A tariff is a tax on imports or exports between sovereign states. It is a form of regulation of foreign trade and a policy that taxes foreign products to encourage or safeguard domestic industry. Traditionally, states have used them as a source of income. Now, they are among the most used instruments of protectionism, along with import and export quotas. Tariffs can be variable. Taxing imports means people are less to buy them as they become more expensive; the intention is that they buy local products instead – boosting the country's economy. Tariffs therefore provide an incentive to develop production and replace imports with domestic products. Tariffs are meant to reduce the trade deficit, they have been justified as a means to protect infant industries and to allow import substitution industrialization. Tariffs may be used to rectify artificially low prices for certain imported goods, due to'dumping', export subsidies or currency manipulation. There is near unanimous consensus among economists that tariffs have a negative effect on economic growth and economic welfare while free trade and the reduction of trade barriers has a positive effect on economic growth.
However, liberalization of trade can cause significant and unequally distributed losses, the economic dislocation of workers in import-competing sectors. The origin of tariff is the Italian word tariffa translated as "list of prices, book of rates", derived from the Arabic تعريف meaning "notification" or "inventory of fees to be paid". At the beginning of the 19th century, Britain's average tariff on manufactured goods was 51 percent, the highest of any major nation in Europe, and after Britain embraced free trade in most goods, it continued to regulate trade in strategic capital goods, such as the machinery for the mass production of textiles. In 1800, Great Britain with about 10% of the European population, provided 29% of all pig iron produced in Europe, a proportion that reached 45% in 1830. Tariffs were reduced in 1833 and the Corn Laws were repealed in 1846, which amounted to free trade in food.. This devastated Britain's old rural economy but began to mitigate the effects of Great Famine in Ireland.
On 15 June 1903, the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, the Marquess of Lansdowne made a speech in the House of Lords defending fiscal retaliation against countries with high tariffs and whose governments subsidised products for sale in Britain. The retaliation was to be done by threatening to impose tariffs in response against that country's goods, his Liberal Unionists had split from the Liberals, who promoted Free Trade, the speech was a landmark in the group's slide towards Protectionism. Landsdowne argued that threatening retaliatory tariffs was similar to getting respect in a room of armed men by showing a big revolver; the "Big Revolver" became a catchphrase of the day used in speeches and cartoons Before the new Constitution took effect in 1788, the Congress could not levy taxes—it sold land or begged money from the states. The new national government needed revenue and decided to depend upon a tax on imports with the Tariff of 1789; the policy of the U. S. before 1860 was low tariffs "for revenue only".
A high tariff was attempted in 1828 but the South denounced it as a "Tariff of Abominations" and it caused a rebellion in South Carolina until it was lowered. The policy from 1860 to 1933 was high protective tariffs After 1890, the tariff on wool did affect an important industry, but otherwise the tariffs were designed to keep American wages high; the conservative Republican tradition, typified by William McKinley was a high tariff, while the Democrats called for a lower tariff to help consumers. Protectionism was an American tradition: according to Paul Bairoch, the United States was "the homeland and bastion of modern protectionism" since the end of the 18th century and until after World War II. From 1846 to 1861, during which American tariffs were lowered but this was followed by a series of recessions and the 1857 panic, which led to higher demands for tariffs than President James Buchanan, signed in 1861. Between 1816 and the end of the Second World War, the United States had one of the highest average tariff rates on manufactured imports in the world.
According to economic historian Douglas Irwin, a common myth about United States trade policy is that low tariffs harmed American manufacturers in the early 19th century and that high tariffs made the United States into a great industrial power in the late 19th century. A review by the Economist of Irwin's 2017 book Clashing over Commerce: A History of US Trade Policy notes:Political dynamics would lead people to see a link between tariffs and the economic cycle, not there. A boom would generate enough revenue for tariffs to fall, when the bust came pressure would build to raise them again. By the time that happened, the economy would be recovering, giving the impression that tariff cuts caused the crash and the reverse generated the recovery. Mr Irwin methodically debunks the idea that protectionism made America a great industrial power, a notion believed by some to offer lessons for de
Femø is a Danish island north of Lolland. The island covers an area of 11.38 km². Femø has 154 inhabitants; every year since 1971 women have met and spent their holiday together in the north-east corner of the island. Attracting women from all parts of the women's rights movement, more it has attracted lesbians, although all women are welcome. Most weeks are for Danish women but an'international' week takes place once each year bringing women from all over Europe. In 2005 it was decided to open the camp to MTF women, so long; this was a major historical step as it had been discussed a number of times but always voted against by the majority of the members of the camp. Each summer more than 250 women visit Kvindelejren lasts about 8–9 weeks every summer, starting with the "building-up-the-camp-week" where all the main tents are erected. During the summer all weeks have different themes, including a children's week, a sports week, a body & soul week, one or two international weeks, a crealternative week, a debateweek, the final week where the tents and the entire camp are taken down and packed away for the winter.
The International School of Zanzibar is a private international school located on the island of Zanzibar, Tanzania. It hosts students from over 20 countries, ages 2–16, from pre-kindergarten, to Year 12; the official language, language of instruction of this school, is English. The academic program is based on the Cambridge International General Certificate of Secondary Education, the IGCSE. There are about 200 students enrolled in the school, from many different countries; the International School of Zanzibar was founded by parents from foreign countries as a play area for their children. ISZ is a community school catering for the expatriate community as well as locals who opted for the British National curriculum, it attracts children of hoteliers who run Zanzibar's upmarket beach hotels, many of these hoteliers coming from Italy, the Netherlands, the Middle East, the United Kingdom. In principle the International School of Zanzibar, follows the British National Curriculum including the administration of SATs and IGCSEs.
Included in the curriculum are English, science, geography, information technology, design technology, physical education & swimming. The school has grown from 10 children in 1988 to over 200 in October 2015; the school has a swimming pool, a science room, a tennis court, a football field, an art room, an ICT room, many more. The school has wide range of teachers from around the world. ISZ consists of an International student body enrolling students throughout the age ranges, representing 29 different countries; these include Tanzanian, the United Kingdom, Egyptian and Spanish. The remaining 27% of the student population come from 22 other nations; the school is located in East Africa, Zanzibar, in the Mazizini area, 5 minutes from the airport and 10 minutes from Stone Town