Relief is a sculptural technique where the sculpted elements remain attached to a solid background of the same material. The term relief is from the Latin verb relevo. To create a sculpture in relief is to give the impression that the sculpted material has been raised above the background plane. What is performed when a relief is cut in from a flat surface of stone or wood is a lowering of the field, leaving the unsculpted parts raised; the technique involves considerable chiselling away of the background, a time-consuming exercise. On the other hand, a relief saves forming the rear of a subject, is less fragile and more securely fixed than a sculpture in the round one of a standing figure where the ankles are a potential weak point in stone. In other materials such as metal, plaster stucco, ceramics or papier-mâché the form can be just added to or raised up from the background, monumental bronze reliefs are made by casting. There are different degrees of relief depending on the degree of projection of the sculpted form from the field, for which the Italian and French terms are still sometimes used in English.
The full range includes high relief, where more than 50% of the depth is shown and there may be undercut areas, mid-relief, low-relief, shallow-relief or rilievo schiacciato, where the plane is only slightly lower than the sculpted elements. There is sunk relief, restricted to Ancient Egypt. However, the distinction between high relief and low relief is the clearest and most important, these two are the only terms used to discuss most work; the definition of these terms is somewhat variable, many works combine areas in more than one of them, sometimes sliding between them in a single figure. The opposite of relief sculpture is counter-relief, intaglio, or cavo-rilievo, where the form is cut into the field or background rather than rising from it. Hyphens may or may not be used in all these terms, though they are seen in "sunk relief" and are usual in "bas-relief" and "counter-relief". Works in the technique are described as "in relief", in monumental sculpture, the work itself is "a relief".
Reliefs are common throughout the world on the walls of buildings and a variety of smaller settings, a sequence of several panels or sections of relief may represent an extended narrative. Relief is more suitable for depicting complicated subjects with many figures and active poses, such as battles, than free-standing "sculpture in the round". Most ancient architectural reliefs were painted, which helped to define forms in low relief; the subject of reliefs is for convenient reference assumed in this article to be figures, but sculpture in relief depicts decorative geometrical or foliage patterns, as in the arabesques of Islamic art, may be of any subject. Rock reliefs are those carved into solid rock in the open air; this type is found in many cultures, in particular those of the Ancient Near East and Buddhist countries. A stele is a single standing stone; the distinction between high and low relief is somewhat subjective, the two are often combined in a single work. In particular, most "high reliefs" contain sections in low relief in the background.
From the Parthenon Frieze onwards, many single figures in large monumental sculpture have heads in high relief, but their lower legs are in low relief. The projecting figures created in this way work well in reliefs that are seen from below, reflect that the heads of figures are of more interest to both artist and viewer than the legs or feet; as unfinished examples from various periods show, raised reliefs, whether high or low, were "blocked out" by marking the outline of the figure and reducing the background areas to the new background level, work no doubt performed by apprentices. A low relief or bas-relief is a projecting image with a shallow overall depth, for example used on coins, on which all images are in low relief. In the lowest reliefs the relative depth of the elements shown is distorted, if seen from the side the image makes no sense, but from the front the small variations in depth register as a three-dimensional image. Other versions distort depth much less, it is a technique which requires less work, is therefore cheaper to produce, as less of the background needs to be removed in a carving, or less modelling is required.
In the art of Ancient Egypt, Assyrian palace reliefs, other ancient Near Eastern and Asian cultures, Meso-America, a consistent low relief was used for the whole composition. These images would be painted after carving, which helped define the forms; the Ishtar Gate of Babylon, now in Berlin, has low reliefs of large animals formed from moulded bricks, glazed in colour. Plaster, which made the technique far easier, was used in Egypt and the Near East from antiquity into Islamic times and Europe from at least the Renaissance, as well as elsewhere. However, it needs good co
A horn is a permanent pointed projection on the head of various animals consisting of a covering of keratin and other proteins surrounding a core of live bone. Horns are distinct from antlers. In mammals, true horns are found among the ruminant artiodactyls, in the families Antilocapridae and Bovidae. One pair of horns is usual. Polycerate sheep breeds include the Hebridean, Jacob, Manx Loaghtan, the Navajo-Churro. Horns have a curved or spiral shape with ridges or fluting. In many species only males have horns. Horns start to grow soon after birth, continue to grow throughout the life of the animal. Partial or deformed horns in livestock are called scurs. Similar growths on other parts of the body are not called horns, but spurs, claws or hoofs depending on the part of the body on which they occur; the term "horn" is popularly applied to other hard and pointed features attached to the head of animals in various other families: Giraffidae: Giraffes have one or more pairs of bony bumps on their heads, called ossicones.
