Aberystwyth is an ancient market town, administrative centre and holiday resort in Ceredigion, Wales. It is located near the confluence of the Afon Rheidol. Part of Cardiganshire, since the late 19th century, Aberystwyth has been a major Welsh educational centre, with the establishment of a university college there in 1872. At the 2001 census, the town's population was 15,935. During nine months of the year, there is an influx of students—to a total number of 10,400 as of September 2012. Including the suburbs of Llanbadarn Fawr, the population is 16,420; the built-up area having a population of 18,093. The town is situated near the confluence of the rivers Ystwyth and Rheidol, on the west coast of Wales. Although the name may seem to suggest otherwise, only the River Rheidol passes through the town. Aberystwyth has a pier and a seafront which stretches from Constitution Hill, at the north end of the Promenade, to the mouth of the harbour at the south, taking in two separate beach stretches divided by the castle.
Today, it comprises a number of different areas: Aberystwyth town, Llanbadarn Fawr, Llanbadarn, Penparcau. Aberystwyth is an isolated town; the nearest substantial settlements are located at least 1 hour 45 minutes' drive away: Swansea, to the south, is 70 miles away. The Welsh capital, Cardiff, is over 100 miles away. London is 210 miles distant from Aberystwyth. Aberystwyth experiences an oceanic climate similar to all of the United Kingdom; this is pronounced due to its west coast location facing the Irish Sea. Air undergoes little land moderation and so temperatures reflect the sea temperature when winds are coming from the predominant onshore direction; the nearest Met Office weather station is Gogerddan, 3 miles to the northeast, at a similar elevation. The absolute maximum temperature is 34.6 °C, set during July 2006. This is the July record maximum for all of Wales, suggesting that the area's low lying situation, aided by a possible föhn effect when winds are offshore can act to achieve high temperatures on occasion.
The warmest day will average 28.0 °C and 5.6 days will achieve a maximum of 25.1 °C or above. The absolute minimum temperature is −13.5 °C, set in January 2010. 39.8 days will register an air frost. Rainfall averages 1,112 mm a year, with over 1mm recorded on 161 days. All averages refer to the 1971–2000 period. Aberystwyth is a university town and tourist destination, forms a cultural link between North Wales and South Wales. Constitution Hill, scaled by the Aberystwyth Cliff Railway, gives access to panoramic views and to other attractions at the summit, including a camera obscura. Scenic Mid Wales landscape within easy reach of the town includes the wilderness of the Cambrian Mountains, whose valleys contain forests and meadows which have changed little in centuries. A convenient way to access the interior is by the preserved narrow-gauge Vale of Rheidol Railway. Although the town is modern, there are a number of historic buildings, including the remains of the castle and the Old College of Aberystwyth University nearby.
The Old College was built and opened in 1865 as a hotel, but after the owner's bankruptcy the shell of the building was sold to the university in 1867. The new university campus overlooks Aberystwyth from Penglais Hill to the east of the town centre; the station, a terminus of the main railway, was built in 1924 in the typical style of the period in a mix of Gothic, Classical Revival, Victorian architecture. The town is the unofficial capital of Mid Wales, several institutions have regional or national offices there. Public bodies located in the town include the National Library of Wales, which incorporates the National Screen and Sound Archive of Wales, one of six British regional film archives; the Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Wales maintains and curates the National Monuments Record of Wales, providing the public with information about the built heritage of Wales. Aberystwyth is the home to the national offices of UCAC and Cymdeithas yr Iaith Gymraeg, the site of the Institute of Grassland and Environmental Research.
The Welsh Books Council and the offices of the standard historical dictionary of Welsh, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, are located in the town. There is evidence that during the Mesolithic Age the area of Tan-y-Bwlch at the foot of Pen Dinas was used as a flint knapping floor for hunter-gatherers making weapons from flint, deposited as the ice retreated; the remains of a Celtic fortress on Pen Dinas, a hill in Penparcau overlooking Aberystwyth, indicates that the site was inhabited before 700 BC. On a hill south of the present town, across the River Ystwyth, are the remains of a medieval ringfort believed to be the castle from which Princess Nest was abducted; this rare survival can only be accessed by arrangement. The recorded history of Aberystwyth may be said to date from the building of a fortress in 1109 by Gilbert Fitz Richard (grandfather of Richard de Clare, known as Strongbow, the Cambro-Norman lord notable for his leading role in the Norman invasion of Ire
GQ is an international monthly men's magazine based in New York City and founded in 1931. The publication focuses on fashion and culture for men, though articles on food, fitness, music, sports and books are featured. Gentlemen's Quarterly was launched in 1931 in the United States as Apparel Arts, it was a men's fashion magazine for the clothing trade, aimed at wholesale buyers and retail sellers. It had a limited print run and was aimed at industry insiders to enable them to give advice to their customers; the popularity of the magazine among retail customers, who took the magazine from the retailers, spurred the creation of Esquire magazine in 1933. Apparel Arts continued until 1957 when it was transformed into a quarterly magazine for men, published for many years by Esquire Inc. Apparel was dropped from the logo in 1958 with the spring issue after nine issues, the name Gentlemen's Quarterly was established. Gentlemen's Quarterly was re-branded as GQ in 1967; the rate of publication was increased from quarterly to monthly in 1970.
