Tel Aviv is the second most populous city in Israel—after Jerusalem—and the most populous city in the conurbation of Gush Dan, Israel's largest metropolitan area. Located on the country's Mediterranean coastline and with a population of 443,939, it is the economic and technological center of the country. Tel Aviv is governed by the Tel Aviv-Yafo Municipality, headed by Mayor Ron Huldai, is home to many foreign embassies, it is ranked 25th in the Global Financial Centres Index. Tel Aviv has the third- or fourth-largest economy and the largest economy per capita in the Middle East; the city has the 31st highest cost of living in the world. Tel Aviv receives over 2.5 million international visitors annually. A "party capital" in the Middle East, it has 24-hour culture. Tel Aviv is home to Tel Aviv University, the largest university in the country with more than 30,000 students; the city was founded in 1909 by the Yishuv as a modern housing estate on the outskirts of the ancient port city of Jaffa part of the Jerusalem province of Ottoman Syria.
It was at first called'Ahuzat Bayit', a name changed the following year to'Tel Aviv'. Its name means "Ancient Hill of Spring". Other Jewish suburbs of Jaffa established outside Jaffa's Old City before Tel Aviv became part of Tel Aviv, the oldest among them being Neve Tzedek. Immigration by Jewish refugees meant that the growth of Tel Aviv soon outpaced that of Jaffa, which had a majority Arab population at the time. Tel Aviv and Jaffa were merged into a single municipality in 1950, two years after the Israeli Declaration of Independence, proclaimed in the city. Tel Aviv's White City, designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2003, comprises the world's largest concentration of International Style buildings, including Bauhaus and other related modernist architectural styles. Tel Aviv is the Hebrew title of Theodor Herzl's Altneuland, translated from German by Nahum Sokolow. Sokolow had adopted the name of a Mesopotamian site near the city of Babylon mentioned in Ezekiel: "Then I came to them of the captivity at Tel Aviv, that lived by the river Chebar, to where they lived.
The name was chosen in 1910 from several suggestions, including "Herzliya". It was found fitting. Aviv is Hebrew for "spring", symbolizing renewal, tel is a man-made mound accumulating layers of civilization built one over the other and symbolizing the ancient. Although founded in 1909 as a small settlement on the sand dunes north of Jaffa, Tel Aviv was envisaged as a future city from the start, its founders hoped that in contrast to what they perceived as the squalid and unsanitary conditions of neighbouring Arab towns, Tel Aviv was to be a clean and modern city, inspired by the European cities of Warsaw and Odessa. The marketing pamphlets advocating for its establishment in 1906, wrote: In this city we will build the streets so they have roads and sidewalks and electric lights; every house will have water from wells that will flow through pipes as in every modern European city, sewerage pipes will be installed for the health of the city and its residents. Jaffa, now a part of Tel Aviv, was an important port city in the region for millennia.
Archaeological evidence shows signs of human settlement there starting in 7,500 BC. Its natural harbour has been used since the Bronze Age. By the time Tel Aviv was founded as a separate city during Ottoman rule of the region, Jaffa had been ruled by the Canaanites, Philistines, Assyrians, Persians, Ptolemies, Hasmoneans, Byzantines, the early Islamic caliphates, Crusaders and Mamluks before coming under Ottoman rule in 1515, it had been fought over numerous times. The city is mentioned in ancient Egyptian documents, as well as the Hebrew Bible. During the First Aliyah in the 1880s, when Jewish immigrants began arriving in the region in significant numbers, new neighborhoods were founded outside Jaffa on the current territory of Tel Aviv; the first was Neve Tzedek, founded by Mizrahi Jews due to overcrowding in Jaffa and built on lands owned by Aharon Chelouche. Other neighborhoods were Neve Shalom, Yafa Nof, Ohel Moshe, Kerem HaTeimanim, others. Once Tel Aviv received city status in the 1920s, those neighborhoods joined the newly formed municipality, now becoming separated from Jaffa.