These are covered with furred skin. Cervidae: Most deer have antlers, which are not true horns; when developed, antlers are dead bone without a horn or skin covering. Rhinocerotidae: The "horns" of rhinoceroses are made of keratin, the same substance as fingernails, grow continuously, but do not have a bone core. Chamaeleonidae: Many chameleons, most notably the Jackson's chameleon, possess horns on their skulls, have a keratin covering. Ceratopsidae: The "horns" of the Triceratops were extensions of its skull bones although debate exists over whether they had a keratin covering. Abelisauridae: various abelisaurid theropods, such as Carnotaurus and Majungasaurus possessed extensions of the frontal bone which were covered in some form of keratinous integument. Horned lizards: These lizards have horns on their heads which have a hard keratin covering over a bony core, like mammalian horns. Insects: Some insects have horn-like structures on the head or thorax; these are pointed outgrowths of the hard chitinous exoskeleton.
Some have enlarged jaws made of chitin. Canidae: Golden jackals are known to develop a horny growth on the skull, associated with magical powers in south-eastern Asia. Azendohsauridae: the skull of the triassic azendohsaurid archosauromorph Shringasaurus possessed two massive, forward-facing conical horns, which were covered in cornified sheaths in life. Anhimidae: The horned screamer possesses an keratinous spine, loosely connected to its skull. Many mammal species in various families have tusks, which serve the same functions as horns, but are in fact oversized teeth; these include the Moschidae, Proboscidea and Odobenidae. Polled animals or pollards are those of normally-horned species whose horns have been removed, or which have not grown. In some cases such animals have small horny growths in the skin where their horns would be – these are known as scurs. Cutaneous horns are the only examples of horns growing on people, they are most benign growths and can be removed by a razor. Cases of people growing horns have been described, sometimes with mythical status.
Researchers have not however discovered photographic evidence of the phenomenon. There are human cadaveric specimens that show outgrowings, but these are instead classified as osteomas or other excrescences; the phenomenon of humans with horns has been observed in countries lacking advanced medicine. There are living people, several in China, with cases of cutaneous horns, most common in the elderly; some people, notably The Enigma, have horn implants. The erect penis is sometimes referred to in slang use as a "horn", but it contains no keratin. However, a cutaneous horn can grow on the penis. Animals have a variety of uses for horns and antlers, including defending themselves from predators and fighting members of their own species for territory, dominance or mating priority. Horns are present only in males but in some species, females too may possess horns, it has been theorized by researchers that taller species living in the open are more visible from longer distances and more to benefit from horns to defend themselves against predators.
Female bovids that are not hidden from predators due to their large size or open savannah like habitat are more to bear horns than small or camouflaged species. In addition, horns may be used to root in the strip bark from trees. In animal courtship many use horns in displays. For example, the male blue wildebeest reams the bark and branches of trees to impress the female and lure her into his territory; some animals with true horns use them for cooling. The blood vessels in the bony core allow the horns to function as a radiator. After the death of a horned animal, the keratin may be consumed by the larvae of the Horn Moth. Horned animals are sometimes hunted so their mounted head or horns can be displayed as a hunting trophy or as decorative objects; some cultures use bovid horns for example, the shofar. These have evolved into brass instruments in which, unli
Pillar of the Boatmen
The Pillar of the Boatmen is a monumental Roman column erected in Lutetia in honour of Jupiter by the guild of boatmen in the 1st century AD. It is the oldest monument in Paris and is one of the earliest pieces of representational Gallo-Roman art to carry a written inscription, it was found re-used in the 4th c. city wall on the Île de la Cité and is now displayed in the frigidarium of the Thermes de Cluny. The pillar is made of a type of limestone called "pierre de Saint-Leu-d'Esserent", from Saint-Leu, France; the original pillar would have been 0.91 m wide at the base and 0.74 m wide at the top. It is to have been formed in four tiers and although the order from top to bottom is reasonably certain from the relative sizes of the blocks, we do not know the rotational order in which the blocks were arranged. However, there is no proof that they were stacked and could have been two pairs of altars; the guild was for wealthy shipowners or traders. An indication of the power of the guild is shown by one of the sculptures of the pillar where they parade in arms with shields and spears, a privilege granted by the Romans, exceptional in less than half a century after the conquest of Gaul.