In 1983 Condé Nast bought the publication, editor Art Cooper changed the course of the magazine, introducing articles beyond fashion and establishing GQ as a general men's magazine in competition with Esquire. Subsequently, international editions were launched as regional adaptations of the U. S. editorial formula. Jim Nelson was named editor-in-chief of GQ in February 2003. Nonnie Moore was hired by GQ as fashion editor in 1984, having served in the same position at Mademoiselle and Harper's Bazaar. Jim Moore, the magazine's fashion director at the time of her death in 2009, described the choice as unusual, observing that "She was not from men's wear, so people said she was an odd choice, but she was the perfect choice" and noting that she changed the publication's more casual look, which "She helped dress up the pages, as well as dress up the men, while making the mix more exciting and varied and approachable for men."GQ has been associated with metrosexuality. The writer Mark Simpson coined the term in an article for British newspaper The Independent about his visit to a GQ exhibition in London: "The promotion of metro-sexuality was left to the men's style press, magazines such as The Face, GQ, Arena and FHM, the new media which took off in the Eighties and is still growing...
They filled their magazines with images of narcissistic young men sporting fashionable clothes and accessories. And they persuaded other young men to study them with a mixture of envy and desire." The magazine has expanded its coverage beyond lifestyle issues. For example, in 2003, journalist Sabrina Rubin Erdely wrote an eight-page feature story in GQ on famous con man Steve Comisar. In 2018, writing for GQ, Rachel Kaadzi Ghansah won the Pulitzer Prize for Feature Writing for her article about Dylann Roof, who had shot nine Afro-Americans in a church in Charleston. GQ first named their Men of the Year in 1996, featuring the award recipients in a special issue of the magazine. British GQ launched their annual Men of the Year awards in 2009 and GQ India launched theirs the following year. Spanish GQ launched their Men of the Year awards in 2011 and GQ Australia launched theirs in 2007. In 2010, GQ magazine had a few members of the television show Glee partake in a photoshoot; the sexualization of the actresses in the photos caused controversy among parents of teens who watch the show Glee.
The Parents Television Council was the first to react to the photo spread when it was leaked prior to GQ's planned publishing date. Their President Tim Winter stated, "By authorizing this kind of near-pornographic display, the creators of the program have established their intentions on the show's directions, and it isn't good for families". The photoshoot was published as planned and Dianna Agron went on to state that the photos that were taken did not represent who she is and that she was sorry if anyone was offended by them. GQ's September 2009 U. S. magazine published, in its "backstory" section, an article by Scott Anderson, "None Dare Call It Conspiracy". Before GQ published the article, an internal email from a Condé Nast lawyer referred to it as "Vladimir Putin's Dark Rise to Power"; the article reported Anderson's investigation of the 1999 Russian apartment bombings, included interviews with Mikhail Trepashkin who investigated the bombings while he was a colonel in Russia's Federal Security Service.
The story, including Trepashkin's own findings, contradicted the Russian Government's official explanation of the bombings and criticized Vladimir Putin, the President of Russia. Condé Nast's management tried to keep the story out of Russia, it ordered executives and editors not to distribute that issue in Russia or show it to "Russian government officials, journalists or advertisers". Management decided not to publish the story on GQ's website or in Condé Nast's foreign magazines, not to publicize the story, asked Anderson not to syndicate the story "to any publications that appear in Russia". Within 24 hours of the magazine's publication in the U. S. bloggers published a translation into Russian on the Web. On April 19, 2018, the editors of GQ published an article titled "21 Books You Don’t Have To Read" in which the editors compiled a list of works they think are overrated and should be passed over, including Catcher in the Rye, The Alchemist, Blood Meridian, A Farewell to Arms, The Old Man and the Sea, The Lord of the Rings, Catch-22
Eddie the Eagle
Michael Edwards, known as "Eddie the Eagle", is an English ski-jumper who in 1988 became the first competitor since 1928 to represent Great Britain in Olympic ski jumping, finishing last in the 70 m and 90 m events. He became the British ski jumping record holder, ninth in amateur speed skiing, a stunt jumping world record holder for jumping over 6 buses. In 2016, he was portrayed by Taron Egerton in the biographical film Eddie the Eagle. Edwards was born in Gloucestershire, his family calls him by Michael. "Eddie" is a nickname derived by schoolfriends from his surname. Having not made the grade as a downhill skier, he decided to switch to ski jumping as there were no other British ski jumpers with whom to compete for a place. Edwards began jumping under the eye of John Viscome and Chuck Berghorn in Lake Placid, New York, using Berghorn's equipment, although he had to wear six pairs of socks to make the boots fit, he was disadvantaged by his weight—at about 82 kg, more than 9 kg heavier than the next heaviest competitor—and by his lack of financial support for training, being self-funded.