The Second Aliyah led to further expansion. In 1906, a group of Jews, among them residents of Jaffa, followed the initiative of Akiva Aryeh Weiss and banded together to form the Ahuzat Bayit society; the society's goal was to form a "Hebrew urban centre in a healthy environment, planned according to the rules of aesthetics and modern hygiene." The urban planning for the new city was influenced by the Garden city movement. The first 60 plots were purchased in Kerem Djebali near Jaffa by Jacobus Kann, a Dutch citizen, who registered them in his name to circumvent the Turkish prohibition on Jewish land acquisition. Meir Dizengoff Tel Aviv's first mayor joined the Ahuzat Bayit society, his vision for Tel Aviv involved peaceful co-existence with Arabs. On 11 April 1909, 66 Jewish families gathered on a desolate sand dune to parcel out the land by lottery using seashells; this gathering is considered the official date of the establishment of Tel Aviv. The lottery was organised by president of the building society.
Weiss collected 120
An aircraft registration is a code unique to a single aircraft, required by international convention to be marked on the exterior of every civil aircraft. The registration indicates the aircraft's country of registration, functions much like an automobile license plate; this code must appear in its Certificate of Registration, issued by the relevant National Aviation Authority. An aircraft can only have one registration, in one jurisdiction, though it is changeable over the life of the aircraft. In accordance with the Convention on International Civil Aviation, all civil aircraft must be registered with a national aviation authority using procedures set by each country; every country those not party to the Chicago Convention, has an NAA whose functions include the registration of civil aircraft. An aircraft can only be registered once, at a time; the NAA allocates a unique alphanumeric string to identify the aircraft, which indicates the nationality of the aircraft, provides a legal document called a Certificate of Registration, one of the documents which must be carried when the aircraft is in operation.
The registration identifier must be displayed prominently on the aircraft. Most countries require the registration identifier to be imprinted on a permanent fireproof plate mounted on the fuselage in case of a post-fire/post-crash aircraft accident investigation. Most nations' military aircraft use tail codes and serial numbers. Military aircraft most are not assigned civil registration codes. However, government-owned non-military civil aircraft are assigned civil registrations. Although each aircraft registration identifier is unique, some countries allow it to be re-used when the aircraft has been sold, destroyed or retired. For example, N3794N is assigned to a Mooney M20F, it had been assigned to a Beechcraft Bonanza. Note that an individual aircraft may be assigned different registrations during its existence; this can be because the aircraft changes ownership, jurisdiction of registration, or in some cases for vanity reasons. Most aircraft are registered in the jurisdiction in which the carrier is resident or based, may enjoy preferential rights or privileges as a flag carrier for international operations.
Carriers in emerging markets may be required to register aircraft in an offshore jurisdiction where they are leased or purchased but financed by banks in major onshore financial centres. The financing institution may be reluctant to allow the aircraft to be registered in the carrier's home country, the carrier is reluctant to have the aircraft registered in the financier's jurisdiction either because of personal or political reasons, or because they fear spurious lawsuits and potential arrest of the aircraft; the first use of aircraft registrations was based on the radio callsigns allocated at the London International Radiotelegraphic Conference in 1913. The format was a single letter prefix followed by four other letters; the major nations operating aircraft were allocated a single letter prefix. Smaller countries had to share a single letter prefix, but were allocated exclusive use of the first letter of the suffix; this was modified by agreement by the International Bureau at Berne and published on April 23, 1913.
Although initial allocations were not for aircraft but for any radio user, the International Air Navigation Convention held in Paris in 1919 made allocations for aircraft registrations, based on the 1913 callsign list. The agreement stipulated that the nationality marks were to be followed by a hyphen a group of four letters that must include a vowel; this system operated until the adoption of the revised system in 1928. The International Radiotelegraph Convention at Washington in 1927 revised the list of markings; these were adopted from 1928 and are the basis of the used registrations. The markings have been amended and added to over the years, the allocations and standards have since 1947 been managed by the International Civil Aviation Organization. Article 20 of the Convention on International Civil Aviation, signed in 1944, requires that all aircraft engaged in international air navigation bears its appropriate nationality and registration marks. Upon registration, the aircraft receives its unique "registration", which must be displayed prominently on the aircraft.
