The National Gallery is an art museum in Trafalgar Square in the City of Westminster, in Central London. Founded in 1824, it houses a collection of over 2,300 paintings dating from the mid-13th century to 1900; the Gallery is an exempt charity, a non-departmental public body of the Department for Culture and Sport. Its collection belongs to the government on behalf of the British public, entry to the main collection is free of charge, it is among the most visited art museums in the world, after the Louvre, the British Museum, the Metropolitan Museum of Art. Unlike comparable museums in continental Europe, the National Gallery was not formed by nationalising an existing royal or princely art collection, it came into being when the British government bought 38 paintings from the heirs of John Julius Angerstein in 1824. After that initial purchase the Gallery was shaped by its early directors, notably Sir Charles Lock Eastlake, by private donations, which today account for two-thirds of the collection.
The collection is encyclopaedic in scope. It used to be claimed that this was one of the few national galleries that had all its works on permanent exhibition, but this is no longer the case; the present building, the third to house the National Gallery, was designed by William Wilkins from 1832 to 1838. Only the façade onto Trafalgar Square remains unchanged from this time, as the building has been expanded piecemeal throughout its history. Wilkins's building was criticised for the perceived weaknesses of its design and for its lack of space; the Sainsbury Wing, an extension to the west by Robert Venturi and Denise Scott Brown, is a notable example of Postmodernist architecture in Britain. The current Director of the National Gallery is Gabriele Finaldi; the late 18th century saw the nationalisation of royal or princely art collections across mainland Europe. The Bavarian royal collection opened to the public in 1779, that of the Medici in Florence around 1789, the Museum Français at the Louvre was formed out of the former French royal collection in 1793.
Great Britain, did not emulate the continental model, the British Royal Collection remains in the sovereign's possession today. In 1777 the British government had the opportunity to buy an art collection of international stature, when the descendants of Sir Robert Walpole put his collection up for sale; the MP John Wilkes argued for the government to buy this "invaluable treasure" and suggested that it be housed in "a noble gallery... to be built in the spacious garden of the British Museum" Nothing came of Wilkes's appeal and 20 years the collection was bought in its entirety by Catherine the Great. A plan to acquire 150 paintings from the Orléans collection, brought to London for sale in 1798 failed, despite the interest of both the King and the Prime Minister, Pitt the Younger; the twenty-five paintings from that collection now in the Gallery, including "NG1", arrived by a variety of routes. In 1799 the dealer Noel Desenfans offered a ready-made national collection to the British government.
This offer was declined and Bourgeois bequeathed the collection to his old school, Dulwich College, on his death. The collection opened in 1814 in Britain's first purpose-built public gallery, the Dulwich Picture Gallery; the Scottish dealer William Buchanan and the collector Joseph Count Truchsess, both formed art collections expressly as the basis for a future national collection, but their respective offers were declined. Following the Walpole sale many artists, including James Barry and John Flaxman, had made renewed calls for the establishment of a National Gallery, arguing that a British school of painting could only flourish if it had access to the canon of European painting; the British Institution, founded in 1805 by a group of aristocratic connoisseurs, attempted to address this situation. The members lent works to exhibitions that changed annually, while an art school was held in the summer months. However, as the paintings that were lent were mediocre, some artists resented the Institution and saw it as a racket for the gentry to increase the sale prices of their Old Master paintings.