The guild was the first known society of Paris. Written in Latin with some Gaulish language features, the inscription mingles Roman deities with gods that are distinctly Gallic; the pillar is dated by a dedication to Tiberius Caesar Augustus, Tiberius who became emperor in 14 AD. It was set up publicly from the civitas of the Parisii; these sailors would have been merchants. The main dedication is to Jupiter in the form of Iovis Optimus Maximus; the names of the emperor and the supreme deity appear in the dative case as the recipients of the dedication. The remaining theonyms are nominative legends; these are Jove, Tarvos Trigaranos, Esus, Castor and Fortuna. The dedication is as follows: Tib Caesare / Aug Ioui Optum / Maxsumo / nautae Parisiaci / publice posierunt // Eurises // Senan Uelo // Iouis // Taruos Trigaranus // Volcanus // Esus // ernunnos // Castor // // Smer // Fort // TVS // D The pillar provides the only undisputed instance of the divine name Cernunnos; the Gaulish theonyms are presented as deity names in their own right, not as epithets for Roman gods.
Other figures appear on the pillar without legible inscriptions, including the Roman gods Mars and Mercury, who can be identified by their conventional iconography, other unidentified figures female. The top tier, of which only the top half remains, depicts Cernunnos and Castor and Pollux. Cernunnos has stag's antlers from. From the amount of the body in the top half, Cernunnos is assumed to have been depicted in a cross-legged seated position as is typical of other Cernunnos depictions. Smertrios is shown brandishing a club and attacking a snake. Castor and Pollux are shown standing beside their horses, each holding a spear; the second tier, complete, shows Jupiter, Tarvos Trigaranos and Vulcan. Jupiter is shown holding a spear and a thunderbolt. Esus is shown standing beside a willow tree. Tarvos Trigaranus is depicted as a heavy-set bull standing in front of a willow tree. Two cranes stand on a third on his head. Vulcan is shown standing, with tongs; the third tier, the top half of which survives, bears the main dedicatory inscription on one face.
Since this has a border and appears complete, the content of the bottom half of this face is unknown. The other sides show a group of three young men with spears, they are unarmed, dressed in flowing gowns, have an inscription Senani Ueiloni. The fourth, lowest tier is wider than the upper three. Only the top half remains, the inscriptions are badly damaged; each face shows a pair of standing figures. Mars, with spear and sword, is accompanied by a female deity with large round ear-rings and a flowing garment, held over one arm. Mercury, identifiable by his caduceus, is depicted with a goddess who may be Rosmerta, his frequent companion in Gallic art. Fortuna is accompanied by another female deity Juno. Two other unidentified female deities are on the fourth face, the one to the left is naked to the waist and holds a large cloak behind her with upraised arms; some time in the 3rd century, the stone blocks that formed the pillar were broken into two and used to reinforce the foundations of the walls along the riverbank.
Over time, the island grew so that the 3rd-century wharfs are now a dozen metres from the banks of the modern river. The Christian cathedral of St. Etienne was founded by Childebert in 528 AD on the site of the Gallo-Roman temple; the pillar was found on 6 March 1710 (not 1711, as i
Trier known in English as Treves and Triers, is a city in Germany on the banks of the Moselle. Trier lies in a valley between low vine-covered hills of red sandstone in the west of the state of Rhineland-Palatinate, near the border with Luxembourg and within the important Moselle wine region; the German philosopher and one of the founders of Marxism, Karl Marx was born in the city in 1818. Founded by the Celts in the late-4th century BC as Treuorum, it was conquered by the Romans in the late-1st century BC and renamed Trevorum or Augusta Treverorum. Trier may be the oldest city in Germany, it is the oldest seat of a bishop north of the Alps. In the Middle Ages, the Archbishop-Elector of Trier was an important prince of the church, as the archbishop-electorate controlled land from the French border to the Rhine; the Archbishop-Elector had great significance as one of the seven electors of the Holy Roman Empire. With an approximate population of 105,000, Trier is the fourth-largest city in its state, after Mainz and Koblenz.