Annex 7 to the Chicago Convention describes the definitions and measurement of nationality and registration marks. The aircraft registration is made up of a prefix selected from the country's callsign prefix allocated by the International Telecommunication Union and the registration suffix. Depending on the country of registration, this suffix is a numeric or alphanumeric code, consists of one to five characters. A supplement to Annex 7 provides an updated list of approved nationality and common marks used by various countries. While the Chicago convention sets out the country-specific prefixes used in registration marks, makes provision for the ways they are used in international civil aviation and displayed on aircraft, individual countries make further
The Ilyushin Il-86 is a short- to medium-range wide-body jet airliner. It was the world's second four-engined wide-body. Designed and tested by the Ilyushin design bureau in the 1970s, it was certified by the Soviet aircraft industry and marketed by the USSR; the Il-86 was the penultimate Soviet-era airliner to be designed. Developed during the Leonid Brezhnev era, marked by stagnation in many sectors of Soviet industry, the Il-86 used engines more typical of the 1960s, spent a decade in development, failed to enter service in time for the Moscow Olympics, as was intended; the type was used by Aeroflot and successor post-Soviet airlines and only three of the total 106 examples were exported. In service, it gained recognition as a safe and reliable model with no fatal incidents during three decades of passenger-carrying operations. At the beginning of 2012, only four Il-86s remained in service, all with the Russian Air Force. In the mid-1960s, the United States and Western Europe planned airliners seating twice the then-maximum of some 200 passengers.
They were known as airbuses at the time. The Soviet leadership wanted to match them with an aerobus. Alongside the propaganda motive, the USSR genuinely needed an aerobus. Aeroflot expected over 100 million passengers a year within a decade First to respond was OKB-153, the bureau led by Oleg Antonov, it proposed a 724-seat version of the An-22 airlifter. The project was promoted until 1969 with a 605-passenger interior, it did not go ahead due to fears that it would be old-fashioned and because the Kiev-based bureau was close to the deposed Nikita Khrushchev. Many airports had terminals too small for "aerobuses". In the West, the solution to this involved constructing greater airport capacity. By contrast, Soviet aviation research institutes addressed ways of increasing passenger throughput without the need for additional airport capacity. Many Soviet airports had surfaces too weak for "aerobuses"; the Soviet solution again favoured adapting aircraft to existing conditions, rather than reconstructing airports.
The aerobus thus had to match the ground loadings of existing airliners. This called for complex multi-wheel landing gear; the Soviet solution to the airport capacity issue involved passengers loading and unloading their own luggage into and from the aircraft. This was called "the luggage at hand system". Soviet aviation journalist Kim Bakshmi described it thus: "One arrives five minutes prior to departure, buys oneself a ticket on board the aircraft, hangs one's coat next to the seat and places one's bag or suitcase nearby.". Taking suitcases into the cabin, as in trains, was studied, but necessitated a 3 m fuselage extension with a 350-seat capacity. To avoid this, passengers were to deposit their luggage in underfloor compartments as they entered the airliner. Ideas similar to the "luggage at hand system" were addressed in the West. Airbus studied such an arrangement in the mid-1970s. Lockheed implemented it into the L-1011 TriStar in 1973 at the request of Pacific Southwest Airlines and also to suit potential Soviet buyers.
In October 1967, the Soviet government approved a Ministry of Civil Aviation specification for an aerobus. This called for 350 seats and a range of 3,600 km with a 40-tonne payload or 5,800 km/3,100 nmi with seats taken but no freight; the airliner had to operate from smaller airports 2,600 m runways. In the second half of the 1960s, OKB-240 was restoring positions lost during the Khrushchev era and was well placed to secure design of the aerobus; when the Soviet cabinet's defence industry committee promoted the Aeroflot specification on September 8, 1969 to a preliminary project, it entrusted it to Ilyushin. The bureau received specific operational requirements for the aerobus on February 22, 1970. In developing the concept, agreed, Ilyushin faced four challenges: configuration, powerplant and manufacturing capacity. Ilyushin began work on the aerobus in late 1969 by assessing the development potential of existing aircraft. An enlarged Il-62 would have had a 30-tonne payload, 259 seats and a 6.8 metre/22 ft longer fuselage: a virtual analogue of the Douglas DC-8 "Super Sixty" series.