One of the Institution's founding members, Sir George Beaumont, Bt, would play a major role in the National Gallery's foundation by offering a gift of 16 paintings. In 1823 another major art collection came on the market, assembled by the deceased John Julius Angerstein. Angerstein was a Russian-born émigré banker based in London. On 1 July 1823 George Agar Ellis, a Whig politician, proposed to the House of Commons that it purchase the collection; the appeal was given added impetus by Beaumont's offer, which came with two conditions: that the government buy Angerstein's collection, that a suitable building was to be found. The unexpected repayment of a war debt by Austria moved the government to buy Angerstein's collection, for £57,000; the National Gallery opened to the public on 10 May 1824, housed in Angerstein's former townhouse at No. 100 Pall Mall. Angerstein's paintings were joined in 1826 by those from Beaumont's collection, in 1831 by the Reverend
Maria Jane Balshaw CBE is director of the Tate art museums and galleries. The appointment was confirmed by the UK Prime Minister on 16 January 2017, making her the first female director of the Tate. Balshaw was the director of the Whitworth, University of Manchester and Manchester City Galleries, which includes Manchester Art Gallery and Gallery of Costume. Balshaw was Director of Culture for Manchester City Council; until May 2017. Balshaw is on the National Council of the Arts Council England On 12 June 2015, Balshaw was appointed a CBE in the Queen's birthday honours list for Services to the Arts. Born in Birmingham, Balshaw grew up in Northampton. After gaining a BA in English Literature and Cultural Studies at the University of Liverpool, she attended the University of Sussex, where she gained an MA in Critical Theory, followed by a DPhil in African American Visual and Literary Culture. Balshaw was appointed Lecturer in Cultural Studies at University College Northampton in 1993. In 1997, Balshaw joined the University of Birmingham as Research Fellow and Lecturer in Visual Culture.
In 2002, Balshaw left academia to become Director of Creative Partnerships in Birmingham. She worked for Peter Jenkinson OBE, National Director of Creative Partnerships and former West Midlands colleague where he had been founder director of the New Art Gallery, Walsall; as part of the newly formed Creative Partnerships, Balshaw was tasked with bringing arts organisations and artists into partnerships with schools. A role which taught Balshaw “a tremendous amount about how to inspire and cajole unlike partners into common goals”In 2004, Balshaw was selected as one of the inaugural fellows for the Clore Leadership programme Initiated by the Clore Duffield Foundation, the Programme is the UK's first cross-disciplinary leadership programme for the cultural and creative sector. Balshaw was successful in her application to join the scheme from over 400 other applicants. Since completing the year long course Balshaw has been appointed a member of the Strategic Advisory Board for the Clore Programme.
Upon completion of the Clore Leadership Programme, Balshaw acted as Regional Director of the West Midlands Creative Partnerships programme and worked for nine months as Director of External Relations and Development for ACE: West Midlands. In 2006, Balshaw was headhunted to become the Director of the Whitworth. Throughout her work at the Whitworth, Balshaw has featured a broad range of disciplines championing art from around the world in particular West and South African art and the work of female artists, she has been quoted as saying "We do have a lot of women artists on show at the Whitworth, but only because they’re good. That’s fair."Balshaw's appointment at the Whitworth made her the second female director in the history of the gallery. Margaret Pilkington being the only other female director from 1925–1945. In June 2017, Balshaw stepped down as Director of the Whitworth to become the first female Director of Tate. During her time as director at the Whitworth, Balshaw has been responsible for commissioning a wide range of exhibitions.
Some of the most notable include: Lynn Hershman Leeson – Autonomous Agents – a wide range of the artist's work – from the Roberta Breitmore series to videos from the 1980s and interactive installations that use the Internet and artificial intelligence software. Marina Abramović – Presents – As part of the Manchester International Festival – Abramovich stripped the Whitworth of its artworks and replaced it with fourteen performance artists including Kira O’Reilly’s and Ivan Civic. Subversive spaces – looking at the relationship between surrealism and contemporary art, this exhibition included work from Sarah Lucas, Douglas Gordon, Gregor Schneider, Paul Delvaux, Brassaï, Dalí and Magritte. Nearly 50,000 visitors came to the Whitworth during the exhibition, a huge increase on the same period in previous years. Gregor Schneider's installation, Kinderzimmer transformed the sunlit galleries at the Whitworth into a pitch black space with just a doorway to aim for. Visitors brushed against various curtains before stumbling towards an eerily lit nursery.
