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Tarshish

Tarshish occurs in the Hebrew Bible with several uncertain meanings, most as a place far across the sea from Phoenicia and the Land of Israel. Tarshish is the name of a village in the Mount Lebanon District of Lebanon. Tarshish was said to have exported vast quantities of important metals to Israel; the same place-name occurs in the Akkadian inscriptions of Esarhaddon and on the Phoenician inscription of the Nora Stone in Sardinia. Legends grew up around it over time so that its identity has been the subject of scholarly research and commentary for more than two thousand years, its importance stems in part from the fact that Hebrew biblical passages tend to understand Tarshish as a source of King Solomon's great wealth in metals – silver, but gold and iron. The metals were obtained in partnership with King Hiram of Phoenician Tyre, fleets of ships from Tarshish. However, Solomon's Temple was destroyed by the Babylonians, making archaeological evidence difficult to uncover; the existence of Tarshish in the western Mediterranean, along with any Phoenician presence in the western Mediterranean before circa 800 BC, has been questioned by some scholars in modern times, because there is no direct evidence.

Instead, the lack of evidence for wealth in Israel and Phoenicia during the reigns of Solomon and Hiram prompted a few scholars to opine that the archaeological period in Mediterranean prehistory between 1200–800 BC was a'Dark Age'. The Septuagint, the Vulgate, the Targum of Jonathan render Tarshish as Carthage, but other biblical commentators as early as 1646 read it as Tartessos in ancient Hispania, near Huelva and Sevilla today; the Jewish-Portuguese scholar, politician and financier Isaac Abarbanel described Tarshish as “the city known in earlier times as Carthage and today called Tunis." One possible identification for many centuries preceding the French scholar Bochart, following the Roman historian Flavius Josephus, had been with inland town of Tarsus in Cilicia. American scholars William F. Albright and Frank Moore Cross suggested Tarshish was Sardinia because of the discovery of the Nora Stone, whose Phoenician inscription mentions Tarshish. Cross read the inscription to understand.

Recent research into hacksilber hoards has suggested Sardinia. Tarshish occurs 24 times in the Masoretic text of the Hebrew Bible with various meanings: Genesis 10:4 lists the descendants of Japhet, the son of Noah, as "The sons of Javan: Elishah, Tarshish and Dodanim." This is restated verbatim in 1 Chronicles 1:7. 1 Kings notes that King Solomon had "a fleet of ships of Tarshish" at sea with the fleet of his ally King Hiram of Tyre. And that "Once every three years the fleet of ships of Tarshish used to come bringing gold, ivory and peacocks.", while 1 Kings 22:48 states that "Jehoshaphat made ships of Tarshish to go to Ophir for gold, but they did not go, for the ships were wrecked at Ezion-geber."This is repeated in 2 Chronicles 20:37 preceded by the information that the ships were built at Ezion-geber, emphasizing the prophecy of the otherwise unknown Eliezer son of Dodavahu of Mareshah against Jehoshaphat that "Because you have joined with Ahaziah, the Lord will destroy what you have made."

And the ships were not able to go to Tarshish. This may be referenced in Psalm 48:7 which records "By the east wind you shattered the ships of Tarshish." From these verses commentators consider that "Ships of Tarshish" was used to denote any large trading ships intended for long voyages whatever their destination, some Bible translations, including the NIV, go as far as to translate the phrase ship of Tarshish as "trading ship." Psalm 72, a Psalm interpreted as Messianic in Jewish and Christian tradition, has "May the kings of Tarshish and of the coastlands render him tribute. This verse is the source text of the liturgical antiphon Reges Tharsis in Christian Cathedral music. In this Psalm, the'chain of scaled correlates' consisting of'mountains and hills','rain and showers','seas and river' leads up to the phrase'Tarshish and islands', indicating that Tarshish was a large island. Isaiah contains three prophecies mentioning Tarshish. First, at 2:16 "against all the ships of Tarshish, against all the beautiful craft," Tarshish is mentioned at length in Chapter 23 against Tyre.