Other proposed Il-62 modifications involved double-deck and "two fuselages side-by-side" developments. There was a project to "civilianise" the Il-76. From March 1970 the bureau developed all-new designs under the Il-86 designation. Instead of the "appropriate technology" approach of the Il-62, these designs were to have powered controls, complex high-lift devices and advanced automation which would reduce the number of flightdeck crew. An early avanproyekt was shown to the Soviet leadership at an exhibition of civil aviation innovations at Vnukovo-2 Airport near Moscow on May 17, 1971. A scale model with the designation of "Il-86" showed the "self-loading" concept with integral boarding stairs, below-deck luggage stores, below-deck midships galley, it had a twin-aisle interior with nine-abreast seating in a "3-3-3" layout. Ilyushin conside
Tatarstan Airlines Flight 363
Tatarstan Airlines Flight 363 was a scheduled domestic passenger flight, operated by Tatarstan Airlines on behalf of Ak Bars Aero, from Moscow to Kazan, Russia. On 17 November 2013, at 19:24 local time, the Boeing 737-500 crashed during an aborted landing at Kazan International Airport, killing all 44 passengers and 6 crew members on board. According to the official investigation report by the Interstate Aviation Committee, the crash was a result of pilot error, arising from a lack of skill to recover from an excessive nose-up attitude during a go-around procedure; the pilots’ deficiencies were caused by a problem with the airline's safety management and a lack of regulatory oversight. One member of the commission filed an alternative opinion report, claiming that the commission had ignored the possible malfunction of the aircraft's elevators' controls; the Boeing 737-53A, registration number VQ-BBN, had been in service for more than 23 years. It had been operated by seven airlines. Owned by AWAS from its manufacture, it was leased to Euralair, Air France, Uganda Airlines, Rio Sul, Blue Air, Bulgaria Air, Tatarstan Airlines.
The airframe had been involved in two prior incidents: While in service with Rio Sul, on 17 December 2001, the aircraft crashed about 70 metres short of the runway while landing at Tancredo Neves International Airport under adverse weather conditions, damaging its landing gear. All 108 passengers and crew on board survived. On 26 November 2012, the aircraft made an emergency landing in Kazan due to problems with cabin depressurization shortly after take off; the captain was 47-year-old Rustem Gabdrakhmanovich Salikhov, with the airline since 1992. He had 2,755 flying hours, including 2,509 hours on the Boeing 737; the first officer was 47-year-old Viktor Nikiforovich Gutsul, with the airline since 2008. He had 2,093 flying hours, including 1,943 of them on the Boeing 737. Flight 363 took off from Domodedovo International Airport in Moscow at 6:25 p.m. local time, destined for Kazan International Airport, some 800 kilometres east of Moscow. While on final approach to Kazan International Airport, the crew initiated a go-around due to an unstable approach but crashed onto the runway in a 75-degree-nose-down attitude, at a speed of 242 knots moments and exploded upon impact with the ground.
A second explosion occurred 40 seconds after impact. One of the airport's surveillance cameras caught the crash on video. All 44 passengers and 6 crew members were killed. High winds and cloudy conditions were reported at the airport at the time of the crash; the Kazan International Airport was kept closed for about 24 hours, serving only transit flights, before it was reopened on 18 November. The full list of the passengers and crew was published by the Ministry of Emergency Situations. Among those killed were Irek Minnikhanov, son of Tatarstan president Rustam Minnikhanov, as well as the head of Tatarstan's Federal Security Service regional office, Aleksandr Antonov; the IAC arrived at the site on 18 November. Both flight recorders, the flight data recorder and the cockpit voice recorder, were recovered from the wreckage; the Tatarstan Transport Prosecution Office has opened a criminal investigation into the crash. The American National Transportation Safety Board dispatched a team of investigators to the crash site.
On 19 November, Aksan Giniyatullin, the director of Tatarstan Airlines, declared that although the cockpit crew was experienced, the captain of the airliner may have lacked experience performing a go-around maneuver. Moments before the crash the pilot informed the control tower that the aircraft was not properly configured for landing and initiated a go-around, before plunging into the ground as if it had stalled. Investigators said the possible causes of the accident included technical malfunction as well as pilot error. On 22 November the British Air Accidents Investigation Branch announced they had joined the investigation and had dispatched investigators to Kazan. On 19 November 2013, the Investigation Board of the IAC reported the following preliminary details after recovering some information from the flight data recorder: Tatarstan Airlines Boeing 737–500 Accident Technical Investigation Board of IAC informs about preliminary results of flight data recorder information recovery. During the final approach the flight crew were unable to follow a standard landing pattern defined by the regulating documentation.