Commissioned by the Whitworth for the exhibition Subversive Spaces, Kinderzimmer is the most significant UK installation by Schneider since his Die Familie Schneider in 2004. Walls Are Talking – the UK's first exhibition of wallpapers. Mary Kelly – Projects 1973–2010 – four decades of projects by American artist Mary Kelly were brought together in the most comprehensive exhibition of her work presented; the Land Between Us – historic and contemporary landscape art exploring its imagery, the places and power associated with it. Anri Sala and Šejla Kamerić – 1395 Days without Red & Projections – as part of the Manchester International Festival, two films about the siege of Sarajevo were premiered at the Whitworth alongside a number of previous Artangel film projects, including films and installations made by Francis Alÿs, Atom Egoyan and Catherine Yass; as part of MIF Tony Oursler's Influence Machine filled the trees of Whitworth Park with glimmering ghostly faces from the past. Jane and Louise Wilson – Post-atrocity exhibition – An exhibition which included a world premiere where the Wilsons filmed the workers of Chernobyl in a new town.
Atomgrad documented how the bright future promised by nuclear power turned out to be dangerous and unpredictable. Nancy Holt – Land Art – an exhibition of Holt's fascination with time and space Nikhil Chopra – Coal On Cotton – Chopra lived and worked in the half completed wing of a new gallery space at the Whitworth for 65 hours during Manchester International Festiv
Tate & Lyle
Tate & Lyle PLC is a British-headquartered, global supplier of food and beverage ingredients to industrial markets. It was a sugar refining business, but from the 1970s began to diversify divesting its sugar business in 2012, it specialises in turning raw materials such as corn and oats into ingredients that add taste and nutrients to food and beverages. It is a constituent of the FTSE 250 Index. Nick Hampton became CEO on 1 April 2018, replacing Javed Ahmed, who stepped down from this role and from the board, retired from the company; the company was formed in 1921 from a merger of two rival sugar refiners: Henry Tate & Sons and Abram Lyle & Sons. Henry Tate established his business in 1859 in Liverpool expanding to Silvertown in East London, he used his industrial fortune to found the Tate Institute in Silvertown in 1887 and the Tate Gallery in Pimlico, Central London in 1897. He endowed the gallery with his own collection of Pre-Raphaelite paintings. Abram Lyle, a cooper and shipowner, acquired an interest in a sugar refinery in 1865 in Greenock and at Plaistow Wharf, West Silvertown, London.
The two companies had large factories nearby each other – Henry Tate in Silvertown and Abram Lyle at Plaistow Wharf – so prompting the merger. Prior to the merger, which occurred after they had died, the two men were bitter business rivals, although they had never met in person. In 1949, the Company introduced its "Mr Cube" brand, as part of a marketing campaign to help it fight a proposed nationalisation by the Labour government. From 1973, British membership of the European Economic Community threatened Tate & Lyle's core business, with quotas imposed from Brussels favouring domestic sugar beet producers over imported cane refiners such as Tate & Lyle; as a result, under the leadership of Saxon Tate, the company began to diversify into related fields of commodity trading and engineering, in 1976, it acquired competing cane sugar refiner Manbré & Garton. In 1976, the Company acquired a 33 % stake in a European starch-based manufacturing business; the Liverpool sugar plant closed in 1981 and the Greenock plant closed in 1997.
In 1988, Tate & Lyle acquired a 90 % stake in a US corn processing business. In 1998 it brought a citric acid producer. In 2000 it acquired the remaining minorities of A. E. Staley. In 2004, it established a joint venture with DuPont to manufacture a renewable 1,3-Propanediol that can be used to make Sorona; this was its first major foray into bio-materials. In 2005, DuPont Tate & Lyle BioProducts was created as a joint venture between DuPont and Tate & Lyle. In 2006, it acquired Hycail, a small Dutch business, giving the company intellectual property and a pilot plant to manufacture Polylactic acid, another bio-plastic. In October 2007, five European starch and alcohol plants part of the European starch division knowns as Amylum group, were sold to Syral, a subsidiary of French sugar company Tereos. Syral closed its Greenwich Peninsula plant in London in September 2009, it was subsequently demolished. In February 2008, it was announced that Tate & Lyle granulated white cane sugar would be accredited as a Fairtrade product, with all the company's other retail products to follow in 2009.