23:1 and 23:14 repeat "Wail, O ships of Tarshish, for Tyre is laid waste, without house or harbor!" and 23:6 "Cross over to Tarshish. 23:10 identifies Tyre as a "daughter of Tarshish". These prophecies are reversed in Isaiah 60:9 where "For the coastlands shall hope for me, the ships of Tarshish first, to bring your children from afar", 66:19 "and I will set a sign among them, and from them I will send survivors to the nations, to Tarshish and Lud, who draw the bow, to Tubal and Javan, to the coastlands far away, that have not heard my fame or seen my glory. And they shall declare my glory among the nations." Jeremiah only mentions Tarshish in passing as a source of silver. Ezekiel contains two prophecies describing Israel's trading relations wi

Manduca lanuginosa

Manduca lanuginosa is a moth of the family Sphingidae first described by Henry Edwards in 1887. It is known from Mexico, Honduras, Costa Rica and Venezuela; the wingspan is 86–104 mm. It is similar in appearance to several other members of the genus Manduca, but a number of differences distinguish it from Manduca florestan, to which it most compares in the smaller head and duller and more uniform colour. Furthermore, the forewing upperside is less whitish grey and the hindwing underside has brown bands that are less well marked. There is one generation per year in Costa Rica with adults on wing from May to June, they feed on the nectar of various flowers. The larvae feed on Cydista heterophylla, Arrabidaea chica, Arrabidaea molissima, Crescentia alata, Cydista diversifolia, Tabebuia ochracea, Macfadyena unguis-cati, Cornutia grandifolia and Rehdera trinervis; the larva have diagonal lateral white slashes which continue up onto the back in the form of lines of small black rings with a white centre.

There are several colour morphs, with a ground colour ranging from green to yellow green and black purple

1936 United States presidential election in Virginia

The 1936 United States presidential election in Virginia took place on November 3, 1936. Voters chose 11 representatives, or electors to the Electoral College, who voted for president and vice president. Virginia voted for the Democratic nominee, incumbent President Franklin D. Roosevelt, over the Republican nominee, Kansas Governor Alf Landon. Roosevelt won the national election with 60.80% of the vote. Roosevelt carried Virginia with the largest percentage since 1832, no candidate has been in able to match his performance in the state after this election; as of the 2016 presidential election, this is the last election in which Page County voted for a Democratic presidential candidate

History of Korea

The Lower Paleolithic era in the Korean Peninsula and Manchuria began half a million years ago. The earliest known Korean pottery dates to around 8000 BCE, the Neolithic period began after 6000 BCE, followed by the Bronze Age by 2000 BCE, the Iron Age around 700 BCE. According to the mythic account recounted in the Samguk yusa, the Gojoseon kingdom was founded in northern Korea and southern Manchuria in 2333 BCE; the Gija Joseon state was purportedly founded in 12th century BC. Its existence and role has been controversial in the modern era, seen as mythology; the first written historical record on Gojoseon can be found from the early 7th century BCE. The Jin state was formed in southern Korea by the 3rd century BCE. In the 2nd century BCE, Gija Joseon was replaced by Wiman Joseon, which fell to the Han dynasty of China near the end of the century; this resulted in the fall of Gojoseon and led to succeeding warring states, the Proto–Three Kingdoms period that spanned the Iron Age. From the 1st century, Goguryeo and Silla grew to control the peninsula and Manchuria as the Three Kingdoms of Korea, until unification by Silla in 676.