Having considered the aircraft is not lined-up properly relative to the runway, the crew reported to the ATC and started to go-around using the TOGA mode. One of the two autopilots, active during the final approach, has been switched off and the flight was being controlled manually; the engines reached thrust level close to full. The crew retracted the flaps from 30 degrees to 15 degrees position. Affected by the upturn moment generated by the engine thrust, the aircraft started to climb, reaching the pitch angle of about 25 degrees. Indicated airspeed has started to decrease; the crew retracted the landing gear. Since initiating the go-around maneuver up to this moment the crew did not perform control actions through the yoke. After the airspeed decreased from 150 to 125 knots, the crew started control actions through the yoke, pitching nose down, which has led to stopping climb starting descent and increase of the airspeed. Maximum angles of attack have
Kazan International Airport
Kazan International Airport is an airport located in Russia, around 25 km southeast of Kazan. It is the largest airport in Tatarstan, the 15th busiest airport in Russia. Kazan Airport served nearly 3.8 million citizens of the region. On 15 September 1979, Kazan 2 was completed. On 28 September 1984, Kazan 1 was shut down, Kazan 2 was renamed to Kazan Domestic Airport. On 21 February 1986, Kazan Airport gained international rank; this was a drastic announcement, because the USSR Council of Ministers only allowed its citizens to fly out of the USSR. In 1991, after the fall of the Soviet Union, the Tatarstan region separated from USSR's single Aeroflot airline and created Tatarstan Airlines; this airline didn't gain an efficient amount of investments in its 22 years of service, its operating license was terminated on 31 December 2013. On 26 October 1992, Kazan got its first international regular flight: Kazan - Istanbul - Kazan; this flight was operated by Turkish Airlines and 145 annual trips are made to and from Istanbul, making it the most popular international route.
In 2008, Tatarstan's president, Mintimer Shaimiev, after winning the bid for the 2013 Universiade Olympic Games, began creating a set of major reform projects of Kazan. Apart from repairing the streets, bringing in investments, integrating English language and improving the bus route system in Kazan, Shaimiev began to redesign Kazan's airport, he designed the blueprints for Terminal 1A, planned out the complete refining of the airport between 2008-2025. Shaimiev's successor and today's president of Tatarstan, Rustam Minnikhanov, used the blueprints, which were made in 2009, to begin the construction of Terminal 1A and a complete redesign of Terminal 1. First, a new 3700 meter runway was built, edge lights were added on both of the runways; this made it possible for the airport to operate 24/7. In 2012, a new airport fire station was built. In 2012 the construction of Terminal 1A began; that year, Terminal 1 began its own renovation. Terminal 1A was opened on 7 November 2012. Terminal 1 finished renovations on 22 June 2013.
Today, the new airport has seven conveyor belts. It has three separate duty-free shops, selling merchandise such as alcohol and cigarettes, chocolates, it offers popular brands such as Costa Coffee. The airport can sustain around three million passengers. Further expansions and the creation of Terminal 2 will occur before the 2018 FIFA World Cup. Following the Skytrax Airport and Airline Awards, Kazan Airport was nominated for 4 stars in 2014, was called Russia's and CIS's best airport. Thanks to the opening of new air routes and to the increase of flights in the existing ones, the Kazan Airport, at the beginning of the month of December 2017 reached the record of 2.5 million passengers transported in less than a year. Kazan International Airport is served by the following passenger airlines, all of which operate out of Terminal 1A: Tatarstan Airlines had its head office on the airport property. On 17 November 2013, Tatarstan Airlines Flight 363, a Boeing 737-500, operating for Tatarstan Airlines, crashed while attempting to land at the airport.
All 44 passengers and 6 crew members died. Investigations revealed the pilot had not completed his primary flight training, a revelation which led the Russia's Federal Air Transport Agency to revoke hundreds of pilots' licenses. List of the busiest airports in Russia List of the busiest airports in the former USSR Kazan International Airport official website
The Tupolev Tu-154 is a three-engine medium-range narrow-body airliner designed in the mid-1960s and manufactured by Tupolev. A workhorse of Soviet and Russian airlines for several decades, it carried half of all passengers flown by Aeroflot and its subsidiaries, remaining the standard domestic-route airliner of Russia and former Soviet states until the mid-2000s, it was exported to 17 non-Russian airlines and used as a head-of-state transport by the air forces of several countries. With a cruising speed of 850 kilometres per hour the Tu-154 is one of the fastest civilian aircraft in use and has a range of 5,280 kilometres. Capable of operating from unpaved and gravel airfields with only basic facilities, it was used in the extreme Arctic conditions of Russia's northern/eastern regions where other airliners were unable to operate. Designed for a 45,000 hour service life but capable of 80,000 hours with upgrades, it was expected to continue in service until 2016, although noise regulations have restricted flights to western Europe and other regions.
