million aerial photographs of Scotland including large numbers of Royal Air Force oblique and vertical aerial photographs taken of Scotland during and in the years after the Second World War, as well as post-war Ordnance Survey and national government, commercial vertical aerial photographs, over 10 million images of international sites as part of The Aerial Reconnaissance Archives.
The RCAHMS in conjunction with Historic Scotland hosted a map-based GIS portal called PASTMAP. This allowed Historic Scotland, NMRS, Scottish Natural Heritage and some Local Authority Sites and Monuments data sets to be viewed together. Other online resources managed by RCAHMS included Scran, a UK charity with a learning image service of over 367,000 images, clip art and sounds from museums, galleries and the media. RCAHMS was one of the first national collections in Scotland to embed social media into its online services, enabling user generated images and information to be added to the national database Canmore. An outreach programme included publications, exhibitions and training sessions for students and other groups, a series of free lunchtime lectures, as well as daily Facebook and Twitter feeds. From 2011, the RCAHMS maintained the Buildings at Risk Register for Scotland on behalf of Historic Scotland; the register was maintained by the Scottish Civic Trust. Under the terms of a Bill of the Scottish Parliament published on 3 March 2014 RCAHMS would be dissolved and its responsibilities including the management of collections undertaken by a new executive Non-departmental public body to be called Historic Environment Scotland, which would take over the property management responsibilities of Historic Scotland.
This occurred on 1 October 2015. RCAHMS recorded all buildings and monuments of note until the year 1707; this was updated to 1805. The findings were published in a series of inventories. Changes in what constitutes a construction "of note", plus developments in how the public could access this information, led to the abandonment of the inventories after publication of the last Argyll volume in 1992. Only one-half of Scotland was covered by this method. Although the volumes are now all out-of-print, they are available online on the Scotland's Places website, through most large public libraries, or via Historic Env
Scottish Ambulance Service
The Scottish Ambulance Service is the NHS Ambulance Services Trust, part of NHS Scotland, which serves all of Scotland's population. Uniquely, the Scottish Ambulance Service is considered a special health board and is funded directly by the Health and Social Care Directorates of the Scottish Government, it is the sole public emergency medical service covering Scotland's mainland and islands. In 1948, the newly formed National Health Service contracted two voluntary organisations, the St Andrew's Ambulance Association and the British Red Cross, to jointly provide a national ambulance provision for Scotland, known as the St Andrew's and Red Cross Scottish Ambulance Service; the British Red Cross withdrew from the service in 1967. In 1974, with the reorganisation of the National Health Service, ambulance provision in Scotland was taken over by the NHS, with the organisational title being shortened to the now-current Scottish Ambulance Service. St. Andrew's First Aid, the trading name of St. Andrew's Ambulance Association, continues as a voluntary organisation and provides first aid training and provision in a private capacity.
The Scottish Ambulance Service now continues in its current form as one of the largest emergency medical providers in the UK, employing more than 4,000 staff in a variety of roles and responding to 740,631 emergency incidents in 2015/2016 alone. The service, like the rest of the National Health Service is free at point of access and is utilised by the public and healthcare professionals alike. Employing 1,300 paramedic staff, a further 1,200 technicians, the accident and emergency service is accessed through the public 999 system. Ambulance responses are now prioritised on patient requirement; the Scottish Ambulance Service maintains three command and control centres in Scotland, which facilitate handling of 999 calls and dispatch of ambulances. These three centres have handle over 800,000 calls per year; the AMPDS system is used for call prioritisation, provides post-dispatch instructions to callers allowing for medical advice to be given over the phone, prior to ambulance arrival. Clinical staff are present to provide tertiary triage.
Co-located with the Ambulance Control Centres are patient transport booking and control services, which handle 1 million patient journeys per year. The Scottish Ambulance Service maintains a varied fleet of around 1,500 vehicles; this includes Accident and Emergency ambulances single-response vehicles such as cars and small vans for paramedics, patient-transport ambulances which come in the form of adapted minibuses and support vehicles for major incidents and events, specialist vehicles such as 4x4s and tracked vehicles for difficult access. The unique geography of Scotland, which includes urban centres such as Edinburgh and Glasgow, areas of low-population such as Grampian and the Highlands, the Island communities mean that fleet provision has to be flexible and include different approaches to vehicle construction. In the past, 4x4-build ambulances on van chassis have been used in more rural areas, traditional van-conversions in more urban. With a large fleet upgrade project being commissioned in 2016, the business case was made to move to a box-body on chassis build, to provide some flexibility and more resilient parts procurement.
Most of these replacement ambulances have been based on either Mercedes or Volkswagen chassis, with a mixture of automatic or manual transmissions. The equipment used on board Scottish Ambulance Service vehicles broadly falls in line with NHS Scotland and allows for intraoperability in most cases. Equipment is replaced at regular service intervals; the uniform falls in line with the NHS Scotland National Uniform standard, in keeping with the uniform standard described by the National Ambulance Uniform Procurement group in 2016. Amongst cost and comfort considerations, all Scottish Ambulance Service Staff now wear the national uniform which comprises a dark green trouser / shirt combination. Personal Protective Equipment are issued to all staff and denote rank / clinical rank by way of epaulette and helmet markings; the national headquarters are in west side of Edinburgh and there are five divisions within the Service, namely: The Patient Transport Service carries over 1.3 million patients every year.
This service is provided to patients who are physically or medically unfit to travel to hospital out-patient appointments by any other means can still make their appointments. The service handles non-emergency admissions, transport of palliative care patients and a variety of other specialised roles. Patient Transport Vehicles come in a variety of forms and are staffed by Ambulance Care Assistants, whom work
An isthmus is a narrow piece of land connecting two larger areas across an expanse of water by which they are otherwise separated. A tombolo is an isthmus that consists of a spit or bar, a strait is the sea counterpart of an isthmus. Canals are built across isthmuses, where they may be a advantageous shortcut for marine transport. For example, the Panama Canal crosses the Isthmus of Panama, connecting the North Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Another example is the Welland Canal in the Niagara Peninsula, it connects Lake Ontario to Lake Erie. The city of Auckland in the North Island of New Zealand is situated on an isthmus. Isthmus and land bridge are related terms with isthmus having a broader meaning. A land bridge is an isthmus connecting the Earth's major landmasses; the term land bridge is used in biogeology to describe land connections that used to exist between continents at various times and were important for migration of people, various species of animals and plants, e.g. Bering Land Bridge.
An isthmus is a land connection between two bigger landmasses, while a peninsula is rather a land protrusion, connected to a bigger landmass on one side only and surrounded by water on all other sides. Technically, an isthmus can have canals running from coast to coast, thus resemble two peninsulas. Major isthmuses include the Isthmus of Panama and the Isthmus of Tehuantepec in the Americas, the Isthmus of Kra in South-East Asia, the Isthmus of Suez between Africa and Asia, the Karelian Isthmus in Europe. Of historic importance was the Isthmus of Corinth in Greece. Land bridge List of isthmuses List of straits