The National Gallery is an art museum in Trafalgar Square in the City of Westminster, in Central London. Founded in 1824, it houses a collection of over 2,300 paintings dating from the century to 1900. The Gallery is a charity, and a non-departmental public body of the Department for Culture, Media. Its collection belongs to the public of the United Kingdom and entry to the collection is free of charge. It is among the most visited art museums in the world, after the Musée du Louvre, the British Museum, unlike comparable museums in continental Europe, the National Gallery was not formed by nationalising an existing royal or princely art collection. It came into being when the British government bought 38 paintings from the heirs of John Julius Angerstein, after that initial purchase the Gallery was shaped mainly by its early directors, notably Sir Charles Lock Eastlake, and by private donations, which comprise two-thirds of the collection. It used to be claimed that this was one of the few national galleries that had all its works on permanent exhibition, the present building, the third to house the National Gallery, was designed by William Wilkins from 1832 to 1838.
Only the façade onto Trafalgar Square remains essentially unchanged from this time, wilkinss building was often criticised for the perceived weaknesses of its design and for its lack of space, the latter problem led to the establishment of the Tate Gallery for British art in 1897. The Sainsbury Wing, an extension to the west by Robert Venturi, the current Director of the National Gallery is Gabriele Finaldi. The late 18th century saw the nationalisation of royal or princely art collections across mainland Europe, great Britain, did not emulate the continental model, and the British Royal Collection remains in the sovereigns possession today. In 1777 the British government had the opportunity to buy an art collection of international stature, the MP John Wilkes argued for the government to buy this invaluable treasure and suggested that it be housed in a noble gallery. The twenty-five paintings from that now in the Gallery, including NG1, have arrived by a variety of routes. This offer was declined and Bourgeois bequeathed the collection to his old school, Dulwich College, the collection opened in Britains first purpose-built public gallery, the Dulwich Picture Gallery, in 1814.
The British Institution, founded in 1805 by a group of aristocratic connoisseurs, the members lent works to exhibitions that changed annually, while an art school was held in the summer months. However, as the paintings that were lent were often mediocre, some resented the Institution. One of the Institutions founding members, Sir George Beaumont, Bt, in 1823 another major art collection came on the market, which had been assembled by the recently deceased John Julius Angerstein. Angerstein was a Russian-born émigré banker based in London, his collection numbered 38 paintings, including works by Raphael, on 1 July 1823 George Agar Ellis, a Whig politician, proposed to the House of Commons that it purchase the collection. The appeal was given added impetus by Beaumonts offer, which came with two conditions, that the government buy Angersteins collection, and that a building was to be found
BT Group plc is a holding company which owns British Telecommunications plc, a British multinational telecommunications services company with head offices in London, United Kingdom. It has operations in around 180 countries, BTs origins date back to the founding of the Electric Telegraph Company in 1846 which developed a nationwide communications network. In 1912, the General Post Office, a government department, the Post Office Act of 1969 led to the GPO becoming a public corporation. British Telecommunications, trading as British Telecom, was formed in 1980, British Telecommunications was privatised in 1984, becoming British Telecommunications plc, with some 50 percent of its shares sold to investors. The Government sold its stake in further share sales in 1991 and 1993. BT has a listing on the London Stock Exchange, a secondary listing on the New York Stock Exchange. BT controls a number of large subsidiaries, BT announced in February 2015 that it had agreed to acquire EE for £12.5 billion, and received final regulatory approval from the Competition and Markets Authority on 15 January 2016.
The transaction was completed on 29 January 2016, BTs origins date back to the establishment of the first telecommunications companies in Britain. Among them was the first commercial service, the Electric Telegraph Company. As these companies amalgamated and were taken over or collapsed, the companies were transferred to state control under the Post Office in 1912. These companies were merged and rebranded as British Telecom, in January 1878 Alexander Graham Bell demonstrated his recently developed telephone to Queen Victoria at Osborne House on the Isle of Wight. John Hudson, with his premises in nearby Shudehill. As the number of installed telephones across the country grew it became sensible to consider constructing telephone exchanges to allow all the telephones in each city to be connected together, the first exchange was opened in London in August 1879, closely followed by the Lancashire Telephonic Exchange in Manchester. From 1878, the service in Britain was provided by private sector companies such as the National Telephone Company.
