Air Astana is the flag carrier of the Republic of Kazakhstan, based in Almaty, Kazakhstan. It operates scheduled and international services on 64 routes from its main hub, Almaty International Airport, from its secondary hub, Nursultan Nazarbayev International Airport, it is a joint venture between Kazakhstan's sovereign wealth fund Samruk-Kazyna, BAE Systems PLC. It was incorporated in October 2001 and started commercial flights on 15 May 2002. Air Astana was described by the Centre for Asia Pacific Aviation in January 2012 as having "performed better in its first decade than just about any other start-up carrier", yet its origins represent one of the more intriguing and unlikely stories to have emerged from the airline industry in recent times. Conceived as purely domestic airline, BAE Systems agreed in mid-2001 to participate in the proposed start-up at the request of Kazakhstan's head of state, President Nursultan Nazarbayev, in order to facilitate an air radar contract it was negotiating with the Government of Kazakhstan.
Sir Richard Evans, BAE System's chairman at the time, was key to the deal. However, the radar contract never materialized, subsequent senior management changes and strategic reviews at BAE Systems led to the closure of its offices in Kazakhstan. Additionally, not withstanding the support of Nazarbayev and a number of close advisors, the start-up seen as a foreign entity, was confronted with immediate and vocal opposition from many elements of Kazakhstan's media and political establishment. In spite of a lack of support, the airline took off on the charge. Under its first operational president, former British Airways executive Lloyd Paxton, it leased its first 3 Boeing 737s from International Lease Finance Corporation and commenced Commercial operations on 15 May 2002. In late 2003 Fokker 50s were leased from Aircraft Finance Trading BV and 3 Boeing 757s from Pegasus Leasing Corp, it declared a net profit in its first full year of operations. Upon the bankruptcy of the previous flag carrier Air Kazakhstan in February 2004, it moved to expand from its domestic network to key international routes to Dubai, Istanbul and Beijing, followed by Frankfurt and London.
Early growth pains and disagreements over fleet plans and hub strategy led to tensions between the shareholders and a management change in autumn 2005. Peter Foster, a former executive of Cathay Pacific Airways who had led the rehabilitation team at Philippine Airlines in 1999 before a spell as CEO at Royal Brunei Airlines, was appointed as the airline's president on 1 October 2005. Long-term development plans and management structures were established that have remained unchanged since then; the airline has been profitable and was listed in the top 20 most profitable airlines in terms of net margin in the world for the years 2010, 2011, 2012, according to Airline Business and Air Finance Journal, which ranked it 20th in its 2015 survey of global airline financial ratings, with a score of BBB-. In an article on BAE Systems' offset programmes the Financial Times stated, "BAE’s 49 per cent stake in Kazakhstan’s Air Astana became one of the company’s highest-yielding investments"; until 8 December 2016, Air Astana was the only Kazakh airline allowed to fly to the European Union.
Air Astana was the "Official Air Carrier of EXPO-2017" and the official carrier and general partner of the 2017 Winter Universiade, which took place from 29 January to 8 February 2017 in Almaty. Today, the Air Astana airline's fleet is the youngest in Europe and consists of 30 Western-made aircraft; as a result of the restructuring of the fleet and the replacement of all Airbus A320 and Boeing 767, the average age of the Air Astana fleet decreased to 6 years as of 2015. The company plans to expand its fleet up to 43 in 2020. In addition, the carrier plans to start flying to the United States with the arrival of the Boeing 787 Dreamliner. At the end of 2016, the company's fleet was replenished first in the post-Soviet countries of the Airbus A320neo. In January 2018, the company adopted the first Airbus A321neo in the post-Soviet countries. In June 2018, the fleet received a second Airbus A321neo. In November 2018, the airline announced that it plans to launch its own low-cost airline, called FlyArystan.
