SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Tartan

Tartan is a patterned cloth consisting of criss-crossed horizontal and vertical bands in multiple colours. Tartans originated in woven wool. Tartan is associated with Scotland. Tartan is made with alternating bands of coloured threads woven as both warp and weft at right angles to each other; the weft is woven in two over -- two under the warp, advancing one thread at each pass. This forms visible diagonal lines where different colours cross, which give the appearance of new colours blended from the original ones; the resulting blocks of colour repeat vertically and horizontally in a distinctive pattern of squares and lines known as a sett. Tartan is mistakenly called "plaid", but in Scotland, a plaid is a large piece of tartan cloth, worn as a type of kilt or large shawl; the term plaid is used in Scotland for an ordinary blanket such as one would have on a bed. The Dress Act of 1746 attempted to bring the warrior clans under government control by banning the tartan and other aspects of Gaelic culture.

When the law was repealed in 1782, it was no longer ordinary Highland dress, but was adopted instead as the symbolic national dress of Scotland. Until the middle of the nineteenth century, the highland tartans were only associated with either regions or districts, rather than any specific Scottish clan; this was because like other materials, tartan designs were produced by local weavers for local tastes and would only use the natural dyes available in that area, as synthetic dye production was non-existent and transportation of other dye materials across long distances was prohibitively expensive. The patterns were different regional checked-cloth patterns, chosen by the wearer's preference—in the same way as people nowadays choose what colours and patterns they like in their clothing, without particular reference to propriety, it was not until the mid-nineteenth century that many patterns were created and artificially associated with Scottish clans, families, or institutions who were associated in some way with a Scottish heritage.

The Victorians' penchant for ordered taxonomy and the new chemical dyes available meant that the idea of specific patterns of bright colours, or "dress" tartans, could be created and applied to a faux-nostalgic view of Scottish history. Today tartan is no longer limited to textiles, but is used on mediums such as paper, plastics and wall coverings; the English and Scots word "tartan" is most derived from the French tartarin meaning "Tartar cloth". It has been suggested that "tartan" may be derived from modern Scottish Gaelic tarsainn, meaning "across". Today "tartan" refers to coloured patterns, though a tartan did not have to be made up of any pattern at all; as late as the 1830s tartan was sometimes described as "plain coloured... without pattern". Patterned cloth from the Gaelic-speaking Scottish Highlands was called breacan, meaning many colours. Over time the meanings of tartan and breacan were combined to describe certain type of pattern on a certain type of cloth; the pattern of a tartan is called a sett.

The sett is made up of a series of woven threads. Today tartan is used to describe the pattern, not limited to textiles. In North America the term plaid is used to describe tartan; the word plaid, derived from the Scottish Gaelic plaide, meaning "blanket", was first used of any rectangular garment, sometimes made up of tartan that which preceded the modern kilt. In time, plaid was used to describe blankets themselves; each thread in the warp crosses each thread in the weft at right angles. Where a thread in the warp crosses a thread of the same colour in the weft they produce a solid colour on the tartan, while a thread crossing another of a different colour produces an equal mixture of the two colours. Thus, a set of two base colours produces three different colours including one mixture; the total number of colours, including mixtures, increases quadratically with the number of base colours so a set of six base colours produces fifteen mixtures and a total of twenty-one different colours. This means that the more stripes and colours used, the more blurred and subdued the tartan's pattern becomes.

The sequence of threads, known as the sett, starts at an edge and either repeats or reverses on what are called pivot points. In diagram A, the sett reverses at the first pivot repeats reverses at the next pivot, will carry on in this manner horizontally. In diagram B, the sett reverses and repeats in the same way as the warp, carries on in the same manner vertically; the diagrams left illustrate the construction of a "symmetrical" tartan. However, on an "asymmetrical" tartan, the sett does not reverse at the pivots, it just repeats at the pivots; some tartans do not have the same sett for the warp and weft. This means the weft will have alternate thread counts. Tartan is recorded by counting the threads of each colour; the thread count not only describes the width of the stripes on a sett, but the colours used. For example, the thread count "K4 R24 K24 Y4" corresponds to 4 black threads, 24 red threads, 24 black threads, 4 yellow threads; the first and last threads of the thread count are the pivot points.

Though thread counts are indeed quite specific, they can be modified in certain circumstances, depending on the desired size of the tartan. For example, the sett of a tartan may be too large to fit upon the face of a necktie. In this case the thread count has to be reduc

Samuel E. Smith

Samuel Emerson Smith was an American politician from Maine. Smith served as the tenth Governor of Maine. Smith was born in Hollis, New Hampshire on March 12, 1788, he graduated from Harvard University in 1808. He studied law. Smith was admitted to the bar in 1812. Smith practiced law in Maine, he served as a representative to the Massachusetts General Court in 1819. He was as a member of the Maine House of Representatives from 1820 to 1821. In 1821 he was appointed chief justice of the Circuit Court of Common Pleas of the Second District and upon the reorganization of the court system, became an associate judge of its replacement court from 1822 to 1830. Smith became the Governor of Maine in 1831. During his administration, the state capitol was moved from Portland to Augusta; the controversy over the northeastern boundary of the US the border between Maine and New Brunswick, continued to escalate. He left office on January 1, 1834. After leaving the office, Smith was reappointed to the Court of Common Pleas.

He served there from 1835 to 1837. He died on March 4, 1860. Sobel and John Raimo. Biographical Directory of the Governors of the United States, 1789-1978. Greenwood Press, 1988. ISBN 0-313-28093-2

Schultz Fire

The Schultz Fire is a wildfire which burned over 15,000 acres, including Schultz Peak in Coconino National Forest near Flagstaff, Arizona in June 2010. The suspected cause is a campfire left unattended, the United States Forest Service is offering a $2500 reward for information; the Schultz Fire began at 11:09 A. M. June 20 north of Flagstaff and grew due to high winds, requiring the Coconino County sheriff to close U. S. 89 and evacuate 748 an animal shelter, Sunset Crater and Wupatki National Monument. 300 firefighters responded, including personnel from the U. S. Forest Service and a Type One Incident Management Team, sent to events of "national significance". On June 22, the fire was 20 percent contained and one thousand people were allowed to return to their homes. By that time 14,000 acres had burned and 800 firefighters were fighting the blaze; the southern end of the fire was five miles from Flagstaff. Smoke in the Flagstaff area resulted from backfires. On June 22, Arizona governor Jan Brewer flew over the fire and succeeded in getting federal fire management assistance.

756 area residents went back to their homes June 23. At that point, only two firefighters had been injured and no homes were destroyed. Personnel from as distant as Idaho were working the fire. By June 25 the fire was 40 percent contained due to backfires which created a great deal of smoke in Flagstaff. On June 29, firefighters continued to spray water on Doyle Peak; the major concern was stabilizing the burned areas of Doyle Peak and Schultz Peak to prevent erosion and mudslides such as that after the 1977 Radio Fire on Mount Elden. Forests such as aspen could grow but cutting down burned trees or adding hay would be other techniques to use to stabilize slopes. On July 1 some trails in the Coconino National Forest reopened as the fire was pronounced contained, a Type III Incident Management Team took over July 2. Rehabilitation of burned areas began. On July 15 additional areas reopened to the public, while others remained off limits until September 15; the Schultz Fire was the area's second fire to start in the same weekend.

This fire was 90 percent contained by June 25, as was the 3,400-acre Eagle Rock Fire west of Flagstaff, started June 11 by lightning