In 1896, the National Telephone Company was taken over by the General Post Office, in 1912 it became the primary supplier of telecommunications services, after the Post Office took over the private sector telephone service in GB, except for a few local authority services. Those services all folded within a few years, the exception being Kingston upon Hull. Converting the Post Office into an industry, as opposed to a governmental department, was first discussed in 1932 by Lord Wolmer. In 1932 the Bridgeman Committee produced a report that was rejected, in 1961, more proposals were ignored
Sir Henry Tate, 1st Baronet was an English sugar merchant and philanthropist, noted for establishing the Tate Gallery, London. Tate was the son of a Unitarian clergyman, when he was 13, he became a grocers apprentice in Liverpool. After a seven-year apprenticeship, he was able to set up his own shop and his business was successful, and grew to a chain of six stores by the time he was 35. In 1859 Tate became a partner in John Wright & Co. sugar refinery, by 1869, he had gained complete control of the company, and renamed it as Henry Tate & Sons. In 1872, he purchased the patent from German Eugen Langen for making sugar cubes, in 1877 he opened a refinery at Silvertown, which remains in production. At the time, much of Silvertown was still marshland, Tate was a modest rather retiring man, well known for his concern with workers’ conditions. He built the Tate Institute opposite his Thames Refinery, a bar, Tate rapidly became a millionaire and donated generously to charity. The National Gallery of British Art, nowadays known as Tate Britain, was opened on 21 July 1897, Tate made many donations, often anonymously and always discreetly.
He supported alternative and non-establishment causes, there was £10,000 for the library of Manchester College, founded in Manchester in 1786 as a Dissenting academy to provide religious nonconformists with higher education. He gave the College, £5,000 to promote the ‘theory, in addition he gave £20,000 to the Hahnemann Hospital in Liverpool in 1885. He particularly supported health and education with his money and he gave £8,000 to the Liverpool Royal Infirmary, and £5,000 to the Queen Victoria Jubilee Institute, which became the Queens Institute for District Nurses. Tate was made a baronet in 1898, the year before his death, in 1921, after Tates death, Henry Tate & Sons merged with Abram Lyle & Sons to form Tate & Lyle. In 2001, a plaque commemorating Sir Henry was unveiled on the site of his first shop at 42 Hamilton Street. In 2006 a Wetherspoons pub in his town of Chorley was named after the sugar magnate. His mother was Agnes Booth and his father was the Reverend William Tate and he lived at Park Hill by Streatham Common, South London, and is buried in nearby West Norwood Cemetery, the gates of which are opposite a public library that he endowed.
Park Hill became a nunnery after his death until refurbishment as housing around 2004, Tate Gallery Tate & Lyle Sir Henry Tate The Sugar Girls blog, Happy Birthday, Henry Tate. http, //www. thepeerage. com/p59124. htm#i591238
The Turner Prize, named after the English painter J. M. W. Turner, is an annual prize presented to a British visual artist under the age of 50. Awarding the prize is organised by the Tate gallery and staged at Tate Britain, since its beginnings in 1984 it has become the UKs most publicised art award. As of 2004, the award was established at £40,000. There have been different sponsors, including Channel 4 television and Gordons Gin, a prominent event in British culture, the prize has been awarded by various distinguished celebrities, in 2006 this was Yoko Ono, and in 2012 it was presented by Jude Law. The prize was named after Turner because while he is now considered one of the countrys greatest artist, while he was active his work was controversial. While he is now looked at as a traditionalist, his new approach to landscape painting changed the course of art history, each year after the announcement of the four nominees and during the build-up to the announcement of the winner, the Prize receives intense attention from the media.