In April 2009, the United States International Trade Commission affirmed a ruling that Chinese manufacturers can make copycat versions of its Splenda product. In July 2010 the company announced the sale of its sugar refining business, including rights to use the Tate & Lyle brand name and Lyle's Golden Syrup, to American Sugar Refining for £211 million; the sale included the Plaistow Silvertown plants. In 2012, HarperCollins published The Sugar Girls, a work of narrative non-fiction based on the true stories of women who worked at Tate & Lyle's two factories in the East End of London from the 1940s to the 1960s; the company is organised as follows: Food and Beverage Solutions Sweeteners, such as Splenda sucralose and crystalline fructose Texturants, such as starch and gums Wellness ingredients, such as dietary fibres Primary Products, such as high fructose corn syrup and acidulants A. E. Staley – US owned subsidiary Splenda – sucralose, a key product for the group Redpath Sugar, once owned by T&L.
Staley: The Fight For A New American Labor Movement. University of Illinois Press. ISBN 978-0-252-07640-4. – A source for information concerning T&L's union-busting activities in the early 1990s in Decatur, Illinois Sugar and All That... A History of TATE & LYLE by Antony Hugill ISBN 0-85614-048-1 Tate & Lyle PLC and Ferruzzi Finanziaria SpA and S & W Berisford PLC, 1987 Competition Commission report Tate & Lyle PLC and British Sugar plc, 1991 Competition Commission report Duncan Barrett and Nuala Calvi; the Sugar Girls. Collins. ISBN 978-0-00-744847-0. Tate & Lyle corporate website Tate & Lyle companies grouped at OpenCorporates The history of sugar in Liverpool and the effects of the closure of the Tate & Lyle sugar refinery The house of William Park Lyle, son of Abram Lyle, has had a multi million makeover The Sugar Girls official website Documents and clippings about Tate & Lyle in the 20th Century Press Archives of the German National Library of Economics
The Turner Prize, named after the English painter J. M. W. Turner, is an annual prize presented to a British visual artist. Between 1991 and 2016, only artists under the age of 50 were eligible. Awarding the prize is organised by the Tate gallery and staged at Tate Britain, though in recent years the award ceremony has sometimes been held in other UK cities. Since its beginnings in 1984 it has become the UK's most publicised art award; the award represents all media. As of 2004, the monetary award was established at £40,000. There have been different sponsors, including Gordon's Gin. A prominent event in British culture, the prize has been awarded by various distinguished celebrities: in 2006 this was Yoko Ono, in 2012 it was presented by Jude Law, it is a controversial event for the exhibits, such as The Physical Impossibility of Death in the Mind of Someone Living – a shark in formaldehyde by Damien Hirst – and My Bed, a dishevelled bed by Tracey Emin. Controversy has come from other directions, including Culture Minister Kim Howells criticising exhibits, a guest of honour swearing, prize judge Lynn Barber writing in the press, a speech by Sir Nicholas Serota about the purchase of a trustee's work.
The prize was named after Turner because while he is now considered one of the country's greatest artists, while he was active his work was controversial. While he is now looked at as a traditionalist, his new approach to landscape painting changed the course of art history, as many of the Turner Prize winners aspire to do; each year after the announcement of the four nominees and during the build-up to the announcement of the winner, the Prize receives intense attention from the media. Much of this attention is critical and the question is asked, "Is this art?"Artists are chosen based upon a showing of their work that they have staged in the preceding year. Nominations for the prize are invited from the public, although this was considered to have negligible effect—a suspicion confirmed in 2006 by Lynn Barber, one of the judges. There is a three-week period in May for public nominations to be received; the exhibition remains on view until January. The prize is not judged on the Tate show, but on the earlier exhibition for which the artist was nominated.