In January 2010 Russian flag carrier Aeroflot announced the retirement of its Tu-154 fleet after 40 years, with the last scheduled flight being Aeroflot Flight 736 from Ekaterinburg to Moscow on 31 December 2009. Since 1968 there have been 39 fatal incidents involving the Tu-154, most of which were caused either by factors unrelated to the aircraft, incorrect maintenance, or by its extensive use in demanding conditions. Few of the Tu-154 accidents appear to have involved technical failure; the Tu-154 was developed to meet Aeroflot's requirement to replace the jet-powered Tu-104 and the Antonov An-10 and Ilyushin Il-18 turboprops. The requirements called for either a payload capacity of 16–18 tonnes with a range of 2,850–4,000 kilometres while cruising at 900 km/h, or a payload of 5.8 tonnes with a range of 5,800–7,000 kilometres while cruising at 850 km/h. A takeoff distance of 2,600 metres at maximum takeoff weight was stipulated as a requirement. Conceptually similar to the British Hawker Siddeley Trident, which first flew in 1962, the American Boeing 727, which first flew in 1963, the medium-range Tu-154 was marketed by Tupolev at the same time as Ilyushin was marketing the long-range Ilyushin Il-62.
The Soviet Ministry of Aircraft Industry chose the Tu-154 as it incorporated the latest in Soviet aircraft design and best met Aeroflot's anticipated requirements for the 1970s and 1980s. The first project chief was Sergey Yeger. In 1975, the project lead role was turned over to Aleksandr S. Shengardt; the Tu-154 first flew on 4 October 1968. The first deliveries to Aeroflot were in 1970 with freight services beginning in May 1971 and passenger services in February 1972. There was still limited production of the 154M model as of January 2009 despite previous announcements of the end of production in 2006. 1025 Tu-154s have been built, 214 of which were still in service as of 14 December 2009. The last serial Tu-154 was delivered to the Russian Defense Ministry on 19 February 2013 from the Aviakor factory, equipped with upgraded avionics, a VIP interior and a communications suite; the factory has four unfinished hulls in its inventory which can be completed if new orders are received. The Tu-154 is powered by three rear-mounted low-bypass turbofan engines arranged to those of the Boeing 727, but it is larger than its American counterpart.
Both the 727 and the Tu-154 use an S-duct for the middle engine. The original model was equipped with Kuznetsov NK-8-2 engines, which were replaced with Soloviev D-30KU-154 in the Tu-154M. All Tu-154 aircraft models have a high thrust-to-weight-ratio which give excellent performance, at the expense of lower fuel efficiency; this became an important factor in decades as fuel costs grew. The flight deck is fitted with conventional dual yoke control columns. Flight control surfaces are hydraulically operated; the cabin of the Tu-154, although of the same six-abreast seating layout, gives the impression of an oval interior, with a lower ceiling than is common on Boeing and Airbus airliners. The passenger cabin accommodates 128 passengers in a two-class layout and 164 passengers in single-class layout, up to 180 passengers in high-density layout; the layout can be modified to what is called a winter version where some seats are taken out and a wardrobe is installed for passenger coats. The passenger doors are smaller than on its Airbus counterparts.
Luggage space in the overhead compartments is limited. Like the Tupolev Tu-134, the Tu-154 has a wing swept back at 35° at the quarter-chord line; the British Hawker Siddeley Trident has the same sweepback angle, while the Boeing 727 has a smaller sweepback angle of 32°. The wing has anhedral, a distinguishing feature of Russian low-wing airliners designed during this era. Most Western low-wing airliners such as the contemporary Boeing 727 have dihedral; the anhedral means that Russian airliners have poor lateral stability compared to their Western counterparts, but have weaker Dutch roll tendencies. Heavier than its predecessor Soviet-built airliner the Ilyushin Il-18, the Tu-154 was equipped with an oversized landing gear to reduce ground load, enabling it to operate from the same runways; the aircraft has two six-wheel main bogies fitted with large low-pressure tires that retract into pods extending from the trailing edges of the wings, plus a two-wheel noseg
Czech Airlines j.s.c. is the national airline of the Czech Republic. Its head office is on the grounds of 6th district Vokovice; the airline's hub is at Václav Havel Airport Prague. The company operates scheduled flights; the airline runs a frequent flyer programme called "OK Plus" in reference to the airline's IATA designation, as well as the term of approval. It is a member of the SkyTeam alliance. Smartwings owns 97.74% of the airline. Korean Air owned 44% of the airline, which it sold to Travel Service in October 2017. In summer season, ČSA flies to 50 destinations in Europe. Czech Airlines carried 2.26 million passengers in 2016, a 13% increase compared to 2015. Czech Airlines Technics is responsible for aircraft maintenance and Menzies Aviation is responsible for passenger and aircraft handling in Prague. ČSA is the fifth oldest still operating airline in the world, older are only Dutch KLM, Colombian Avianca, Australian Qantas, Soviet/Russian Aeroflot. It is the second airline to initiate successful jet airliner services and the first airline in the world to fly regular jet-only routes.