Much of this attention is critical and the question is often asked, artists are chosen based upon a showing of their work that they have staged in the preceding year. Nominations for the prize are invited from the public, although this was considered to have negligible effect—a suspicion confirmed in 2006 by Lynn Barber. The exhibition remains on view until January, the prize is officially not judged on the Tate show, but on the earlier exhibition for which the artist was nominated. The exhibition and prize rely on commercial sponsorship, by 1987, money for the prize was provided by Drexel Burnham Lambert, its withdrawal after its demise led to the cancellation of the prize for 1990. Channel 4, an independent television channel, stepped in for 1991, doubling the money to £20,000. In 2004, they were replaced as sponsors by Gordons Gin, doubling the money to £40,000, with £5,000 going to each of the shortlisted artists. Tate Director Sir Nicholas Serota has been the Chair of the jury since his tenure at the Tate, there are conflicting reports as to how much personal sway he has over the proceedings.
Most of the artists nominated for the prize selection become known to the public for the first time as a consequence. Some have talked of the difficulty of the media exposure. Sale prices of the winners have generally increased, Chris Ofili, Anish Kapoor and Jeremy Deller became trustees of the Tate. Some artists, notably Sarah Lucas, have declined the invitation to be nominated, the first Turner Prize was awarded to Malcolm Morley, an English artist living in the United States. Other nominees included sculptor Richard Deacon, graphic-styled collaborative duo Gilbert & George, abstract painter Howard Hodgkin, Howard Hodgkin is awarded the Turner Prize for A Small Thing But My Own
Pimlico /ˈpɪmlᵻkoʊ/ is a small area within central London in the City of Westminster. Like Belgravia, to which it was built as an extension, Pimlico is known for its garden squares. At Pimlicos heart is a grid of streets laid down by the planner Thomas Cubitt beginning in 1825. The area has over 350 Grade II listed buildings and several Grade II* listed churches, in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the Manor of Ebury was divided up and leased by the Crown to servants or favourites. In 1623, James I sold the freehold of Ebury for £1,151 and 15 shillings, the land was sold on several more times, until it came into the hands of heiress Mary Davies in 1666. Marys dowry not only included The Five Fields of modern-day Pimlico and Belgravia, she was much pursued but in 1677, at the age of twelve, married Sir Thomas Grosvenor. The Grosvenors were a family of Norman descent long seated at Eaton Hall in Cheshire who until this auspicious marriage were, through the development and good management of this land the Grosvenors acquired enormous wealth.
At some point in the seventeenth or early eighteenth century. While its origins are disputed, it is clearly of foreign derivation, supporting this etymology, Rev. Brewer describes the area as a district of public gardens much frequented on holidays. According to tradition, it received its name from Ben Pimlico and his tea-gardens, were near Hoxton, and the road to them was termed Pimlico Path, so that what is now called Pimlico was so named from the popularity of the Hoxton resort. In 1825, Thomas Cubitt was contracted by Lord Grosvenor to develop Pimlico, the land up to this time had been marshy but was reclaimed using soil excavated during the construction of St Katharine Docks. Cubitt developed Pimlico as a grid of white stucco terraces. The largest and most opulent houses were built along St Georges Drive and Belgrave Road, lupus Street contained similarly grand houses, as well as shops and, until the early twentieth century, a hospital for women and children. Smaller-scale properties, typically of three storeys, line the side streets, an 1877 newspaper article described Pimlico as genteel, sacred to professional men… not rich enough to luxuriate in Belgravia proper, but rich enough to live in private houses.