In 698, Go of Balhae established the Kingdom of Balhae in old territories of Goguryeo, which led to the North–South States Period of Balhae and Silla coexisting. In the late 9th century, Silla was divided into the Later Three Kingdoms, which ended with the unification by Wang Geon's Goryeo dynasty. Meanwhile, Balhae fell after invasions by the Khitan Liao dynasty and the refugees including the last crown prince emigrated to Goryeo, where the crown prince was warmly welcomed and included into the ruling family by Wang Geon, thus unifying the two successor states of Goguryeo. During the Goryeo period, laws were codified, a civil service system was introduced, culture influenced by Buddhism flourished. However, Mongol invasions in the 13th century brought Goryeo under its influence until the mid-14th century. In 1392, General Yi Seong-gye established the Joseon dynasty after a coup d'état that overthrew the Goryeo dynasty in 1388. King Sejong the Great implemented numerous administrative, social and economic reforms, established royal authority in the early years of the dynasty, created Hangul, the Korean alphabet.

After enjoying a period of peace for nearly two centuries, the Joseon dynasty faced foreign invasions and internal factional strife from 1592 to 1637. Most notable of these invasions is the Japanese invasions of Korea, which marked the end of the Joseon dynasty's early period; the combined force of Ming dynasty of China and the Joseon dynasty repelled these Japanese invasions, but at cost to the countries. Henceforth, Joseon became more and more isolationist and stagnant. By the mid 19th century, with the country unwilling to modernize, under encroachment of European powers, Joseon Korea was forced to sign unequal treaties with foreign powers. After the assassination of Empress Myeongseong in 1895, the Donghak Peasant Revolution, the Gabo Reforms of 1894 to 1896, the Korean Empire came into existence, heralding a brief but rapid period of social reform and modernization. However, in 1905, the Korean Empire signed a protectorate treaty and in 1910, Japan annexed the Korean Empire. Korean resistance manifested in the widespread nonviolent March 1st Movement of 1919.

Thereafter the resistance movements, coordinated by the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea in exile, became active in neighboring Manchuria and Siberia, influenced by Korea's peaceful demonstrations. Figures from these exile organizations would become important in post-WWII Korea. After the end of World War II in 1945, the Allies divided the country into a northern area and a southern area. In 1948, when the powers failed to agree on the formation of a single government, this partition became the modern states of North and South Korea; the peninsula was divided at the 38th Parallel: the "Republic of Korea" was created in the south, with the backing of the US and Western Europe, the "Democratic People's Republic of Korea" in the north, with the backing of the Soviets and the communist People's Republic of China. The new premier of North Korea, Kim il-Sung, launched the Korean War in 1950 in an attempt to reunify the country under Communist rule. After immense material and human destruction, the conflict ended with a cease-fire in 1953.

In 2018, the two nations agreed to work toward a final settlement to formally end the Korean War. In 1991, both states were accepted into the United Nations. While both countries were under military rule after the war, South Korea liberalized. Since 1987 it has had a competitive electoral system; the South Korean economy has prospered, the country is now considered to be developed, with a similar capital economic standing to Western Europe and the United States. North Korea has maintained totalitarian militarized rule, with a personality cult constructed around the Kim family. Economically, North Korea has remained dependent on foreign aid. Following the end of the Soviet Union, that aid collapsed precipitously; the country's economic situation has been quite marginal since. No fossil proven to be Homo erectus has been found in the Korean Peninsula, though a candidate has been reported. Tool-making artifacts from the Palaeolithic period have been found in present-day North Hamgyong, South Pyongan and north and south Chungcheong Provinces of Korea, which dates the Paleolithic Age to half a million years ago, though it may have begun as late as 400,000 years ago or as early as 600,000–700,000 years ago.