ČSA was founded on 6 October 1923, by the Czechoslovak government as ČSA Československé státní aerolinie. Twenty-three days its first transport flight took place, flying between Prague and Bratislava, it operated only domestic services until its first international flight from Prague to Bratislava and on to Zagreb in Yugoslavia in 1930. After the dismemberment of Czechoslovakia in 1939 with the country splitting up into three parts, the airline was terminated. Following a coup in February 1948, the Communist Party suspended some western European and Middle Eastern routes, gradually replaced much of the fleet with Soviet-built airliners, due to the embargo imposed by the West on the western-built aircraft spares and other equipment; the Ilyushin Il-14 was updated and built under licence in Czechoslovakia as the Avia-14. In 1950, ČSA became the world's first victim of a mass hijacking. Three Czechoslovak airliners flown to an American air base in Erding, near Munich, stirred the world on both sides of the "burnt through" Iron Curtain and the case intensified the Cold War between East and West overnight.
Three Douglas Dakota airliners landed in the morning of 24 March near Munich instead of at Prague: the first from Brno, at 08:20, the second from Moravská Ostrava at 08:40, the third one from Bratislava at 09:20. Two-thirds of the people on board were involuntary passengers who returned to Czechoslovakia; the Czechoslovak Communist government commissioned a'flight to freedom' book, stage play, film which celebrated the kidnapped returnees as heroes who had not allowed themselves to be swayed by promises of capitalist opulence. The non returnees who requested political asylum in West Germany were, on the other hand, proclaimed criminals and the Prague government vigorously requested their extradition – although in vain; the pilot from Brno was Josef Klesnil, a former Royal Air Force pilot with 311 squadron, who flew from Brno to Erding with a pistol at his head. In 1957 ČSA became the third of the world's airlines to fly jet services, taking delivery/putting in service the first Tupolev Tu-104A in 1957.
ČSA was the only airline other than Aeroflot to operate the Tu-104, the world's first successful jet airliner. The service operated by the Tu-104A from 1957 between Prague and Moscow was the first jet-only connection; the first transatlantic services started on 3 February 1962 with a flight to Havana, using a Bristol Britannia turboprop leased from Cubana de Aviación. CSA's transatlantic flights were code-shared with Cubana's own services to Prague, Cubana's crews provided initial training and assistance in the operation of the Britannias. From the late 1960s, CSA used a range of Soviet-built aircraft, modifications of them, for its extensive European and intercontinental services which totalled some 50 international and 15 domestic destinations; the Britannia was replaced with long-range Ilyushin Il-18D turboprops at this time, transatlantic routes were established to Montreal and New York City, besides Havana. Apart from the Il-18D, other aircraft in CSA's fleet included the short-range Tupolev Tu-134, the medium-range tri-jet airliner Tu-154, the long-range jet airliner Ilyushin Il-62.
As was the case in several other countries, the Il-62 was the first long-range jet airliner to be put into operation by CSA. The plane has a range of 10,300 kilometres and for some time was operated concurrently with the Il-18D. CSA operated a fleet of 21 Il-62s between 1969 and 1997 including 15 Il-62s and six Il-62Ms, 15 of which were registered under the OK designation and six being leased from Aeroflot. A CSA-registered Il-62 and three Il-62Ms were used as official Czech government transports between 1974 and 1996; the CSA Il-62 with call sign OK-DBF was lost in an unfortunate accident due to language misunderstanding between the crew and the control tower during a nighttime approach to Damascus in 1975. After absorbing the "heavier" part of the Slov-air operator and taking its Let L-410A Turbolet turboprop commuters into its fleet in the early 1970s, the ČSA partner Slov-air became the world's first airline whose captain, Ján Mičica, was slain at the controls by a hijacker, the ev