Its inhabitants were more lively than in Kensington… and yet a cut above Chelsea, although the area was dominated by the well-to-do middle and upper-middle classes as late as Booths 1889 Map of London Poverty, parts of Pimlico are said to have declined significantly by the 1890s. Through the late century, Pimlico saw the construction of several Peabody Estates, charitable housing projects designed to provide affordable. Proximity to the Houses of Parliament made Pimlico a centre of political activity, prior to 1928, the Labour Party and Trades Union Congress shared offices on Eccleston Square, and it was here in 1926 that the general strike was organised. Completed in 1937, it became popular with MPs and public servants
Tate Modern is a modern art gallery located in London. It is Britains national gallery of modern art and forms part of the Tate group. It is based in the former Bankside Power Station, in the Bankside area of the London Borough of Southwark, Tate holds the national collection of British art from 1900 to the present day and international modern and contemporary art. Tate Modern is one of the largest museums of modern and contemporary art in the world and it is directly across the river from St Pauls Cathedral. The power station closed in 1981, prior to redevelopment, the power station was a 200 m long, steel framed, brick clad building with a substantial central chimney standing 99 m. The structure was divided into three main areas each running east-west - the huge main turbine hall in the centre, with the boiler house to the north. For many years after closure Bankside Power station was at risk of being demolished by developers, many people campaigned for the building to be saved and put forward suggestions for possible new uses.
An application to list the building was refused, in April 1994 the Tate Gallery announced that Bankside would be the home for the new Tate Modern. In July of the year, an international competition was launched to select an architect for the new gallery. Jacques Herzog and Pierre de Meuron of Herzog & de Meuron were announced as the architects in January 1995. The £134 million conversion to the Tate Modern started in June 1995, the most obvious external change was the two-story glass extension on one half of the roof. Much of the internal structure remained, including the cavernous main turbine hall. The history of the site as well as information about the conversion was the basis for a 2008 documentary Architects Herzog and de Meuron and this challenging conversion work was carried by Carillion. Tate Modern was opened by the Queen on 11 May 2000, Tate Modern received 5.25 million visitors in its first year. The previous year the three existing Tate galleries galleries had received 2.5 million visitors combined, Tate Modern had attracted more visitors than originally expected and plans to expand it had been in preparation since 2004.
These plans focused on the south west of the building with the intention of providing 5, 000m2 of new display space, the southern third of the building was retained by the French power company EDF Energy as an electrical substation. In 2006, the released the western half of this holding and plans were made to replace the structure with a tower extension to the museum. The tower was to be built over the old oil storage tanks, geotechnical, and façade engineering and environmental consultancy was undertaken by Ramboll between 2008 and 2016
New media art
The term differentiates itself by its resulting cultural objects and social events, which can be seen in opposition to those deriving from old visual arts. New Media Art often involves interaction between artist and observer or between observers and the artwork, which responds to them, such insights emphasize the forms of cultural practice that arise concurrently with emerging technological platforms, and question the focus on technological media, per se. The origins of new media art can be traced to the moving photographic inventions of the late 19th century such as the zoetrope, in 1958 Wolf Vostell becomes the first artist who incorporates a television set into one of his works. This installation is part of the collection of the Berlinische Galerie, a. Michael Noll, and multimedia performances of E. A. T. In 1983, Roy Ascott introduced the concept of distributed authorship in his worldwide telematic project La Plissure du Texte for Frank Poppers Electra at the Musée dArt Moderne de la Ville de Paris.
Simultaneously advances in biotechnology have allowed artists like Eduardo Kac to begin exploring DNA. Influences on new media art have been the theories developed around interaction, databases, important thinkers in this regard have been Vannevar Bush and Theodor Nelson, whereas comparable ideas can be found in the literary works of Jorge Luis Borges, Italo Calvino, and Julio Cortázar. These elements have been especially revolutionary for the field of narrative and anti-narrative studies, leading explorations into areas such as non-linear and this should be taken into account in examining the several themes addressed by new media art. This is a key concept since people acquired the notion that they were conditioned to view everything in a linear, art is stepping out of that form and allowing for people to build their own experiences with the piece. Non-linearity describes a project that escape from the linear narrative coming from novels, theater plays. Non-linear art usually requires audience participation or at least, the fact that the visitor is taken into consideration by the representation, altering the displayed content.