In December 2018, the airline's fleet was replenished with Embraer 190-E2 – first in the post-Soviet countries. In September 2002 the airline launched flights between Nur-Sultan and Moscow with a frequency of 3 times a week and daily flights between Almaty and Moscow performed by Boeing 737–700. In 2014, the number of weekly services on the Nur-Sultan – Moscow route was increased up to 9 flights a week, Almaty – Moscow flights up to 14; the airline operates 54 weekly services on 11 routes to Russia: Almaty – Moscow performed by Airbus A321 and Boeing 767, Nur-Sultan – Moscow, Almaty – St. Petersburg performed by Airbus A320 and Nur-Sultan – Novosibirsk, Nur-Sultan – Yekaterinburg, Nur-Sultan – Omsk, Nur-Sultan – St. Petersburg, Almaty – Kazan, Almaty – Samara performed by Embraer 190. Air Astana is represented in Russian Federation in Moscow city on Bolshoi Gnezdnikovskii pereulok 1, building 2. There is a ticket office at the Sheremetyevo airport. Air Astana has built on its geographical strength by expanding its network to cover all key cities of the region with short haul flights.
In Central Asia and the Caucasus, Air Astana offers services to Bishkek, Baku, Tbilisi both from Almaty and Nur-Sultan. Services t
Azerbaijan Airlines known as AZAL, is the flag carrier and largest airline of the country of Azerbaijan. Based in Baku, adjacent to Heydar Aliyev International Airport, the carrier operates to destinations across Asia, the CIS, Europe and the USA. Azerbaijan Airlines is a member of the International Air Transport Association; the airline was founded on 7 April 1992 as the first national airline established after the country gained its independence. In 1990, Azerbaijan announced that it was setting up its own airline, that it would be independent of Aeroflot, the long-time provider of air services for the Soviet republics. Azerbaijan Airlines was established on August 17, 1992, its first president was Vagif Sadykhly. Formed from the regional branch of Aeroflot, Azerbaijan Airlines known as Azerbaijan Hava Yollari, soon spread its wings into the world outside the Soviet Union, Aeroflot's exclusive domain. A scheduled Baku-Istanbul route was launched in January 1991 in partnership with Turkish Airlines, the cargo enterprise Aviasharg was created in cooperation with the United Arab Emirates.
AZAL inherited a huge fleet from Aeroflot, including more than 20 Soviet-made Tupolev airliners, some regional airliners and freighters, 90 light aircraft, 50 helicopters. It was quick to lease a pair of Boeing 727s, that once belonged to PanAm. AZAL had an extensive involvement with Aviation Leasing Group, the U. S.-based lessor of these Boeing 727s. It had a transatlantic charter cargo joint venture with ALG's Buffalo Airways, training AZAL aircrews to Western standards in Dallas, Texas. In November 1994, AZAL began a route to Dubai, along with Istanbul, was a key source of Western goods, it was soon flying to Tehran, Tel Aviv, Saint Petersburg and China. Service to several regional destinations was suspended in mid-1998, due to low margins and the need to repair three Yak-40 aircraft. With the exception of a few major cities, service to neighboring CIS countries was suspended in January 1999, due to debt; these routes were unprofitable as well, were facing new competition from trains. According to the Trend News Agency, domestic flights accounted for only about 16 percent of AZAL's traffic in 1998.
Azerbaijan's border dispute with Armenia over Nagorno-Karabakh had delayed financing for two new Boeing 757s from the U. S. Ex-Im Bank; the $66 million loan guarantee was the Ex-Im Bank's first transaction for Azerbaijan, according to Air Transport Intelligence. The financing was guaranteed by the Azerbaijan government and the International Bank of Azerbaijan; the United Kingdom's Export Credits Guarantee Department guaranteed financing for Rolls-Royce engines, utilized by both Boeing 757s. The first of the 757s was delivered in the fall of 2000; the planes offered the carrier unprecedented range and efficiency on long-haul international routes. They helped project a modern image to the world; the second Boeing 757 to be delivered arrived in December laden with medical supplies due to a recent earthquake in Azerbaijan. In January 2001, AZAL used one of the planes to begin operating a Paris-Baku route in collaboration with Air France. Azerbaijan, a predominantly Muslim country, experienced a reduction in air traffic following the 9/11 terrorist attacks on the United States.
