|Headquarters||Bombay House, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India|
|Revenue||US$100.4 billion (2017)|
|Total assets||US$126 billion (2017)|
Number of employees
|Subsidiaries||List of subsidiaries|
Tata Group (//) is an Indian multinational conglomerate holding company headquartered in Mumbai, Maharashtra. Founded in 1868 by Jamshedji Tata, the company gained international recognition after purchasing several global companies, beginning with Tetley in 2000, recorded as "the biggest acquisition in Indian corporate history." One of India's largest conglomerates, Tata Group is owned by Tata Sons, a registered charity.
Each Tata company operates independently under the guidance and supervision of its own board of directors and shareholders. There are 29 publicly listed Tata enterprises with a combined market capitalisation of about $151.62 billion as of March 1, 2018. Significant Tata companies and subsidiaries include Tata Steel, Tata Motors, Jaguar Land Rover with its marques Jaguar and Land Rover, Tata Consultancy Services, Tata Power, Tata Chemicals (including Tata Swach), Tata Global Beverages, Tata Coffee, Tata Teleservices, Titan, Tata Communications, and The Indian Hotels Company Limited (Taj Hotels).
- 1 Chairman
- 2 Subsidiaries
- 3 Philanthropy
- 4 Controversies and criticisms
- 5 2016 fire at headquarters
- 6 See also
- 7 References
- 8 External links
The Chairman of Tata Sons is usually the Chairman of the Tata Group.
- Jamsetji Nusserwanji Tata (1868–1904)
- Sir Dorab Tata (1904–1932)
- Nowroji Saklatwala (1932–1938)
- JRD Tata (1938–1991)
- Ratan Tata (1991–2012)
- Cyrus Pallonji Mistry (2012–2016)
- Ratan Tata (2016–2017)
- Natarajan Chandrasekaran (2017–present)
This section lists the Tata companies and details their business:
- Casa Décor
- Eight O'Clock Coffee
- Fastrack, youth fashion brand
- Himalayan, mineral water brand
- Infiniti Retail (Cromā)
- Landmark Bookstores
- Tata Ceramics
- Tata Coffee
- Tata Global Beverages, the world's second largest manufacturer of packaged tea and tea products
- Tata Industries
- Tata International Ltd.
- Tata Refractories
- Tata Salt
- Tata Sky
- Tata Starbucks, a 50:50 joint venture company, owned by Starbucks Corporation and Tata Global Beverages
- Tata Swach
- Tata Zoya
- Titan Eye+, optical stores from Titan Industries
- Titan Industries
- Voltas, consumer electronics company
- Hooghly Met Coke and Power Company
- Jamshedpur Utilities and Services Company
- Powerlinks Transmission
- Tata Petrodyne
- Tata Power, one of the largest private sector power companies
- Tata Power Delhi Distribution Ltd (formerly known as North Delhi Power Ltd)
- Tata Power Solar, started as a joint venture between Tata Power and BP Solar, now a wholly owned company
- Tata Power Trading
- Tata Projects
- Hispano Carrocera
- TAL Manufacturing Solutions
- TASL (Tata Advanced Systems Limited)
- Tata Advanced Materials
- Tata Advanced Systems
- Tata AutoComp Systems Limited (TACO)
- Tata Consulting Engineers Limited
- Tata Marcopolo
- Tata Cummins
- Tata Motors, manufacturer of commercial vehicles (largest in India) and passenger cars
- Tata Motors European Technical Centre
- Tata Petrodyne
- Tata Precision Industries
- Tata Projects
- Tata Technologies Limited
- Telco Construction Equipment
- Telcon Construction Equipment
- Voltas Global Engineering Centre
Information systems and communications
- CMC Limited
- Computational Research Laboratories
- Nelito Systems
- Tata Business Support Services
- Tata Communications
- Tata Consultancy Services Ltd. (TCS), one of the world's largest IT services companies
- Tata DoCoMo
- Tata Elxsi
- Tata Interactive Systems
- Tata Teleservices
- Tatanet, managed connectivity and VSAT service provider
- VSNL International Canada
- Indicash ATM
- Air Asia India, TATA joint venture with Air Asia
- Drive India Enterprise Solutions
- e-Nxt Financials Ltd.