The exhibition and prize rely on commercial sponsorship. By 1987, money for the prize was provided by Drexel Burnham Lambert. Channel 4, an independent television channel, stepped in for 1991, doubling the prize money to £20,000, supporting the event with documentaries and live broadcasts of the prize-giving. In 2004, they were replaced as sponsors by Gordon's Gin, doubling the prize money to £40,000, with £5,000 going to each of the shortlisted artists, £25,000 to the winner; as much as the shortlist of artists reflects the state of British Art, the composition of the panel of judges, which includes curators and critics, provides some indication of who holds influence institutionally and internationally, as well as who are rising stars. Tate Director Sir Nicholas Serota has been the Chair of the jury since his tenure at the Tate. There are conflicting reports as to; the media success of the Turner Prize contributed to the success of the late 1990s phenomena of Young British Artists, Cool Britannia, exhibitions such as the Charles Saatchi-sponsored Sensation exhibition.
Most of the artists nominated for the prize selection become known to the general public for the first time as a consequence. Some have talked of the difficulty of the sudden media exposure. Sale prices of the winners have increased. Chris Ofili, Anish Kapoor and Jeremy Deller became trustees of the Tate; some artists, notably Sarah Lucas, have declined the invitation to be nominated. The identity of Turner Price is associated with conceptual art. For two of its first editions, Art & Language was nominated in 1986, Terry Atkinson, one of the founders and historical member of Art & Language, was nominated in 1985. In 2000, Tillmans was the first photographer and first non-British artist to receive the Turner Prize. Malcolm Morley is awarded the inaugural Turner Prize for his installation of two oil-on-canvas paintings inspired by a trip to Greece. Morley's win sparked controversy. Other nominees included Richard Long, Richard Deacon and Gilbert & George, all of whom went on to win the Turner Prize themselves.
The prize was awarded by Minister for the Arts at the time. Howard Hodgkin is awarded the Turner Prize for A Small Thing But My Own. Other nominees included Terry Atkinson, sculptor Tony Cragg, Ian Hamilton Finlay, Milena Kalinovska and painting/printing artist John Walker; the prize was awarded by celebrity presenter Sir Richard Attenborough. The controversial art duo Gilbert & George were awarded after a previous nomination in 1984. Other nominees included Art & Language, sculpture/printing artist Victor Burgin, painter Derek Jarman, painter Stephen McKenna and sculptor Bill Woodrow. Sculpture artist Richard Deacon is awarded the prize. Other nominees included graphic-style painter/printer Patrick Caulfield, Helen Chadwick, Richard
Pimlico is a small area within Central London in the City of Westminster. Like Belgravia, next to which it was built as a southern extension, Pimlico is known for its garden squares and Regency architecture; the area is separated from Belgravia to the north by Victoria Railway Station, bounded by the River Thames to the south, Vauxhall Bridge Road to the east and the former Grosvenor Canal to the west. At Pimlico's heart is a grid of residential streets laid down by the planner Thomas Cubitt beginning in 1825, now protected as the Pimlico Conservation Area. Pimlico is home to the pre-World War II Dolphin Square development and the pioneering Churchill Gardens and Lillington and Longmoore Gardens estates, now designated conservation areas in their own right; the area has several Grade II * listed churches. Notable residents have included politician Winston Churchill, designer Laura Ashley, philosopher Swami Vivekananda, actor Laurence Olivier and author Aubrey Beardsley, first Kenyan president Jomo Kenyatta, the inventor of lawn tennis Major Walter Wingfield and world record holding pilot Sheila Scott.
In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the Manor of Ebury was divided up and leased by the Crown to servants or favourites. In 1623, James I sold the freehold of Ebury for £ 15 shillings; the land was sold on several more times, until it came into the hands of heiress Mary Davies in 1666. Mary's dowry not only included "The Five Fields" of modern-day Pimlico and Belgravia, but most of what is now Mayfair and Knightsbridge. Understandably, she was much pursued but in 1677, at the age of twelve, married Sir Thomas Grosvenor; the Grosvenors were a family of Norman descent long seated at Eaton Hall in Cheshire who, until this auspicious marriage, were but of local consequence in their native county of Cheshire. Through the development and good management of this land the Grosvenors acquired enormous wealth. At some point in the late seventeenth or early eighteenth century, the area ceased to be known as Ebury or "The Five Fields" and gained the name by which it is now known. While its origins are disputed, it is "clearly of foreign derivation....