AZAL was able to remain profitable through 2001, make progress toward paying off its debt. The airline was soon shopping for more new aircraft. AZAL ordered its first Western-made helicopters in October 2002, purchasing six for EUR 52 million from Eurocopter. AZAL used helicopters to ferry personnel and equipment out to oil rigs in the Caspian Sea. In July 2004, two of AZAL's airliners were impounded by Turkey over a 12-year-old debt owed by Azerbaijan's Agriculture Ministry to a Turkish company. In the same month, AZAL ordered new Ukrainian-made, 52-passenger Antonov An-140 turboprops to replenish its regional fleet, paying about $36 million for four planes. On 22 July 2010, Boeing and Azerbaijan Airlines signed an agreement to substitute two Next-Generation 737 airplanes for one 767-300ER and two 767 Freighters. Including this announcement, Azerbaijan Airlines had a total of eight Boeing airplanes on order: two 767-300ERs, two 767 Freighters, two Next-Generation 737s and two 787-8s. In September 2010, AZAL cancelled an order for the remaining two Next-Generation 737s.
On 23 and 24 December 2014, Azerbaijan Airlines took delivery of the 2 Boeing 787 Dreamliners it had on order. The airline launched its Premium economy product along with the introduction of the 787. On November 12, 2017, Boeing set a deal to sell five 787-8 planes to Azerbaijan Airlines, in an order valued at about $1.9 billion at list price. Azerbaijan Airlines codeshares with the following airlines: The Azerbaijan Airlines fleet consists of the following aircraft: Azerbaijan Airlines used to operate a number of aircraft, its most common aircraft used to be the Tupolev TU154 until it was retired in 2013. All the aircraft Azerbaijan Airlines used to operate are listed below. Media related to Azerbaijan Airlines at Wikimedia Commons Official website
Beijing Capital International Airport
Beijing Capital International Airport is the main international airport serving Beijing. It is located 32 km northeast of Beijing's city centre, in an enclave of Chaoyang District and the surroundings of that enclave in suburban Shunyi District; the airport is owned and operated by the Beijing Capital International Airport Company Limited, a state-controlled company. The airport's IATA Airport code, PEK, is based on Peking. Beijing Capital has ascended in rankings of the world's busiest airports in the past decade, it had become the busiest airport in Asia in terms of passenger traffic and total traffic movements by 2009. It has been the world's second busiest airport in terms of passenger traffic since 2010; the airport registered 557,167 aircraft movements, ranking 6th in the world in 2012. In terms of cargo traffic, Beijing airport has witnessed rapid growth. By 2012, the airport had become the 13th busiest airport in the world by cargo traffic, registering 1,787,027 tons. Beijing Airport was opened on 2 March 1958.
The airport consisted of one small terminal building, which still stands to this day for the use of VIPs and charter flights. On 1 January 1980, a newer, larger Terminal 1 – green in colour – opened, with docks for 10 to 12 aircraft; the terminal was larger than the one built in the 1950s, but by the mid-1990s, its size became inadequate. The first International flight to China and Beijing Capital International Airport was of Pakistan International Airlines from Islamabad. In late 1999, to mark the 50th anniversary of the founding of the PRC, the airport experienced a new round of expansion as Terminal 2 opened on 1 November of that year. Terminal 1 was temporarily closed for renovation after the opening of Terminal 2. 20 September 2004 saw the opening of a renovated Terminal 1, which at that time handled China Southern Airlines' domestic and international flights from Beijing. Other airlines' domestic and international flights still operated in Terminal 2. Another round of expansion started in 2007.
A third runway opened on 29 October 2007. Terminal 3 was completed in time for the Beijing Olympics; this colossal expansion included a rail link to the city-center. At its opening, the new Terminal 3 was the largest man made structure in the world in terms of area covered, a major landmark representing Beijing as the growing and developing Chinese capital; the expansion was funded by a 30 billion yen loan from Japan and a 500-million-euro loan from the European Investment Bank. The loan is the largest granted by the EIB in Asia. Fresh from hosting the 2008 Summer Olympics and adding its new terminal building, Beijing Capital has overtaken Tokyo Haneda to be the busiest airport in Asia based on scheduled seat capacity. Due to limited capacity at Beijing Capital International Airport, a new airport in Daxing is being planned; the project was given final approval on 13 January 2013. Construction began in late 2014 and is expected to be completed in 2019, it is not yet clear. The airport has three terminals.