- The Gateway Hotels & Resorts
- Ginger Hotels
- The Indian Hotels Company
- Roots Corporation
- Taj Hotels
- Tata Advanced Systems Limited
- Tata Africa Holdings
- Tata AG
- TATA AIA Life Insurance
- TATA AIG General Insurance
- Tata Asset Management
- Tata AutoComp Systems
- Tata Capital
- Tata Financial Services
- Tata Housing Development Company Ltd. (THDC)
- Tata Industrial Services
- Tata Interactive Systems
- Tata International AG
- Tata Investment Corporation
- Tata Limited
- Tata NYK
- Tata Quality Management Services
- Tata Realty and Infrastructure Limited
- Tata Services
- Tata Strategic Management Group
- TKM Global, Logistics and Supply Chain
- Vivanta By Taj
- February 2000 – Tetley Tea Company, $407 million
- March 2004 – Daewoo Commercial Vehicle Company, $102 million
- August 2004 – NatSteel's Steel business, $292 million
- November 2004 – Tyco Global Network, $130 million
- July 2005 – Teleglobe International Holdings, $239 million
- October 2005 – Good Earth Corporation
- December 2005 – Millennium Steel, Thailand, $165 million
- December 2005 – Brunner Mond Chemicals, $10 million
- June 2006 – Eight O'Clock Coffee, $220 million
- November 2006 – Ritz Carlton Boston, $170 million
- January 2007 – Corus Group, $12 billion
- March 2007 – PT Kaltim Prima Coal (KPC) (Bumi Resources), $1.1 billion
- April 2007 – Campton Place Hotel, San Francisco, $60 million
- January 2008 – Imacid Chemical Company, Morocco
- February 2008 – General Chemical Industrial Products, $1 billion
- March 2008 – Jaguar Cars and Land Rover, $2.3 billion
- March 2008 – Serviplem SA, Spain
- April 2008 – Comoplesa Lebrero SA, Spain
- May 2008 – Piaggio Aero Industries S.p.A., Italy - Sold Off in 2015
- June 2008 – China Enterprise Communications, China
- October 2008 – Miljo Grenland / Innovasjon, Norway
- April 2010 - Hewitt Robins International, United Kingdom
- July 2013 - Alti SA, France
- December 2014 - Energy Products Limited, India
- June 2016 - Welspun Renewables Energy, India
- May 2018 - Bhushan Power and Steel, India
Tata Group has helped establish and finance numerous research, educational and cultural institutes in India, and received the Carnegie Medal of Philanthropy. Some of the institutes established by the Tata Group are:
- The Energy and Resources Institute (formerly known as Tata Energy and Research Institute), a non-governmental research institute
- The JRD Tata Ecotechnology Centre
- National Centre for Performing Arts
- Tata Center for Technology & Design at Massachusetts Institute of Technology
- Tata Centre for Technology & Design at IIT Bombay
- Tata Cricket Academy
- Tata Football Academy
- Tata Institute of Social Sciences
- Tata Management Training Centre
- Tata Medical Center, inaugurated on 16 May 2011 by Ratan Tata
- Tata Memorial Hospital
- Tata Cancer Hospital
- Tata Trusts, a group of philanthropic organisations run by the head of the business conglomerate Tata Sons
In 2010, Tata Group donated ₹ 2.20 billion ($50 million) to the Harvard Business School (HBS) to build an academic and a residential building for executive education programmes on the institute's campus in Boston, Massachusetts, now Tata Hall, which is the largest endowment received by HBS from an international donor.
Controversies and criticisms
The Tata Group has also attracted several controversies and criticisms, including the following.
The Kerala Government filed an affidavit in the high court saying that Tata Tea had 'grabbed' forest land of 3,000 acres (12 km2) at Munnar. The Tatas said they possessed 58,741.82 acres (237.7197 km2) of land, which they are allowed to retain under the Kannan Devan Hill (Resumption of Lands) Act, 1971, and there was a shortage of 278.23 hectares in that. The Chief Minister of Kerala V.S. Achuthanandan, who vowed to evict all on government land in Munnar, formed a special squad for the Munnar land takeover mission and started acquiring back properties. However, later he had to abort the mission as there were many influential land grabbers and faced opposition from his own party.
On 2 January 2006, policemen at Kalinganagar, Odisha, opened fire at a crowd of tribal villagers. The villagers were protesting the construction of a compound wall on land historically owned by them, for a Tata steel plant. Some of the corpses were returned to the families in a mutilated condition. When pushed for comment, TATA officials said the incident was unfortunate but that it would continue with its plans to set up the plant.
Supplies to Burma's military regime
Tata Motors reported that deals to supply hardware and automobiles to Burma's military junta had come in for criticism from human rights and democracy activists. In December 2006, Gen. Thura Shwe Mann, Myanmar's chief of general staff visited the Tata Motors plant in Pune. In 2009, TATA Motors announced that it would press ahead with plans to manufacture trucks in Myanmar.