The

Count Johann Hartwig Ernst von Bernstorff

Count Johann Hartwig Ernst von Bernstorff was a German-Danish statesman and a member of the Bernstorff noble family of Mecklenburg. He was the son of Joachim Engelke Freiherr von Bernstorff, chamberlain to the Elector of Hanover, his grandfather, Andreas Gottlieb von Bernstorff, had been one of the ablest ministers of George I and the head of the German Chancery. Under his guidance, Johann was carefully educated, acquiring amongst other things that intimate knowledge of the leading European languages French, which afterwards distinguished him, he was introduced into the Danish service by his relations, the brothers Plessen, who were ministers of state under Christian VI. In 1732, he was sent on a diplomatic mission to the court of Dresden, from 1738 he represented Holstein at the Eternal Diet of Regensburg. From 1744 to 1750, he represented Denmark at Paris, whence he returned in 1754 to Denmark as Minister of Foreign Affairs. Supported by the powerful favorite Adam Gottlob Moltke, respected by Frederick V, he occupied for twenty-one years the highest position in the government, in the Council of State his opinion was decisive.

But his chief concern was foreign policy. Since the conclusion of the Great Northern War, Danish statesmen had been occupied in harvesting its fruits, the Gottorp portions of Schleswig annexed to Denmark in 1721 by the Treaty of Nystad, endeavouring to bring about a definitive general understanding with the House of Gottorp as to their remaining possessions in Holstein. With the head of the Swedish branch of the Gottorps, the crown prince Adolph Frederick, things had been arranged by the exchange of 1750. In intimate connection with the Gottorp affair stood the question of the political equilibrium of the north. Since Russia had become the dominant Baltic power, as well as the state to which the Gottorpers looked for help, the necessity for a better understanding between the two Scandinavian kingdoms had been recognized by the best statesmen of both in Denmark from Christian VI's time. Moreover, it was a diplomatic axiom in Denmark, founded on experience, that an absolute monarchy in Sweden was incomparably more dangerous to her neighbour than a limited monarchy, after the collapse of Swedish absolutism with Charles XII, the upholding of the comparatively feeble, anarchical parliamentary government of Sweden became a question of principle with Danish statesmen throughout the 18th century.

A friendly alliance with a weak Sweden was the cardinal point of Bernstorff's policy. But his plans were reversed again and again by unforeseen complications, the failure of the most promising presumptions, the perpetual shifting of stable alliances. Amidst all these perplexities Bernstorff proved himself a consummate statesman, it seemed as if his wits were sharpened into a keener edge by his difficulties. The first difficult problem he had to face was the Seven Years' War, he was determined to preserve the neutrality of Denmark at any cost, this he succeeded in doing, despite the existence of a subsidy-treaty with the king of Prussia, the suspicions of Britain and Sweden. It was through his initiative, that the Convention of Klosterzeven was signed, on the 4 May 1758 he concluded a still more promising treaty with France, whereby, in consideration of Denmark's holding an army-corps of 24,000 men in Holstein till the end of the war, to secure Hamburg, Lübeck, the Gottorp part of Holstein from invasion and Austria engaged to bring about an exchange between the king of Denmark and the Czarevitch, as regards Holstein.

But the course of the war made this compact inoperative. Austria hastened to repudiate her guarantee to Denmark in order not to offend the new emperor of Russia, Czar Peter III, one of Peter's first acts on ascending the throne was to declare war against Denmark; the coolness and firmness of Bernstorff saved the situation. He protested that the king of Denmark was bound to defend Schleswig so long as there was a sword in Denmark and a drop of blood in the veins of the Danish people, he rejected the insulting ultimatum of the Russian emperor. He placed the best French general of the day at the head of the well-equipped Danish army, but just as the Russian and Danish armies had come within striking distance, the tidings reached Copenhagen that Peter III had been overthrown by his consort, Catherine II. Bernstorff was one of the first to recognize the impotence of the French monarchy after the Seven Years' War, in 1763 he considered it expedient to exchange the French for the Russian alliance, cemented by the treaty of the 28 April 1765.