Another problem was that he was nearsighted, wearing thick glasses under his goggles, which would mist up at altitude. Edwards was informed of his qualification for the games while working as a plasterer and residing temporarily in a Finnish mental hospital due to lack of funds for alternative accommodation, he first represented Great Britain at the 1987 World Championships in Oberstdorf in Bavaria, West Germany and was ranked 55th in the world. This performance qualified him as the sole British applicant for the 1988 Winter Olympics ski jumping competition. Edwards was one of the best ski jumpers in the United Kingdom, holding the British record of 73.5 m in one of his Calgary jumps in 1988. In 1994 his record was overhauled by James Lambert. During the 1988 Winter Olympics, Edwards competed in and finished last in both the 70 m and 90 m events. In the 70 m, he scored 69.2 points from two jumps of 61.0 m. In the 90 m, Edwards scored 57.5 points from 67 m jumps. From the beginning, the press version of his story was "embroidered with falsehoods".
"They said. But I was doing sixty jumps a day, hardly something someone, afraid of heights would do."His lack of success endeared him to people around the globe. He subsequently became a media celebrity and appeared on talk shows around the world, appearing on The Tonight Show during the Games; the press nicknamed him "Mr. Magoo", one Italian journalist called him a "ski dropper". At the closing ceremony, the president of the Organizing Committee, Frank King, singled out Edwards for his contribution. King said, looking at the competitors, "You have broken world records and you have established personal bests; some of you have soared like an eagle." The widespread attention that Edwards received in Calgary was embarrassing to some in the ski jumping establishment. In 1990, shortly after the Olympics finished, the entry requirements were strengthened in order to make it nearly impossible for anyone to follow his example: the International Olympic Committee instituted what became known as the Eddie the Eagle Rule, which requires Olympic hopefuls to compete in international events and be placed in the top 30% or the top 50 competitors, whichever is fewer.
Edwards failed to qualify for the 1992 Winter Olympics in Albertville and the 1994 Games in Lillehammer, Norway. He got a five-year sponsorship from Eagle Airlines, a small British charter company, to support his attempt to reach the 1998 Games in Nagano, but failed to qualify for those as well. On 13 February 2008, Edwards made a return visit to Calgary to take part in festivities marking the twentieth anniversary of the Games. During his visit, he rode the zip-line at Canada Olympic Park with a member of the Jamaican bobsled team and led a procession of skiers down the slopes of the park while carrying an Olympic torch. Edwards was chosen as a torchbearer in the relay for the 2010 Vancouver Olympics, he ran with the torch on 7 January 2010 in Winnipeg. Edwards released a book called On the Piste. In 1991 he recorded a single in Finnish entitled "Mun nimeni on Eetu", B-sided with "Eddien Siivellä" though he does not speak Finnish. Edwards learned the lyrics phonetically and the song reached no.2 in the Finnish charts..