Terminal 1 serves the domestic routes of its subsidiaries. Terminal 2 serves China Eastern Airlines, SkyTeam. Terminal 3, the newest terminal, serves Air China, Star Alliance, Oneworld members, plus Skyteam members- Alitalia and China Airlines, some other domestic and international flights that do not operate from either Terminals 1 or 2. Terminal 1, with 60,000 m2 of space, opened on 1 January 1980, replaced the smaller existing terminal, in operation since 1958. Terminal 1 was closed for renovation from 1 November 1999 to 20 September 2004, during which all airlines operated from Terminal 2. Featuring 16 gates, it was the operational base for the domestic routes of China Southern Airlines and a few other airlines such as XiamenAir and Chongqing Airlines, was planned to handle domestic traffic excluding those to Hong Kong and Macau. With the opening of Terminal 3, the terminal was closed for light refurbishment, its airlines were moved to Terminal 2 on 20 May 2008. Terminal 1 reopened for a second time on 27 June 2008, became the operational base for all domestic flights operated by the HNA Group including those of Hainan Airlines, Grand China Air, Beijing Capital Airlines and Tianjin Airlines, while all HNA Group's international flights as well as those to Hong Kong and Taiwan remain in Terminal 2.
Terminal 2 opened on 1 November 1999, with a floor area of 336,000 m2. This terminal was used to replace Terminal 1 while the latter was undergoing renovation, cramping all airlines despite being far bigger than Terminal 1, it can handle twenty aircraft at docks connecting directly to the terminal building. Prior to the opening of Terminal 3, all international flights operated from this terminal; this terminal now houses China Eastern Airlines, China Southern Airlines, Hainan Airlines, SkyTeam, Oneworld me
PJSC Aeroflot – Russian Airlines known as Aeroflot, is the flag carrier and largest airline of the Russian Federation. The carrier is an open joint stock company that operates domestic and international passenger and services from its hub at Sheremetyevo International Airport. Aeroflot is one of the oldest airlines in the world, tracing its history back to 1923. During the Soviet era, Aeroflot was the Soviet national airline and the largest airline in the world. Following the dissolution of the USSR, the carrier has been transformed from a state-run enterprise into a semi-privatised company which ranked 19th most profitable airline in the world in 2007. Aeroflot is still considered the de facto national airline of Russia, it is 51%-owned by the Russian Government. As of September 2013, the Aeroflot Group had 30,328 employees. By the end of 2017, Aeroflot controlled 40% of the air market in Russia; the company has embarked on a fleet modernisation programme, extensive route restructuring and an image overhaul.
The airline joined SkyTeam in April 2006. On 17 January 1921, the Sovnarkom of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic published "About Air Transportation"; the document signed by Lenin set out the basic regulations on air transport over the territory of the RSFSR. The document was significant as it was the first time that a Russian state had declared sovereignty over its airspace. In addition, the document defined rules for the operation of foreign aircraft over the Soviet Union's airspace and territory. After Lenin issued an order, a State Commission was formed on 31 January 1921 for the purpose of civil aviation planning in the Soviet Union; as a result of the commission's plans, Glavvozdukhflot was established, it began mail and passenger flights on the Moscow-Oryol-Kursk-Kharkov route on 1 May 1921 using Sikorsky Ilya Muromets aircraft. This was followed by the formation of Deruluft-Deutsch Russische Luftverkehrs A. G. in Berlin on 11 November 1921, as a joint venture between the Soviet Union and Germany.