Gifford, in a note in his edition of Ben Jonson, tells us that'Pimlico is sometimes spoken of as a person, may not improbably have been the master of a house once famous for ale of a particular description." Supporting this etymology, Rev. Brewer describes the area as "a district of public gardens much frequented on holidays. According to tradition, it received its name from Ben Pimlico, famous for his nut-brown ale, his tea-gardens, were near Hoxton, the road to them was termed Pimlico Path, so that what is now called Pimlico was so named from the popularity of the Hoxton resort". H. G. Wells, in his novel The Dream, says that there was a wharf at Pimlico where ships from America docked and that the word Pimlico came with the trade and was the last word left alive of the Algonquin Indian language. By the nineteenth century, as a result of an increase in demand for property in the unfashionable West End of London following the Great Plague of London and the Great Fire of London, Pimlico had become ripe for development.
In 1825, Thomas Cubitt was contracted by Lord Grosvenor to develop Pimlico. The land up to this time had been marshy but was reclaimed using soil excavated during the construction of St Katharine Docks. Cubitt developed Pimlico as a grid of handsome white stucco terraces; the largest and most opulent houses were built along St George's Drive and Belgrave Road, the two principal streets, Eccleston, Warwick and St George's Squares. Lupus Street contained grand houses, as well as shops and, until the early twentieth century, a hospital for women and children. Smaller-scale properties of three storeys, line the side streets. An 1877 newspaper article described Pimlico as "genteel, sacred to professional men… not rich enough to luxuriate in Belgravia proper, but rich enough to live in private houses." Its inhabitants were "more lively than in Kensington… and yet a cut above Chelsea, only commercial."Although the area was dominated by the well-to-do middle and upper-middle classes as late as Booth's 1889 Map of London Poverty, parts of Pimlico are said to have declined by the 1890s.
When Rev Gerald Olivier moved to the neighbourhood in 1912 with his family, including the young Laurence Olivier, to minister to the parishioners of St Saviour, it was part of a venture to west London "slums" that had taken the family to the depths of Notting Hill. Through the late nineteenth century, Pimlico saw the construction of several Peabody Estates, charitable housing projects designed to provide affordable, quality homes. Proximity to the Houses of Parliament made Pimlico a centre of political activity. Prior to 1928, the Labour Party and Trades Union Congress shared offices on Eccleston Square, it was here in 1926 that the general strike was organised. In the mid-1930s Pimlico saw a second wave of development with the construction of Dolphin Square, a self-contained "city" of 1250 up-market flats built on the site occupied by Cubitt's building works. Completed in 1937, it became popular with MPs and public servants, it was home to fascist Oswald Mosley until his arrest in 1940, the headquarters of the Free French for much of the Second World War.
Pimlico survived the war with its essential character intact, although parts sustained significant bomb damage. Through the 1950s these areas were the focus of large-scale redevelopment as the Churchill Gardens and Lillington and Longmoore Gardens estates, many of the larger Victorian houses were converted to hotels and other uses. To provide affordable and efficient heating to the residents of the new p
Tate Modern is a modern art gallery located in London. It is Britain's national gallery of international modern art and forms part of the Tate group, it is based in the former Bankside Power Station, in the Bankside area of the London Borough of Southwark. Tate holds the national collection of British art from 1900 to the present day and international modern and contemporary art. Tate Modern is one of the largest museums of contemporary art in the world; as with the UK's other national galleries and museums, there is no admission charge for access to the collection displays, which take up the majority of the gallery space, while tickets must be purchased for the major temporary exhibitions. The gallery is London’s most-visited attraction pulling in 5.8 million visitors in 2018. Tate Modern is housed in the former Bankside Power Station, designed by Sir Giles Gilbert Scott, the architect of Battersea Power Station, built in two stages between 1947 and 1963, it is directly across the river from St Paul's Cathedral.