The nearest major cities are Luxembourg, Saarbrücken, Koblenz. The University of Trier, the administration of the Trier-Saarburg district and the seat of the ADD, which until 1999 was the borough authority of Trier, the Academy of European Law are all based in Trier, it is one of the five "central places" of the state of Rhineland-Palatinate. Along with Luxembourg and Saarbrücken, fellow constituent members of the QuattroPole union of cities, it is central to the greater region encompassing Saar-Lor-Lux, Rhineland-Palatinate, Wallonia; the first traces of human settlement in the area of the city show evidence of linear pottery settlements dating from the early Neolithic period. Since the last pre-Christian centuries, members of the Celtic tribe of the Treveri settled in the area of today's Trier; the city of Trier derives its name from the Latin locative in Trēverīs for earlier Augusta Treverorum. The historical record describes the Roman Empire subduing the Treveri in the 1st century BC and establishing Augusta Treverorum in 16 BC.
The name distinguished it from the empire's many other cities honoring the first emperor Augustus. The city became the capital of the province of Belgic Gaul. In the 4th century, Trier was one of the largest cities in the Roman Empire with a population around 75,000 and as much as 100,000; the Porta Nigra dates from this era. A residence of the Western Roman Emperor, Roman Trier was the birthplace of Saint Ambrose. Sometime between 395 and 418 in 407 the Roman administration moved the staff of the Praetorian Prefecture from Trier to Arles; the city was not as prosperous as before. However, it remained the seat of a governor and had state factories for the production of ballistae and armor and woolen uniforms for the troops, clothing for the civil service, high-quality garments for the Court. Northern Gaul was held by the Romans along a line from north of Cologne to the coast at Boulogne through what is today southern Belgium until 460. South of this line, Roman control was firm, as evidenced by the continuing operation of the imperial arms factory at Amiens.
The Franks seized Trier from Roman administration in 459. In 870, it became part of Eastern Francia. Relics of Saint Matthias brought to the city initiated widespread pilgrimages; the bishops of the city grew powerful and the Archbishopric of Trier was recognized as an electorate of the empire, one of the most powerful states of Germany. The University of Trier was founded in the city in 1473. In the 17th century, the Archbishops and Prince-Electors of Trier relocated their residences to Philippsburg Castle in Ehrenbreitstein, near Koblenz. A session of the Reichstag was held in Trier in 1512, during which the demarcation of the Imperial Circles was definitively established. In the years from 1581 to 1593, the Trier witch trials were held the largest witch trial in European history, it was one of the four largest witch trials in Germany alongside the Fulda witch trials, the Würzburg witch trial, the Bamberg witch trials. The persecutions started in the diocese of Trier in 1581 and reached the city itself in 1587, where it was to lead to the death of about 368 people, was as such the biggest mass execution in Europe in peacetime.
This counts only those executed within the city itself, the real number of executions, counting those executed in all the witch hunts within the diocese as a whole, was therefore larger. The exact number of people executed has never been established. In the 17th and 18th centuries, Trier was sought after by France, who invaded during the Thirty Years' War, the War of the Grand Alliance, the War of the Spanish Succession, the War of the Polish Succession. France succeeded in claiming Trier in 1794 during the French Revolutionary Wars, the electoral archbishopric was dissolved. After the Napoleonic Wars ended in 1815, Trier passed to the Kingdom of Prussia; the German philosopher and one of the founders of Marxism, Karl Marx was born in the city in 1818. As part of the Prussian Rhineland, Trier developed economically during the 19th century; the city rose in revolt during the revolutions of 1848 in the German
Twrch Trwyth is an enchanted wild boar in the Matter of Britain that King Arthur or his men pursued with the aid of Arthur's dog Cavall. The names of the hound and boar are glimpsed in a piece of geographical onomasticon composed in Latin in the ninth century, the Historia Brittonum. However, a richly elaborate account of the great hunt appears in the Welsh prose romance Culhwch and Olwen written around 1100. A passing reference to Twrch Trwyth occurs in the elegy Gwarchan Cynfelyn preserved in the Book of Aneirin; the name in Welsh can be construed to mean "the boar Trwyth", may have its analogue in the boar Triath of Irish mythology. The earliest reference to the boar Trwyth occurs in the tract De Mirabilibus Britanniae, variously titled in English as "Wonders of Britain"; the Mirabilia is believed to be near-contemporaneous to Nennius' ninth century Historia Brittonum and is found appended to it in many extant manuscripts. It gives a list of marvels around Britain, one of them being the footprint left in rock by Arthur's dog Cavall, made while chasing the great boar: There is another wonder in the region called Buelt.