The participatory aspect of new art, which for some artists has become integral, emerged from Allan Kaprows Happenings and became with Internet. Art is not produced as a completed object submitted to the audience appreciation, many new media art projects work with themes like politics and social consciousness, allowing for social activism through the interactive nature of the media. One of the key themes in new art is to create visual views of databases. Pioneers in this area include Lisa Strausfeld, Martin Wattenberg and Alberto Frigo, the emergence of 3D printing has introduced a new bridge to new media art, joining the virtual and the physical worlds. The rise of technology has allowed artists to blend the computational base of new media art with the traditional physical form of sculpture. A pioneer in this field was artist Jonty Hurwitz who created the first known anamorphosis sculpture using this technique, research projects into New media art preservation are underway to improve the preservation and documentation of the fragile media arts heritage.
In New Media programs, students are able to get acquainted with the newest forms of creation and communication, New Media students learn to identify what is or isnt new about certain technologies
Wolff Olins is a brand consultancy, based in London, New York City and San Francisco. Founded in 1965, it now employs 150 designers, technologists, programme managers and educators, the company acts as creative partners to ambitious leaders who want to design radically better businesses. It has worked in sectors including technology, retail, energy & utilities, Media, in 2012 the Orange and London 2012 brands were included in a retrospective examining design from 1948 -2012 at the V&A in London. In 2012, the firm was recognised by The Sunday Times as being one of the Best Small Companies to work for and by Ad Age as one of the Best Places to Work in media and marketing. Wolff Olins was founded in Camden Town, London, in 1965 by designer Michael Wolff, Wolff left the business in 1983, and Olins in 2001, Wolff is still active in the field of branding, and Olins died on 14 April 2014. Over the years, Wolff Olins has opened offices in Hamburg, Madrid, in 1998, the company opened an office in New York, and ten years in Dubai.
In 2002, Wolff Olins was selected by the British Library as a subject of their National Life Stories oral history project, from 1965 to the early 1990s, Wolff Olins developed corporate identities for various large European companies. During this time Olins published The Corporate Personality and Corporate Identity, Olins defined corporate identity as strategy made visible, and the firm worked with companies including BOC, Apple Records, Volkswagens VAG, 3i, Prudential and BT. During the 1990s, Wolff Olins focused more on corporate branding, the companys work during that time includes First Direct, Heathrow Express, and Tata Group. Wolff Olins Oral History of Wolff Olins on British Librarys National Life Stories
Duchamp has had an immense impact on twentieth-century and twenty first-century art. By World War I, he had rejected the work of many of his artists as retinal art. Instead, Duchamp wanted to use art to serve the mind, Marcel Duchamp was born at Blainville-Crevon in Normandy and grew up in a family that enjoyed cultural activities. The art of painter and engraver Émile Frédéric Nicolle, his grandfather, filled the house, and the family liked to play chess, read books, paint. Of Eugene and Lucie Duchamps seven children, one died as an infant, Marcel Duchamp was the brother of, Jacques Villon, printmaker Raymond Duchamp-Villon, sculptor Suzanne Duchamp-Crotti, painter. At 8 years old, Duchamp followed in his brothers footsteps when he left home and began schooling at the Lycée Pierre-Corneille, two other students in his class became well-known artists and lasting friends, Robert Antoine Pinchon and Pierre Dumont. For the next 8 years, he was locked into a regime which focused on intellectual development.
Though he was not a student, his best subject was mathematics. He won a prize for drawing in 1903, and at his commencement in 1904 he won a coveted first prize and he learned academic drawing from a teacher who unsuccessfully attempted to protect his students from Impressionism, Post-Impressionism, and other avant-garde influences. However, Duchamps true artistic mentor at the time was his brother Jacques Villon, whose fluid, at 14, his first serious art attempts were drawings and watercolors depicting his sister Suzanne in various poses and activities. That summer he painted landscapes in an Impressionist style using oils. Duchamps early art works align with Post-Impressionist styles and he experimented with classical techniques and subjects. He studied art at the Académie Julian from 1904 to 1905, during this time Duchamp drew and sold cartoons which reflected his ribald humor. Many of the drawings use verbal puns, visual puns, or both, such play with words and symbols engaged his imagination for the rest of his life.