The songs were written by Finnish singer Irwin Goodman.. Edwards appeared in a number of advertising campaigns, e.g. on television, promoting cars, commanded fees of £10,000 an hour. He declared bankruptcy in 1992, claiming that a trust fund for his earnings was not set up properly. In 2003, he graduated from De Montfort University in Leicester with a degree in law. "I've been interested in law since taking out a civil action against my trustees 10 years ago," he said in a 2001 interview. In 2011, he visited one of the biggest ski jumps in the world. For the first time, he brought his family with him under the ski slopes and made a promotion video, "Eddie'the Eagle' Lands in Slovenia", while visiting places such as Kranjska Gora, Lake Bled, Postojna Caves, Portorož and Piran; the video was posted on YouTube and many UK websites. Edwards described the visit to Slovenia as one of the family's nicest trips so far. On 25 February 2
Birkenhead is a town within the Metropolitan Borough of Wirral in Merseyside, England. In Cheshire, it is on the Wirral Peninsula, along the west bank of the River Mersey, opposite the city of Liverpool. In the 2011 census, the Parliamentary constituency of Birkenhead had a population of 88,818; the recorded history of Birkenhead began with the establishment of Birkenhead Priory and the Mersey Ferry in the 12th century. During the 19th century Birkenhead expanded becoming a town as a consequence of the Industrial Revolution, with Birkenhead Park and Hamilton Square being examples of the era. Around the same time, Birkenhead gained the first street tramway in Britain; the Mersey Railway connected Birkenhead and Liverpool, with the world's first tunnel beneath a tidal estuary. Birkenhead is best known for the shipbuilding of Cammell Laird, for the town's seaport. In the second half of the 20th century, the town suffered a significant period of decline, with containerisation causing a reduction in port activity.
During the first half of the 21st century, the Wirral Waters development is planned to regenerate much of the dockland. The name Birkenhead means "headland overgrown with birch", from the Old English bircen meaning birch tree, of which many once grew on the headland which jutted into the river at Woodside; the name is not derived from the Birket, a stream which enters the Mersey between Birkenhead and Seacombe. The Birket is a name, introduced by Ordnance Survey; the earliest records state that the Mersey ferry began operating from Birkenhead in 1150, when Benedictine monks under the leadership of Hamon de Mascy built a priory there. The priory was visited in 1275 and 1277 by Edward I. In a royal charter of 13 April 1330, Edward III granted the priory further rights. Distanced from the Industrial Revolution in Liverpool by the physical barrier of the River Mersey, Birkenhead retained its agricultural status until the advent of steam ferry services. In 1817 a steam ferry service started from Liverpool to Tranmere and in 1822 the paddle steamer, Royal Mail, began operation between Liverpool and Woodside.
Shipbuilding started in 1829. An iron works was established by William Laird in 1824 and was joined by his son John Laird in 1828; the business became Cammell Laird. Notable naval vessels built at Birkenhead include HMS Achilles, HMS Affray, CSS Alabama, HMS Ark Royal, HMS Birkenhead, HMS Caroline, Huáscar, the pioneer submarine Resurgam, HMS Thetis, HMS Conqueror and HMS Prince of Wales. Merchant vessels were built such as RMS Mauretania and RMS Windsor Castle. In 1833 an act was passed to introduce street paving and other improvements in the town; these included regulating the police force. The Mersey Railway tunnel opened in 1886; the Grange Road West drill hall was completed in 1900. In September 1932 thousands of unemployed people protested in a series of demonstrations organised by the local branch of the National Unemployed Workers Movement. After three days of rioting, police were brought in from elsewhere to help quell the rioters. In addition to the ferries and the railway, the Queensway road tunnel opened in 1934 and gave rapid access to Liverpool.
This opened up the Wirral Peninsula for development, prompted further growth of Birkenhead as an industrial centre. Bolstered by migration from rural Cheshire, southern Ireland and Wales, the town's population had grown from 110 in 1801 to 110,912 one hundred years and stood at 142,501 by 1951. Birkenhead was struck by an F0/T1 tornado on 23 November 1981, as part of the record-breaking nationwide tornado outbreak on that day. A township in Bidston Parish of the Wirral Hundred, Birkenhead was incorporated as a municipal borough in 1877, became a county borough with the passing of the Local Government Act 1888; the borough included the parish of Birkenhead St. Mary and the townships of Bidston, Claughton with Grange, Oxton and part of Bebington known as Rock Ferry; the townships of Landican and Thingwall were added in 1928, followed by Noctorum and Woodchurch in 1933. Prior to 1 April 1974, Birkenhead and the rest of the Wirral Peninsula were part of the county of Cheshire; the implementation of the Local Government Act 1972 caused Birkenhead to lose its county borough status.
The town has since been administered as part of the Metropolitan Borough of Wirral, in the metropolitan county of Merseyside. The Birkenhead and Tranmere electoral ward had a population of 15,879 in 2011; the current Member of Parliament for Birkenhead is Frank Field. The Birkenhead Urban Area, as defined by the Office for National Statistics, includes Birkenhead, Bebington, Ellesmere Port and the contiguous built-up areas which link those towns. In the 2011 Census, the area so defined had a total population of 325,264, making it the 19th largest conurbation in England and Wales. Shipbuilding and ship repair has featured prominently in the local economy since the 19th century. Cammell Laird entered receivership in 2001; the shipyard was sold and became'Northwestern Shiprepairers & Shipbuilders', which grew into a successful business specialising in ship repair and conversion, including maintenance contracts for the Royal Fleet Auxiliary. In September 2007 NS&S acquired the rights to use the Cammell Laird name.