There is a heap of stones, one stone laid on the heap having upon it the footmark of a dog. When he hunted the swine Troynt, a dog of the warrior Arthur, impressed the stone with the print of his foot, Arthur afterwards collected a heap of stones beneath the stone in, the print of his dog's foot, it is called Carn Cabal, and people come and take away the stone in their hands for the space of a day and a night, on the next day it is found on its heap. Twrch is named. In French romances such as by Chrétien de Troyes, Ares is the father of a knight called Tor; some scholars consider that Tor son of Ares is the Twrch son of Tared of Culhwch and Olwen and that the authentic name is Ares. Culhwch is given the task by Ysbaddaden, the giant whose daughter Olwen Culhwch seeks, of obtaining the comb and scissors from Twrch's head. In the story it transpires there is a razor secreted there; these implements are to be used to cut and treat Ysbaddaden's hair. Further, Ysbaddaden states that the only hound who can hunt Twrch is Drudwyn, the whelp of Greid, goes on to list the requirements of the leash to hold Drudwyn, the only man strong enough to hold the leash.
Ysbaddaden calls on Culhwch to seek out Arthur, Culhwch's cousin, to help him hunt Twrch. Prior to the hunt, Menw son of Teirgwaedd is sent to verify that the comb and scissors are between Twrch's ears, he flies to Twrch's lair, encountering the boar with seven piglets. Menw tries to swoop down and snatch one of the implements from Twrch's scalp, but only manages to take one silver bristle; the hunt for Twrch takes up the greater portion of the latter half of Culhwch and Olwen, it is described in great detail the geographical route of the pursuit, those who take active part in it. Although it is Culhwch, given the task, it is Arthur and his men who take the most prominent role in the chase, Culhwch having enlisted his aid. After causing the death of several of Arthur's troop, the boar surrenders the razor and the comb by force, he is driven into the sea off Cornwall and drowned, yet another boar, Ysgithyrwyn or "White-Tusk, Chief of Boars", had to be captured for its tusk to complete the grooming of Ysbadadden.
As noted, the Welsh word twrch means "wild boar, mole", so Twrch Trwyth means "the boar Trwyth". Its Irish cognate may be Triath, King of the Swine or the Torc Triath mentioned in Lebor Gabála Érenn recorded as Old Irish Orc tréith "Triath's boar" in Sanas Cormaic. Rachel Bromwich regards the form Trwyth as a late corruption. In the early text Historia Brittonum, the boar is called Troynt or Troit, a Latinisation from the Welsh Trwyd. Further evidence that Trwyd was the correct form appears in a reference in a poem. Twrch Trwyth is the name of a Welsh traditional dance group based in Cardiff. Y Twrch Trwyth is the mascot of Ysgol Dyffryn Aman in Ammanford, South West Wales. In the 2016 Summer event of Fate/Grand Order, Twrch Trwyth is the last boss. Henwen, a sow from Cornwall that made a run from the south end to the north tip of Wales, bore Cath Palug Ysgithyrwyn Chief Boar Schreiber, Lady Charlotte, The Mabinogion: From the Llyfr Coch o Hergest, 2, London: Longman, Brown and Longmans Jones, Gwyn.