In 1905, he began his military service with the 39th Infantry Regiment. There he learned typography and printing processes—skills he would use in his work, due to his eldest brother Jacques membership in the prestigious Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture Duchamps work was exhibited in the 1908 Salon dAutomne. The following year his work was featured in the Salon des Indépendants, of Duchamps pieces in the show, critic Guillaume Apollinaire—who was to become a friend—criticized what he called Duchamps very ugly nudes. The group came to be known as the Puteaux Group, or the Section dOr, uninterested in the Cubists seriousness or in their focus on visual matters, Duchamp did not join in discussions of Cubist theory, and gained a reputation of being shy
It was opened in 1816 and closed in 1890. After various changes in circumstance, the Panopticon plan was abandoned in 1812, an architectural competition was held for a new penitentiary design. It attracted 43 entrants, the winner being William Williams, drawing master at the Royal Military College, Williams basic design was adapted by a practising architect, Thomas Hardwick, who began construction in the same year. Hardwick resigned in 1813, and John Harvey took over the role, Harvey was dismissed in turn in 1815, and replaced by Robert Smirke, who brought the project to completion in 1821. The marshy site on which the prison stood meant that the builders experienced problems of subsidence from the outset, Smirke finally resolved the difficulty by introducing a highly innovative concrete raft to provide a secure foundation. However, this added considerably to the costs, which eventually totalled £500,000, more than twice the original estimate. The first prisoners, all women, were admitted on 26 June 1816, the prison held 103 men and 109 women by the end of 1817, and 452 men and 326 women by late 1822.
Sentences of five to ten years in the National Penitentiary were offered as an alternative to transportation to those thought most likely to reform. In addition to the problems of construction, the marshy site fostered disease, in 1818 they employed a Medical Supervisor, in the form of Dr Alexander Copland Hutchison of Westminster Dispensary, to oversee the health issues of the occupants. In 1822–23 an epidemic swept through the prison, which seems to have comprised a mixture of dysentery, scurvy and other disorders. The decision was taken to evacuate the buildings for several months, the female prisoners were released. The design turned out to be unsatisfactory, the network of corridors was so labyrinthine that even the warders got lost, and the ventilation system allowed sound to carry, so that prisoners could communicate between cells. The annual running costs turned out to be an unsupportable £16,000, in view of these problems, the decision was eventually taken to build a new model prison at Pentonville, which opened in 1842 and took over Millbanks role as the National Penitentiary.
By an Act of Parliament of 1843, Millbanks status was downgraded, every person sentenced to transportation was sent to Millbank first, where they were held for three months before their final destination was decided. By 1850, around 4,000 people convicted of crimes were being transported annually from the UK, prisoners awaiting transportation were kept in solitary confinement and restricted to silence for the first half of their sentence. Large-scale transportation ended in 1853, and Millbank became a local prison. By 1886 it had ceased to hold inmates, and it closed in 1890, demolition began in 1892, and continued sporadically until 1903. The buildings of each pentagon were set around a cluster of five courtyards used as airing-yards, the third and fourth pentagons were used to house female prisoners, and the remaining four for male prisoners
The Victorian era was the period of Queen Victorias reign, from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901. It was a period of peace, refined sensibilities. Some scholars date the beginning of the period in terms of sensibilities, the era followed the Georgian period and preceded the Edwardian period. The half of the Victorian age roughly coincided with the first part of the Belle Époque era of continental Europe, culturally there was a transition away from the rationalism of the Georgian period and toward romanticism and mysticism with regard to religion, social values, and arts. The end of the saw the Boer War. Domestically, the agenda was increasingly liberal with a number of shifts in the direction of political reform, industrial reform. Two especially important figures in period of British history are the prime ministers Benjamin Disraeli and William Gladstone. Disraeli, favoured by the queen, was a gregarious Conservative and his rival Gladstone, a Liberal distrusted by the Queen, served more terms and oversaw much of the overall legislative development of the era.