The power station closed in 1981. Prior to redevelopment, the power station was a 200 m long, steel framed, brick clad building with a substantial central chimney standing 99 m; the structure was divided into three main areas each running east-west – the huge main Turbine Hall in the centre, with the boiler house to the north and the switch house to the south. For many years after closure Bankside Power station was at risk of being demolished by developers. Many people campaigned for the building to be saved and put forward suggestions for possible new uses. An application to list the building was refused. In April 1994 the Tate Gallery announced. In July of the same year, an international competition was launched to select an architect for the new gallery. Jacques Herzog and Pierre de Meuron of Herzog & de Meuron were announced as the winning architects in January 1995; the £134 million conversion to the Tate Modern started in June 1995 and completed in January 2000. The most obvious external change was the two-story glass extension on one half of the roof.
Much of the original internal structure remained, including the cavernous main turbine hall, which retained the overhead travelling crane. An electrical substation, taking up the Switch House in the southern third of the building, remained on-site and owned by the French power company EDF Energy while Tate took over the northern Boiler House for Tate Modern's main exhibition spaces; the history of the site as well as information about the conversion was the basis for a 2008 documentary Architects Herzog and de Meuron: Alchemy of Building & Tate Modern. This challenging conversion work was carried by Carillion. Tate Modern was opened by the Queen on 11 May 2000. Tate Modern received 5.25 million visitors in its first year. The previous year the three existing Tate galleries had received 2.5 million visitors combined. Tate Modern had attracted more visitors than expected and plans to expand it had been in preparation since 2004; these plans focused on the south west of the building with the intention of providing 5,000m2 of new display space doubling the amount of display space.
The southern third of the building was retained by the French power company EDF Energy as an electrical substation. In 2006, the company released the western half of this holding and plans were made to replace the structure with a tower extension to the museum planned to be completed in 2015; the tower was to be built over the old oil storage tanks, which would be converted to a performance art space. Structural, civil, façade engineering and environmental consultancy was undertaken by Ramboll between 2008 and 2016; this project was costed at £215 million. Of the money raised, £50 million came from the UK government. In June 2013, international shipping and property magnate Eyal Ofer pledged £10m to the extension project, making it to 85% of the required funds. Eyal Ofer, chairman of London-based Zodiac Maritime Agencies, said the donation made through his family foundation would enable "an iconic institution to enhance the experience and accessibility of contemporary art"; the Tate director, Nicholas Serota, praised the donation saying it would help to make Tate Modern a "truly twenty-first-century museum".
The first phase of the expansion involved the conversion of three large, underground oil tanks used by the power station into accessible display spaces and facilities areas. These opened on 18 July 2012 and closed on 28 October 2012 as work on the tower building continued directly above, they reopened following the completion of the Switch House extension on 17 June 2016. Two of the Tanks are used to show live performance art and installations while the third provides utility space. Tate describes them as "the world's first museum galleries permanently dedicated to live art". A ten-storey tower, 65 metres high from ground level, was built above the oil tanks; the original western half of the Switch House was demolished to make room for the tower and rebuilt around it with large gallery spaces and access routes between the main building and the new tower on level 1 and level 4. The new galleries on level 4 have natural top lighting. A bridge built across the turbine hall on level 4 to provides an upper access route.
The new building opened to the public on 17 June 2016. The design, again by Herzog & de Meuron, has been controversial, it was designed with a glass stepped pyra
New media art
New media art refers to artworks created with new media technologies, including digital art, computer graphics, computer animation, virtual art, Internet art, interactive art, video games, computer robotics, 3D printing, cyborg art and art as biotechnology. The term differentiates itself by its resulting cultural objects and social events, which can be seen in opposition to those deriving from old visual arts; this concern with medium is a key feature of much contemporary art and indeed many art schools and major universities now offer majors in "New Genres" or "New Media" and a growing number of graduate programs have emerged internationally. New media art involves interaction between artist and observer or between observers and the artwork, which responds to them. Yet, as several theorists and curators have noted, such forms of interaction, social exchange and transformation do not distinguish new media art but rather serve as a common ground that has parallels in other strands of contemporary art practice.