The company, whose aircraft were registered in both Germany and the Soviet Union, began operations on 1 May 1922 with a Fokker F. III flying between Königsberg and Moscow; the service was operated twice a week and restricted to the carriage of mail. On 3 February 1923 Sovnarkom approved plans for the expansion of the Red Air Fleet, it is this date, recognised as the beginning of civil aviation in the Soviet Union. After a resolution of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, the Enterprise for Friends of the Air Fleet was founded on 8 March 1923, followed by the formation of Dobrolet on 17 March 1923; the artist Alexander Rodchenko became involved in the ODVF at this time. He designed posters encouraging citizens to buy stock in Dobrolet and the famous "Winged Hammer and Sickle" logo still used by Aeroflot. Regular flights by Dobrolet from Moscow to Nizhniy Novgorod commenced on 15 July 1923. During the same period, an additional two airlines were established. During 1923 an agreement was signed establishing a subdivision of Dobrolet to be based in Tashkent, which would operate to points in Soviet Central Asia.
Services between Tashkent and Alma Ata began on 27 April 1924, by the end of 1924 the subdivision had carried 480 passengers and 500 kilograms of mail and freight, on a total of 210 flights. In March 1924, Dobrolet began operating flights from Sevastopol to Yalta and Yevpatoriya in the Crimea. Dobrolet's route network was extended during the 1925–1927 period to include Kazan and regular flights between Moscow and Kharkov were inaugurated. Plans were made for Dobrolet flights to Kharkov to connect with Ukrvozdukhput services to Kiev and Rostov-on-Don. During 1925, Dobrolet operated 2,000 flights over a distance of 1,000,000 kilometres, carrying 14,000 passengers and 127,500 kilograms of freight, on a route network extending to some 5,000 kilometres. Dobrolet was transformed from a Russian to an all-Union enterprise on 21 September 1926 as a result of Sovnarkom resolutions, in 1928 Dobrolet was merged with Ukrvozdukhput. Responsibility for all civil aviation activities in the Soviet Union came under the control of the Chief Directorate of the Civil Air Fleet on 25 February 1932, on 25 March 1932 the name "Aeroflot" was adopted for the entire Soviet Civil Air Fleet.
The Communist Party of the Soviet Union Congress in 1933 set out development plans for the civil aviation industry for the following five years, which would see air transportation becoming one of the primary means of transportation in the Soviet Union, linking all major cities. The government implemented plans to expand the Soviet aircraft industry to make it less dependent on foreign built aircraft. Expansion of air routes which had taken shape in the late 1920s, continued into the 1930s. Local services were expanded in Soviet Central Asia and the Soviet Far East, which by the end of the second Five-Year Plan in 1937 was 35,000 kilometres in length out of a total network of some 93,300 kilometres; the agreement between the Soviet Union and Germany relating to Deruluft expired on 1 January 1937 and wasn't ren
Sheremetyevo International Airport
Sheremetyevo International Airport is an international airport located in Khimki, Moscow Oblast, Russia, 29 km northwest of central Moscow. It is a hub for passenger operations of the Russian international airline Aeroflot, is one of the three major airports that serve Moscow, along with Moscow Domodedovo Airport and Vnukovo International Airport; the airport serves a number of international airlines, including Air France, KLM, Korean Air, Hainan Airlines, Air China, British Airways, Cham Wings Airlines. In 2017, the airport handled 40,093,000 passengers and 308,090 aircraft movements, making the airport the 50th busiest airport in the world, the busiest in the Russian Federation and former USSR. During 2018, the Airport reported a 14,3% increase in passengers for a total of 45.8 million. There was a 15.9% increase in aircraft traffic year over year. In 2018, the Airport reported revenue of € a 6 % increase year over year. Profit increased 7.4% year over year. These increases are attributed in part to increased air traffic due to the 2018 FIFA World Cup.
The airport was built as a military airfield called Sheremetyevsky named after a settlement with the same name. The decree about the construction of the Central Airdrome of the Air Force near the settlement of Chashnikovo on the outskirts of Moscow was issued on September 1, 1953 by the Council of Ministers of the Soviet Union; the airport became operational on November 7, 1957 to celebrate the 40th anniversary of the October Revolution. After it was decided to turn the airport into a civilian one, Sheremetyevo was opened on 11 August 1959; the new airport received its name for two nearby venues: the village of Sheremetyevsky and the Savelov station on the railway of the same name. Sheremetyevo-1 was opened on 3 September 1964. On 12 September 1967, the first scheduled passenger flight of the Tupolev Tu-134 departed from Sheremetyevo, followed by the first scheduled flight of the Ilyushin Il-62 on 15 September. Sheremetyevo-2, the larger of the two terminal complexes, opened on 1 January 1980 for the 1980 Summer Olympics.