M. Dent, pp. 80–113, ISBN 0-460-87297-4 Mommsen, Theodore, ed. "Historia Brittonvm cvm additamentis Nennii", Chronica Minora, Monumenta Germaniae Historica, Auctorum Antiq
Celtic mythology is the mythology of Celtic polytheism, the religion of the Iron Age Celts. Like other Iron Age Europeans, the early Celts maintained a polytheistic mythology and religious structure. For Celts in close contact with Ancient Rome, such as the Gauls and Celtiberians, their mythology did not survive the Roman Empire, their subsequent conversion to Christianity and the loss of their Celtic languages, it is through contemporary Roman and Christian sources that their mythology has been preserved. The Celtic peoples who maintained either political or linguistic identities left vestigial remnants of their ancestral mythologies that were put into written form during the Middle Ages. Although the Celtic world at its height covered much of western and central Europe, it was not politically unified nor was there any substantial central source of cultural influence or homogeneity. Inscriptions of more than three hundred deities equated with their Roman counterparts, have survived, but of these most appear to have been genii locorum, local or tribal gods, few were worshiped.
However, from what has survived of Celtic mythology, it is possible to discern commonalities which hint at a more unified pantheon than is given credit. The nature and functions of these ancient gods can be deduced from their names, the location of their inscriptions, their iconography, the Roman gods they are equated with, similar figures from bodies of Celtic mythology. Celtic mythology is found in a number of distinct, if related, subgroups corresponding to the branches of the Celtic languages: Ancient Celtic religion mythology in Goidelic languages, represented chiefly by Irish mythology Mythological Cycle Ulster Cycle Fenian Cycle Cycles of the Kings mythology in Brittonic languages Welsh mythology Cornish mythology Breton mythology As a result of the scarcity of surviving materials bearing written Gaulish, it is surmised that the most of the Celtic writings were destroyed by the Romans, although a written form of Gaulish using Greek and North Italic alphabets was used. Julius Caesar attests to the literacy of the Gauls, but wrote that their priests, the druids, were forbidden to use writing to record certain verses of religious significance while noting that the Helvetii had a written census.
Rome introduced a more widespread habit of public inscriptions, broke the power of the druids in the areas it conquered. Although early Gaels in Ireland and parts of modern Wales used the Ogham script to record short inscriptions, more sophisticated literacy was not introduced to Celtic areas that had not been conquered by Rome until the advent of Christianity. Indeed, many Gaelic myths were first recorded by Christian monks, albeit without most of their original religious meanings; the oldest body of myths stemming from the Heroic Age is found only from the early medieval period of Ireland. As Christianity began to take over, the gods and goddesses were eliminated as such from the culture. What has survived includes material dealing with the Tuatha Dé Danann and the Fomorians, which forms the basis for the text Cath Maige Tuired "The Battle of Mag Tuireadh", as well as portions of the history-focused Lebor Gabála Érenn; the Tuatha Dé represent the functions of human society such as kingship and war, while the Fomorians represent chaos and wild nature.
The leader of the gods for the Irish pantheon appears to have been the Dagda. The Dagda was the figure on which male humans and other gods were based because he embodied ideal Irish traits. Celtic gods were considered to be a clan due to their lack of specialization and unknown origins; the particular character of the Dagda was as a figure of burlesque lampoonery in Irish mythology, some authors conclude that he was trusted to be benevolent enough to tolerate jokes at his own expense. Irish tales depict the Dagda as a figure of power, armed with a club. In Dorset there is a famous outline of an ithyphallic giant known as the Cerne Abbas Giant with a club cut into the chalky soil. While this was produced in modern times, it was long thought to be a representation of the Dagda; this has been called into question by recent studies which show that there may have been a representation of what looks like a large drapery hanging from the horizontal arm of the figure, leading to suspicion that this figure represents Hercules, with the skin of the Nemean lion over his arm and carrying the club he used to kill it.
In Gaul, it is speculated that the Dagda is associated with Sucellus, the striker, equipped with a hammer and cup. The Morrígan was a tripartite battle goddess of the Celts of Ancient Ireland, she was known as the Morrígan, but the different sections she was divided into were referred to as Nemain and Badb, with each representing different aspects of combat. She is most known for her involvement in the Táin Bó Cúailnge