The population of England and Wales almost doubled from 16.8 million in 1851 to 30.5 million in 1901, Scotlands population rose rapidly, from 2.8 million in 1851 to 4.4 million in 1901. However, Irelands population decreased sharply, from 8.2 million in 1841 to less than 4.5 million in 1901, mostly due to the Great Famine. Between 1837 and 1901 about 15 million emigrants departed the UK permanently, in search of a life in the United States, South Africa, New Zealand, Australia. During the early part of the era, politics in the House of Commons involved battles between the two parties, the Whigs/Liberals and the Conservatives. These parties were led by such prominent statesmen as Lord Melbourne, Sir Robert Peel, Lord Derby, Lord Palmerston, Disraeli, Victoria became queen in 1837 at age 18. Her long reign until 1901 was mainly a time of peace, Britain reached the zenith of its economic, political and cultural power. The era saw the expansion of the second British Empire, Historians have characterised the mid-Victorian era as Britains Golden Years.
There was prosperity, as the income per person grew by half. There was peace abroad, and social peace at home, opposition to the new order melted away, says Porter. The Chartist movement peaked as a movement among the working class in 1848, its leaders moved to other pursuits, such as trade unions
Millbank is an area of central London in the City of Westminster. Millbank is located by the River Thames, east of Pimlico, Millbank is known as the location of major government offices, the Millbank Tower and prominent art institutions such as Tate Britain and the Chelsea College of Art and Design. The area derives its name from a watermill owned by Westminster Abbey that once stood at a close to present day College Green. Described as a place of plague pits and a low, marshy locality suitable for shooting snipe in the nearby bogs, facilities at the prison camp on the marshy ground were so poor that 1,200 prisoners were recorded as having died in the primitive conditions. Baltic Wharf, a site just to the north of Vauxhall Bridge, was for much of the 19th century the location of a Henry Castle & Son, a ship breaking and timber merchant. Numerous wooden ships of the line of the Royal Navy were dismantled at this location, their ornate figureheads often displayed on the gates and perimeter of the yard walls.
Millbank shares the name of the road along the north bank of the River Thames, extending northwards from Vauxhall Bridge to Abingdon Street. There are parliamentary offices situated across this road, notably No.7, the road was created as part of the Thames Embankment in the mid 19th century and lies above a large interceptor sewer. The listed site has since been renovated as a purpose built arts college for the Chelsea College of Art, the Tate Britain art gallery is directly opposite near the end of Vauxhall Bridge, providing a distinct arts presence in the area. The headquarters of the British chemicals giant ICI was originally located at Imperial Chemical House on Millbank before it relocated to Manchester Square, the headquarters for the Northern Ireland Office, MI5 and Thames House are nearby. On 18 December 1973, the Provisional Irish Republican Army exploded a bomb on Thorney Street at 8, the bomb resulted in over 50 people injured, including two seriously. Millbank Studios reside in the area as an independent broadcast company, the studio is situated opposite the Houses of Parliament.
The BBC Parliament broadcasting channel is situated nearby. No.4 is the commonly used by broadcasters for producing coverage of the Westminster area, including the BBC, Sky News. RTÉ News and Current Affairs have their London bureau at the same location, neighbouring College Green is used as a setting for interviewing politicians outdoors. Millbank Estate is a large but highly regarded Grade II-listed red-brick housing estate that gives the area behind Tate Britain a distinct character, the estate was built between 1897 and 1902, the bricks being recycled from Millbank Prison, which had closed in 1890. The 17 buildings, comprising one of Londons earliest social housing schemes, are named after distinguished painters such as Turner, Millais, the estate has 562 flats, all managed on behalf of Westminster City Council by MEMO, the largest tenant management organisation in Westminster. The estates management board is elected annually from the resident population, half of the estates flats are private leaseholds, the other half are rented from Westminster City Council