This compact engaged Denmark to join with Russia in upholding the existing Swedish constitution, in return for which Czarina Catherine II agreed to resolve the Gottorp Question by the cession of the Gottorp portion of Holstein in exchange for the counties of Oldenburg and Delmenhorst, an exchange realized in the 1773 Treaty of

Duncan Tonatiuh

Duncan Tonatiuh is a Mexican-American author and illustrator of several award-winning children’s books. The illustrations in his books are influenced by Pre-Columbian art; the themes in his stories relate to the Latino experience, with subjects that include social justice issues, art and immigration. He is an activist for workers' rights, he was born to an American father and a Mexican mother and was raised in San Miguel de Allende, Mexico. He moved to the United States as a teenager and completed high school at Buxton School in Massachusetts; as a child, he was inspired by comics and anime to illustrate his own superhero stories. In high school, he became interested in painting, finding inspiration in the works of Vincent Van Gogh and Egon Schiele. In 2008, Tonatiuh received his B. F. A. from Parsons School of Design in Manhattan and a B. A. from Eugene Lang College. While in college, he became interested in Mixtec artwork Mixtec codex, his senior thesis, Journey of a Mixteco, was published online.

After graduating, he was contracted by Abrams Books for Young Children, publishing his first book Dear Primo in 2010. He divides his time between Mexico and the U. S. visiting schools and bookstores. He is a workers’ rights activist. Dear Primo: A Letter to My Cousin 2011 Pura Belpré Medal – honor for illustration 2011 Américas Award Commendation Diego Rivera: His World and Ours 2012 Pura Belpré Medal winner for illustration 2012 Tomás Rivera Mexican-American Children's Book AwardPancho Rabbit and the Coyote: A Migrant's Tale 2014 Pura Belpré Medal – honor for illustration 2014 Pura Belpré Medal – honor for narrative 2014 Tomás Rivera Mexican-American Children's Book Award 2014 Américas Award Honor Separate is Never equal: Sylvia Méndez & Her Family's Fight for Desegregation 2015 Pura Belpré Medal – honor for illustration 2015 Tomás Rivera Mexican-American Children's Book Award 2015 Jane Addams Award 2015 Robert F. Sibert Informational Books Medal 2015 Américas Award 2015 Carter G. Woodson Book AwardFunny Bones: Posada and His Day of the Dead Calaveras 2015 New York Times Best Illustrated Children's Books 2016 Robert F. Sibert Informational Book Medal 2016 Tomás Rivera Mexican-American Children's Book Award 2016 Pura Belpré Medal – honor for illustration 2016 Américas Award Honor Salsa: Un poema para cocinar / A Cooking Poem 2016 Américas Award Commendation Esquivel: Space-Age Sound Artist 2017 Pura Belpré Medal – honor for illustration The Princess and the Warrior 2017 Pura Belpré Medal – honor for illustration 2017 Américas Award Commendation 2017 Charlotte Zolotow Award Commendation Danza!: Amalia Hernández and el Ballet Folklórico de México 2018 Américas Award Undocumented: A Worker’s Fight 2019 Américas Award Soldier for Equality: José de la Luz Sáenz and the Great War 2020 Pura Belpré Medal – honor for author Dear Primo: A Letter To My Cousin, Abrams Books for Young Readers 2010.

Diego Rivera: His World and Ours, Abrams Books for Young Readers 2011. Pancho Rabbit and the Coyote: A Migrant's Tale, Abrams Books for Young Readers 2013. Separate is never equal: Sylvia Méndez & Her Family's Fight for Desegregation, Abrams Books for Young Readers 2014. Funny Bones: Posada and His Day of the Dead Calaveras, Abrams Books for Young Readers 2015; the Princess and the Warrior: A Tale of Two Volcanoes, Abrams Books for Young Readers 2016. Soldier for Equality: José de la Luz Sáenz and the Great War, Abrams Books for Young Readers 2019. Salsa: Un poema para cocinar / A Cooking Poem written by Jorge Argueta, Groundwood Books/House of Anansi Press 2015. Esquivel! Space-Age Sound Artist written by Susan Wood, Charlesbridge 2016. Http://www.duncantonatiuh.com/