Such insights emphasize the forms of cultural practice that arise concurrently with emerging technological platforms, question the focus on technological media, per se. New Media concerns are derived from the telecommunications, mass media and digital electronic modes of delivering the artworks involve, with practices ranging from conceptual to virtual art, performance to installation; the origins of new media art can be traced to the moving photographic inventions of the late 19th century such as the zoetrope, the praxinoscope and Eadweard Muybridge's zoopraxiscope. From the 1920s through the 1950s, various forms of kinetic and light art, from Thomas Wilfred's'Lumia' and'Clavilux' light organs to Jean Tinguely's self-destructing sculpture'Homage to New York' can be seen as progenitors of new media art. In 1958 Wolf Vostell becomes the first artist who incorporates a television set into one of his works; the Black Room Cycle. This installation is part of the collection of the Berlinische Galerie.
During the 1960s the development of new technologies of video produced the new media art experiments of Nam June Paik, Wolf Vostell with the installation 6 TV Dé-coll/age in 1963 at the Smolin Gallery in New York. A. Michael Noll, multimedia performances of E. A. T. Fluxus and Happening. In 1983, Roy Ascott introduced the concept of "distributed authorship" in his worldwide telematic project La Plissure du Texte for Frank Popper's "Electra" at the Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris; the development of computer graphics at the end of the 1980s and real time technologies in the 1990s combined with the spreading of the Web and the Internet favored the emergence of new and various forms of interactive art by Ken Feingold, Lynn Hershman Leeson, David Rokeby, Ken Rinaldo, Perry Hoberman, Tamas Waliczky. In Geneva, the Centre pour l'Image Contemporaine or CIC coproduced with Centre Georges Pompidou from Paris and the Museum Ludwig in Cologne the first internet video archive of new media art. Advances in biotechnology have allowed artists like Eduardo Kac to begin exploring DNA and genetics as a new art medium.
Influences on new media art have been the theories developed around interaction, hypertext and networks. Important thinkers in this regard have been Vannevar Bush and Theodor Nelson, whereas comparable ideas can be found in the literary works of Jorge Luis Borges, Italo Calvino, Julio Cortázar. In the book New Media Art, Mark Tribe and Reena Jana named several themes that contemporary new media art addresses, including computer art, identity, open sourcing, surveillance, corporate parody, as well as intervention and hacktivism. In the book Postdigitale, Maurizio Bolognini suggested that new media artists have one common denominator, a self-referential relationship with the new technologies, the result of finding oneself inside an epoch-making transformation determined by technological development. New media art does not appear as a set of homogeneous practices, but as a complex field converging around three main elements: 1) the art system, 2) scientific and industrial research, 3) political-cultural media activism.
There are significant differences between scientist-artists, activist-artists and technological artists closer to the art system, who not only have different training and technocultures, but have different artistic production. This should be taken into account in examining the several themes addressed by new media art. Non-linearity can be seen as an important topic to new media art by artists developing interactive, collaborative, immersive artworks like Jeffrey Shaw or Maurice Benayoun who explored the term as an approach to looking at varying forms of digital projects where the content relays on the user's experience; this is a key concept since people acquired the notion that they were conditioned to view everything in a linear and clear-cut fashion. Now, art is stepping out of that form and allowing for people to build their own experiences with the piece. Non-linearity describes a project that escape from the conventional linear narrative coming from novels, theater plays and movies. Non-linear art requires audience participation or at least, the fact that the "visitor" is taken into consideration by the representation, altering the displayed content.
The participatory aspect of new media art, which for some artists has become integral, emerged from Allan Kaprow's