The company was renamed'Cammell Laird Shiprepairers & Shipbuilders' on 17 November 2008, seeing the famous name return to Birkenhead after a seven-year hiatus. In 2010, Cammell Laird secured a
Wales is a country, part of the United Kingdom and the island of Great Britain. It is bordered by England to the east, the Irish Sea to the north and west, the Bristol Channel to the south, it had a population in 2011 of 3,063,456 and has a total area of 20,779 km2. Wales has over 1,680 miles of coastline and is mountainous, with its higher peaks in the north and central areas, including Snowdon, its highest summit; the country has a changeable, maritime climate. Welsh national identity emerged among the Britons after the Roman withdrawal from Britain in the 5th century, Wales is regarded as one of the modern Celtic nations. Llywelyn ap Gruffudd's death in 1282 marked the completion of Edward I of England's conquest of Wales, though Owain Glyndŵr restored independence to Wales in the early 15th century; the whole of Wales was annexed by England and incorporated within the English legal system under the Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542. Distinctive Welsh politics developed in the 19th century. Welsh liberalism, exemplified in the early 20th century by Lloyd George, was displaced by the growth of socialism and the Labour Party.
Welsh national feeling grew over the century. Established under the Government of Wales Act 1998, the National Assembly for Wales holds responsibility for a range of devolved policy matters. At the dawn of the Industrial Revolution, development of the mining and metallurgical industries transformed the country from an agricultural society into an industrial nation. Two-thirds of the population live in South Wales, including Cardiff, Swansea and the nearby valleys. Now that the country's traditional extractive and heavy industries have gone or are in decline, Wales' economy depends on the public sector and service industries and tourism. Although Wales shares its political and social history with the rest of Great Britain, a majority of the population in most areas speaks English as a first language, the country has retained a distinct cultural identity and is bilingual. Over 560,000 Welsh language speakers live in Wales, the language is spoken by a majority of the population in parts of the north and west.
From the late 19th century onwards, Wales acquired its popular image as the "land of song", in part due to the eisteddfod tradition. At many international sporting events, such as the FIFA World Cup, Rugby World Cup and the Commonwealth Games, Wales has its own national teams, though at the Olympic Games, Welsh athletes compete as part of a Great Britain team. Rugby union is seen as an expression of national consciousness; the English words "Wales" and "Welsh" derive from the same Germanic root, itself derived from the name of the Gaulish people known to the Romans as Volcae and which came to refer indiscriminately to all non-Germanic peoples. The Old English-speaking Anglo-Saxons came to use the term Wælisc when referring to the Britons in particular, Wēalas when referring to their lands; the modern names for some Continental European lands and peoples have a similar etymology. In Britain, the words were not restricted to modern Wales or to the Welsh but were used to refer to anything that the Anglo-Saxons associated with the Britons, including other non-Germanic territories in Britain and places in Anglo-Saxon territory associated with Britons, as well as items associated with non-Germanic Europeans, such as the walnut.
The modern Welsh name for themselves is Cymry, Cymru is the Welsh name for Wales. These words are descended from the Brythonic word combrogi, meaning "fellow-countrymen"; the use of the word Cymry as a self-designation derives from the location in the post-Roman Era of the Welsh people in modern Wales as well as in northern England and southern Scotland. It emphasised that the Welsh in modern Wales and in the Hen Ogledd were one people, different from other peoples. In particular, the term was not applied to the Cornish or the Breton peoples, who are of similar heritage and language to the Welsh; the word came into use as a self-description before the 7th century. It is attested in a praise poem to Cadwallon ap Cadfan c. 633. In Welsh literature, the word Cymry was used throughout the Middle Ages to describe the Welsh, though the older, more generic term Brythoniaid continued to be used to describe any of the Britonnic peoples and was the more common literary term until c. 1200. Thereafter Cymry prevailed as a reference to the Welsh.
Until c. 1560 the word was spelt Kymry or Cymry, regardless of whether it referred to the people or their homeland. The Latinised forms of these names, Cambrian and Cambria, survive as lesser-used alternative names for Wales and the Welsh people. Examples include the Cambrian Mountains, the newspaper Cambrian News, the organisations Cambrian Airways, Cambrian Railways, Cambrian Archaeological Association and the Royal Cambrian Academy of Art. Outside Wales, a related form survives as the name Cumbria in North West England, once a part of Yr Hen Ogledd; the Cumbric language, thought to
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate