Tate Britain

Tate Britain is an art museum on Millbank in the City of Westminster in London. It is part of the Tate network of galleries in England, with Tate Modern, Tate Liverpool and Tate St Ives, it is the oldest gallery in the network, having opened in 1897. It houses a substantial collection of the art of the United Kingdom since Tudor times, in particular has large holdings of the works of J. M. W. Turner, who bequeathed all his own collection to the nation, it is one of the largest museums in the country. The gallery is situated on the site of the former Millbank Prison. Construction, undertaken by Higgs and Hill, commenced in 1893, the gallery opened on 21 July 1897 as the National Gallery of British Art. However, from the start it was known as the Tate Gallery, after its founder Sir Henry Tate, in 1932 it adopted that name. Before 2000, the gallery housed and displayed both British and modern collections, but the launch of Tate Modern saw Tate's modern collections move there, while the old Millbank gallery became dedicated to the display of historical and contemporary British art.

As a consequence, it was renamed Tate Britain in March 2000. The front part of the building was designed by Sidney R. J. Smith with a classical portico and dome behind, the central sculpture gallery was designed by John Russell Pope. Tate Britain includes the Clore Gallery of 1987, designed by James Stirling, which houses work by J. M. W. Turner; the Clore Gallery has been regarded as an important example of Postmodern architecture in the use of contextual irony: each section of the external facade quotes liberally from the building next to it in regard to materials and detailing. Crises during its existence include flood damage to work from the River Thames, bomb damage during World War II. However, most of the collection was in safe storage elsewhere during the war, a large Stanley Spencer painting, deemed too big to move, had a protective brick wall built in front of it. In 1970, the building was given Grade II* listed status. In 2012, Tate Britain announced that it had raised the £45 million required to complete a major renovation thanks to a £4.9 million grant from the Heritage Lottery Fund and £1 million given by Tate Members.

The museum stayed open throughout the three phases of renovation. Completed in 2013, the newly designed sections were conceived by the architects Caruso St John and included a total of nine new galleries, with reinforced flooring to accommodate heavy sculptures. A second part was unveiled that year, the centrepiece being the reopening of the building's Thames-facing entrance as well as a new spiral staircase beneath its rotunda; the circular balcony of the rotunda's domed atrium, closed to visitors since the 1920s, was reopened. The gallery now has a dedicated schools' entrance and reception beneath its entrance steps on Millbank and a new archive gallery for the presentation of temporary displays; the front entrance is accessible by steps. A side entrance at a lower level has a ramp for wheelchair access; the gallery provides a restaurant and a café, as well as a Friends room, open only to members of the Tate. This membership is open to the public on payment of an annual subscription; as well as administration offices the building complex houses the Prints and Drawings Rooms, as well as the Library and Archive in the Hyman Kreitman Reading Rooms.

The restaurant features a mural by Rex Whistler. Tate Britain and Tate Modern are now connected by a high speed boat along the River Thames, which runs from Millbank Millennium Pier outside Tate Britain; the boat is decorated with spots, based on paintings of similar appearance by Damien Hirst. The lighting artwork incorporated in the pier's structure is by Angela Bulloch; the main display spaces show the permanent collection of historic British art, as well as contemporary work. It has rooms dedicated to works by one artist, such as: Tracey Emin, John Latham, Douglas Gordon, Sam Taylor-Wood, Tacita Dean, Marcus Gheeraerts II, though these, like the rest of the collection, are subject to rotation; the gallery organises career retrospectives of British artists and temporary major exhibitions of British Art. Every three years the gallery stages a Triennial exhibition in which a guest curator provides an overview of contemporary British Art; the 2003 Tate Triennial was called Days Like These. Art Now is a small changing show of a contemporary artist's work in a dedicated room.

Tate Britain is the home of the annual and controversial Turner Prize exhibition, featuring four artists selected by a jury chaired by the director of Tate Britain. This is spread out over the year with the four nominees announced in May, the show of their work opened in October and the prize itself given in December; each stage of the prize generates media coverage, there have been a number of demonstrations against the prize, notably since 2000 an annual picket by Stuckist artists. In recent years the exhibition and award ceremony have taken place at locations other than in Tate Britain: for example in Liverpool, Derry-Londonderry and Hull. Tate Britain has attempted to reach out to a different and younger audience with Late at Tate Britain on the first Friday of every month, with half-price admission to exhibitions, live music and performance art. Other public involvement has included the display of visitors', as opposed to curators', interpretation of certain artworks. Regular free tours operate on the hour, at 1.15 pm on Tuesday and Thursday short 15-minute talks are given on paintings and artistic styles.

Tate Britain is the national gallery of British art fr

Middachten Castle

Middachten Castle is a monumental manor house, located on the Middachten estate, De Steeg, Netherlands. The current building dates from 1693-1698; the castle is a rijksmonument since October 11, 2004, is part of the Top 100 Dutch heritage sites. The first mention of a castle on this location dates from 1190, owned by Jacobus de Mithdac. Early in the 14th century Everardus van Steenre transferred its ownership to Reinald, count of Gelre. Everardus got the castle back as a loan in 1357; the castle would remain with this family until 1625. During this time the castle was rebuilt several times. In 1673 Stadtholder William III conquered the city of Bonn, making the occupying French troops retreat, who destroyed the castle. Godard van Reede and his spouse Ursula van Raesfelt had the castle rebuilt, based on the example of Het Loo Palace in Apeldoorn, it was designed by Steven Vennecool. After the castle was rebuilt in 1698 a garden was built, based on the garden in Versailles in the period 1700-1725. In the late 18th century British style gardens became fashion, the gardens were redone in this style.

In 1900 count and countessa Bentinck-Van Heeckeren of Wassenaer had the gardens rebuilt in the original style by Hugo Poortman. The castle used to have an extensive estate; however these are no longer owned by the owners of the castle. Buildings that used to belong to the castle estate can be recognized by the red and white coloring, for example the Post office in De Steeg. Site about Middachten Castle

Freising manuscripts

The Freising manuscripts are the first Latin-script continuous text in a Slavic language and "the oldest document in Slovene". The manuscripts were found bound into a Latin codex. Four parchment leaves and a further quarter of a page have been preserved, they consist of three texts in the oldest Slovene dialect. Linguistic and contextual analyses reveal that these are church texts of careful composition and literary form; the precise date of the origin of the Freising Manuscripts cannot be determined. In this liturgic and homiletic manuscript, three Slovene records were found and this miscellany was an episcopal manual; the Freising Manuscripts in it were created between 972 and 1039, most before 1000. The main support for this dating is the writing, used in the centuries after Charlemagne and is named Carolingian minuscule. During the time of the writing of the two manuscripts, Bishop Abraham was active in Freising, it is believed. For this reason some linguists linked Abraham to the origin of the Freising Manuscripts and attributed to him the authorship of one of the texts and suspected that he was of Slovene origin, although this was disproven.

The manuscripts were discovered in Bavaria. The Slovene name Brižinski spomeniki was coined by the Carinthian Slovene philologist Anton Janežič, who Slovenized the German name Freising to Brižinj in 1854. In 1803, the manuscript came to the Bavarian State Library in Munich and the Freising Manuscripts were discovered there in 1807; the texts were translated into modern Slovene in 1854 by the philologist Anton Janežič. Before World War II, a facsimile of the Freising Manuscripts was published by Silvester Škerl at Akademska založba in Ljubljana; the manuscripts have left it only twice. In the 1970s, they were exhibited in the Vatican Museums. In May and June 2004, they were exhibited at the University Library in Ljubljana. Codex Suprasliensis Richards, Ronald O.. The Pannonian Slavic Dialect of the Common Slavic Proto-language: The View from Old Hungarian. Los Angeles: University of California. Tóth, Imre H.. "The Significance of the Freising Manuscripts for Slavic Studies in Hungary". Zbornik Brižinski spomeniki.

Ljubljana: Slovenska akademija znanosti in umetnosti. Pp. 443–448. Freising Manuscripts. Scholarly Digital Editions of Slovenian Literature. Scientific Research Centre, Slovenian Academy of Sciences and Arts. Contains a historical overview of the manuscripts, a series of studies and commentaries, a glossary and translations. Freisinger Denkmäler, Clm 6426. Bavarian State Library. Presents the manuscripts and contains links to the digitised versions kept by the library