It was built according to the principles of design of Hannover-Langenhagen Airport and was the arrival and departure point for international flights. Flights to cities in Russia and charter flights arrived and departed from Sheremetyevo-1. In the 2000s, Sheremetyevo saw growing competition from Domodedovo International Airport, more modern and convenient to access. With major airlines leaving Sheremetyevo, the need for reconstruction became evident. In July 2010, a walkway opened between Terminals D, E, F, the Aeroexpress railway terminal on the public access side. In November 2010, a walkway opened between Terminals D, E, F on the security side. Both of have simplified transfer between transit flights. After the northern the recent construction work, the airport now has the capacity to receive more than 40 million passengers annually. Since 2009 all terminals have been identified by letters. In December 2011, a new Area control center was opened, it consolidates the gathering and control of the airport's different control centres across all of the organizations that affect its efficient operation.
The Situational Center forms part of the airport control center. SC is intended for joint work of top-managers, heads of state bodies, partners of Sheremetyevo, it is activated only in the case of an emergency. In 2013, TPS Avia – a company controlled by Alexander Ponomarenko, Arkady Rotenberg and Alexander Skorobogatko – won a competitive tender to develop Sheremetyevo International Airport’s northern area, including a new passenger terminal, a new freight terminal, a refuelling area and a tunnel linking the passenger terminal to three others terminals. In February 2016, TPS Avia combined its assets with Sheremetyevo Airport and committed to invest US$840 million to upgrade and expand the airport's infrastructure – as a result TPS Avia secured 68% stake in Sheremetyevo Airport; this infrastructure project, called the Long-Term Development Plan, aims to increase airport’s capacity to 80 million passengers a year by 2026. Sheremetyevo International Airport was the official airport of the 2018 FIFA World Cup.
During the tournament, the airport observed a 16% increase in landing operations and an 11% increase in passenger traffic. In late 2018, SVO enacted a series of changes to its flight traffic. Rossiya Airlines announced the transfer of its flights from Vnukovo Airport to Sheremetyevo International Airport starting October 28, 2018. Rossiya Airlines is owned by Aeroflot. British Airways launched direct flights from London Heathrow to Sheremetyevo International Airport on the same day. Syrian airline Cham Wings Airlines began direct flights from Damascus to SVO in November of 2018 as well. In 2019, the Russian Federal Security Service began testing an automated passport control system at SVO; this system relies on biometric data and foreign passport recognition to allow Russian passengers to move through border control with fewer movement restrictions. If a success, the FSB may implement this system in other Russian airports. In 2018, Sheremetyevo International Airport has been recognized for the best customer service in the busiest airports in Europe category by ACI's global Airport
Incheon International Airport
Incheon International Airport is the largest airport in South Korea, the primary airport serving the Seoul Capital Area, one of the largest and busiest airports in the world. Since 2005, it has been rated the best airport worldwide by Airports Council International every year, it is rated as the world's cleanest airport and the world's best international transit airport by Skytrax. The airport has a golf course, private sleeping rooms, an ice skating rink, a casino, indoor gardens, a Museum of Korean Culture. Airport authorities claim that average departure and arrival takes 19 minutes and 12 minutes as compared to worldwide average of 60 minutes and 45 minutes ranking it among the fastest airports in the world for customs processing, its duty-free shopping mall has been rated the world's best for three years in a row in 2013 by Business Traveller. Incheon International Airport claims that it has only a 0.0001% baggage mishandling rate. The airport opened for business on March 29, 2001 to replace the older Gimpo International Airport, which now serves domestic destinations and shuttle flights to several East Asian metropolitan areas including Tokyo, Beijing and Taipei.