Land acquisition in Singur
The Singur controversy in West Bengal led to further questions over Tata's social record, with protests by locals and political parties (though the involvement of Mamata Banerjee's party was widely criticised as an act for political gains) over the forced acquisition, eviction and inadequate compensation to those farmers displaced for the Tata Nano plant. As the protests grew, and despite having the support of the Communist Party of India (Marxist) state government, Tata eventually pulled the project out of West Bengal, citing safety concerns. The Singur controversy was one of the few occasions when Ratan Tata was forced to publicly address criticisms and concerns on any environmental or social issue. Ratan Tata subsequently embraced Narendra Modi, the then Chief Minister of Gujarat, who quickly made land available for the Nano project.
In a historic judgement on Aug 31 2016, the Honorable Supreme Court of India set aside the land acquisition by the West Bengal Government in 2006 to facilitate Tata Motors to set up its Nano plant, and directed the West Bengal government to take possession of the land and distribute it to the land owners within 12 weeks.
Dhamra Port, Odisha
The Dhamra port, a venture between Tata Steel and Larsen & Toubro, has come in for criticism for its proximity to the Gahirmatha Sanctuary and Bhitarkanika National Park, from Indian and international organisations, including Greenpeace. Gahirmatha Beach is one of the world's largest mass nesting sites for the Olive Ridley Turtle, and Bhitarkanika is a designated Ramsar site and India's second largest mangrove forest. TATA officials have denied that the port poses an ecological threat, and stated that mitigation measures are being employed with the advice of the IUCN. On the other hand, conservation organisations, including Greenpeace, have pointed out that no proper environment impact analysis has been done for the project, which has undergone changes in size and specifications since it was first proposed, and say that the port could interfere with mass nesting at the Gahirmtha beaches and the ecology of the Bitharkanika mangrove forest.
Soda extraction plant in Tanzania
Tata group, along with a Tanzanian company, joined forces to build a soda ash extraction plant in Tanzania. Environmental activists oppose the plant because it would be near Lake Natron, and it has a very high chance of affecting the lake's ecosystem and its neighbouring dwellers.
It could also jeopardise the Lesser Flamingo birds there, which are already endangered. Lake Natron is where two-thirds of Lesser Flamingos reproduce. Producing soda ash involves drawing out salt water from the lake, and then disposing the water back to the lake. This process could interrupt the chemical makeup of the lake. 22 African nations are against the creation of the project and have signed a petition to stop its construction.
Data and intellectual property theft
In April 2016, a U.S. Federal Grand Jury awarded Epic Systems a $940 million judgement against Tata Consultancy Services and Tata America International Corp. Filed 31 October 2014; the suit charged that "6,477 unauthorized downloads could be used to enhance Tata's competing product, Med Mantra." In 2017, U.S. District Court Judge William Conley reduced the Award to $420 million; the company states that the judgement is also being appealed, as "not supported by evidence presented during the trial and a strong appeal can be made to superior court to fully set aside the jury verdict.”
2018 NCLT verdict
In July 2018, the National Company Law Tribunal (NCLT), which "adjudicates issues relating to Indian companies," issued a verdict in the company's favor on charges of mismanagement leveled in 2016 by ousted chairman, Cyrus Mistry.
2016 fire at headquarters
- Pallonji Mistry
- Noel Tata
- Sir Dorabji Tata and Allied Trusts
- Tata Communications
- Tata Consultancy Services
- Make in India
- Make in Maharashtra
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- Judy Newman (5 April 2016). "Jury trial begins in Epic Systems Corp. lawsuit against India's Tata Consultancy". Wisconsin State Journal. Archived from the original on 16 April 2016. Retrieved 16 April 2016.
According to the 40-page complaint, Tata employees fraudulently accessed Epic documents and downloaded at least 6,477 of them, containing information that could be used to benefit Tata’s own health care software, Med Mantra.
- Kyle Murphy, PhD (11 April 2016). "Epic Systems Taking TCS to Court over Theft of Trade Secrets". EHR Intelligence. Archived from the original on 16 April 2016. Retrieved 16 April 2016.
[T]he documents downloaded by TCS personnel included, among other things, documents detailing over twenty years of development of Epic’s proprietary software and database systems, including programming rules and processes developed to produce optimal functionality of Epic’s software; documents that decode the operation of its source code that would otherwise be unusable to those outside of Epic; and information regarding Epic’s system capabilities and functions, including procedures for transferring data between customer environments, rules related to information collection, methods for limiting access to patient records, and processes for converting customer data, all of which reveal decades of work with its customers to determine the functionality desirable or required for Epic to provide successful products to those customers.
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