Incheon International Airport is located west of Incheon's city center, on an artificially created piece of land between Yeongjong and Yongyu Islands. The two islands were separated by shallow sea; that area between the two islands was reclaimed for the construction project connecting the once separate Yeongjong and Yongyu islands. The reclaimed area as well as the two islands are all part of Jung-gu, an administrative district of Incheon; the airport holds a record of being ranked the Best Airport Worldwide for 11 consecutive years by the Airports Council International's Airport Service Quality Award from 2005 to 2016, has been rated the world's best among airports of its size and region since 2012 due to the institution's decision to discontinue the Best Airport Worldwide category. Incheon International Airport's terminal has 111 boarding gates altogether, with 44 in Terminal 1, 30 in Concourse A, 37 in Terminal 2; the airport was constructed to share the demand for air transport in the 21st century and to serve as a hub airport in Northeast Asia.
After the Seoul Olympics of 1988, international air traffic to Korea increased. In the 1990s, it became apparent that Gimpo International Airport could not cope with the increase in air traffic. To reduce the load on Gimpo International Airport, the government decided to build a new airport; the new airport was planned to be located in Cheongju, 124 km from Seoul, but due to its distance, it was opposed by Seoul and Gyeonggi citizens. Hwaseong was the other choice, but it was rejected due to similar reasons; the area chosen was Incheon. In November 1992, the construction of the Incheon airport began on reclaimed land between Yeongjong Island and Youngyu Island, took eight years to finish, with an additional six months for testing. Completion was scheduled for 1997 but delayed due to the economic crisis; the airport was opened on March 29, 2001. On 15 November 2006, the Airbus A380 landed at the airport as part of the first leg of its certification trip. Tests on the runways and ramps showed that the airport could handle the aircraft.
To further upgrade service and major Korean logistics firm Hanjin Corporation agreed on January 10, 2008 to build Yeongjong Medical Centre, completed in 2012. This hospital serves nearby residents and some of the 30,000 medical tourists who come to Korea annually. Located 48 km west of Seoul, the capital and the largest city of South Korea, Incheon International Airport is the main hub for Korean Air, Asiana Airlines, Jeju Air, Polar Air Cargo; the airport serves as a hub for international civilian air transportation and cargo traffic in East Asia. In 2016, the Incheon International Airport was the fifth busiest airport in the world and third in Asia by cargo traffic, 19th in the world and eighth in Asia by passenger traffic. In 2016, the airport served a total of 57,849,814 passengers; the airport opened for business in early 2001 to replace the older Gimpo International Airport, which now serves domestic destinations plus shuttle flights to alternate airports in China and Taiwan. The airport was planned to be built in three phases, incrementally increasing airport capacity as the demand grew.
This was changed, however, to four phases. In Phase 1, the airport had a capacity of 30 million passengers annually, a cargo capacity of 1.7 million metric tonnes annually. In this phase, a passenger terminal with a floor space of 496,000 square metres, two parallel runways, a control tower, an administrative building, a transportation centre, integrated operations centre, three cargo terminals, international business centre, a government office building were constructed. Phase 2 construction began in 2002, was expected to be completed in December 2008. However, in an attempt to have the airport ready for the 2008 Beijing Olympics, which took place in August 2008, the schedule was modified, Phase 2 construction was completed on 20 June 2008. During this construction phase, a third parallel 4,000-metre-long runway and a 13-hectare cargo terminal area were added. A 16.5-hectare concourse connected to the main passenger building via two par
Sochi International Airport
Sochi International Airport is an airport located in Adler District of the resort city of Sochi, on the coast of the Black Sea in the federal subject of Krasnodar Krai, Russia. Sochi International Airport is among the ten largest Russian airports, with an annual passenger turnover of 5.2 million. The airport is run by an international joint venture of Basic Element group and Changi Airports International; the airport has been recognized as the best regional airport at the 3rd annual forum "Development of Russia and CIS airports – 2013", held by Adam Smith Conference. Sochi International Airport was the main gateway during the 22nd Olympic Winter Games, it served over 350,000 passengers on February 1–28, 2014. Over 2,800 tons of luggage was handled during the Olympic period; the original airfield was constructed to protect Russia's Black Sea coast during World War II. By order of the Chief of the Office of Civil Aviation, the site became an established airport on 23 November 1945. In 1956, the first terminal building and the airstrip runway-1 were built.
35,000 passengers and 1000 tons of cargo passed through the airport in 1957. From 1960 to 1965, passenger and baggage halls, a 200-room hotel, radio navigation and landing systems were all added to the airport as passenger traffic increased; the Order of Red Banner of Labor was awarded to the airport in August 1966 for its high performance. Passenger traffic went from 902,000 embarkations in 1965 to more than 2.3 million in 1990. From its opening in 1957 to today, the airport has served more than 60 million passengers. Scheduled international departures and arrivals began in 1981; the airport expanded to include flights to the Middle East and Western Europe. The international section of Sochi's terminal is small. President Vladimir Putin removed Sochi International Airport from the list of strategic enterprises on 3 May 2006, superseding its previous status under Decree No.1009 of 4 August 2004. Sochi International Airport was privatized in 2006 after Federal Property Fund held an auction to sell 100% shares of the airport.
"Strategy-South", a company affiliated with Basic Element group won an auction to acquire the airport for 5.5 billion rubles. The airport in Sochi became the fourth airport in southern Russia, among the ones in Krasnodar and Gelendzhik, operated by the Russian Asian Investment Company and "Airports of South". In 2007, Basic Element group established Basel Aero, a holding company that runs its airport business and operates all four airports. Sochi International Airport, under renovation, opened its doors to first passengers in 2010, it was further upgraded to meet the requirements of the International Olympic Committee as the gateway of the 22nd Olympic Winter Games. Basic Element, together with Russia's largest bank Sberbank and Changi Airports International, operator of the Singapore airport, established a joint venture to manage airports in Krasnodar region in 2012. Under the agreement, Basic Element has 50% plus one share in the JV, Sberbank's stake is 20% minus one share while Changi Airports International holds 30%.
In 2007–2013 Basic Element spent over 14 billion rubles to the airport's revamp. A modernized airport's building features a 65,000-sq.m terminal with an advanced 450-m long boarding gallery adjacent to the airport, 10 boarding bridges ensuring a comfortable access to the aircraft, a 4,000-sq.m VIP Terminal with the handling capacity of 80 passengers per hour that hosted IOC delegates and other high-profile guests at the Winter Olympics. New Zealand minted coins in 2010 as part of the'Olympic capitals' collection, placed a picture of a plane taking off from the Sochi airport on the "tails" of a new silver dollar coin Sochi International Airport has two artificial runways; the platform and parking lot have a total area of 218 square meters, with spaces for more than 1000 cars. Because of the presence of natural obstacles to the north and north-east of the airport, take off and landing are only possible on the sea side of the facility; the airport authority plans to extend the runway up to 3.5 km, with a portion overlapping the Mzymta River at a width of 300 m.
The Sochi airport is certificated by Aviation Register of the MAC for its suitability for international flights. It has the ability to receive the following aircraft types: Airbus A310, Airbus A319, Airbus A320, Boeing 727, Boeing 737, Boeing 757, Boeing 767, Bombardier CRJ 200, Fokker 70, IL-62, IL-76, IL-86, IL-96, Tu-134, Tu-144, Tu-154, Tu-204, Yak-40, Yak-42 and other planes III and IV classes. Since 2007 the airport takes aircraft of all types; the capacity of the airport complex is 750 passengers per hour/ 2500 passengers per day. The new terminal building was built from 1989–2007, it is one of the largest in Russia. The airport has 440 meters of corridor space and 10 boarding bridges for boarding and deplaning passengers; the airport received extensive renovations in anticipation of the 2014 Winter Olympics. On 20 November 2006, the airport was auctioned to Oleg Deripaska's Basic Element group for 5.5 billion roubles. Deripaska is a member of the committee organizing Sochi's bid for the Winter Olympics.
The Sochi Airport railway station is located directly next to