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Tatra Mountains

The Tatra Mountains, Tatras, or Tatra, is a mountain range that forms a natural border between Slovakia and Poland. They are the highest mountain range in the Carpathian Mountains; the Tatras should not be confused with the Low Tatras, which are located south of the Tatra Mountains in Slovakia. The Tatra Mountains occupy an area of 785 square kilometres, of which about 610 square kilometres lie within Slovakia and about 175 square kilometres within Poland; the highest peak, called Gerlach, at 2,655 m, is located north of Poprad in Slovakia. The highest point in Poland, Rysy, at 2,499 m, is located south of Zakopane, on the border with Slovakia; the Tatras' length, measured from the eastern foothills of the Kobylí vrch to the southwestern foot of Ostrý vrch, in a straight line, is 57 km, along the main ridge, 80 km. The range is only 19 km wide; the main ridge of the Tatras runs from the village of Huty at the western end to the village of Ždiar at the eastern end. The Tatras are protected by law by the establishment of the Tatra National Park and the Tatra National Park, which are jointly entered in UNESCO's World Network of Biosphere Reserves.

In 1992, UNESCO jointly designated the Polish and Slovak parks a transboundary biosphere reserve in the World Network of Biosphere Reserves, under its Man and the Biosphere Programme. The first written record of the name is from 999, when the Czech Duke Boleslaus II, on his deathbed, recalled when the Duchy of Bohemia extended to the Tritri montes. Another mention is in the 1086 document from Henry IV, wherein he referred to the Diocese of Prague with Tritri mountains. Still another is in 1125. Machek in 1931 favored the theory of the Polish linguist Rozwadowski with a syllabic r like in the words chrt, smrt. In Czech this syllabic is sometimes with vowels i, e or u for example črný – černý, so the Czech reconstruction from Tritri/Tritry would be Trtry. In Polish, the term Tatry is firstly mentioned in 1255. Syllabic r has vowels on both sides in Polish, so in case of Tarty we can reconstruct the name to Tartry, where the vowel a originated before the syllabic r which dissimilated; this theory is supported by Hungarian forms of term Turtur, Tortol from 12th to 14th centuries.

It is unknown how the Slovak term looked like until the 17th century when the form Tatry is firstly mentioned and was taken from Polish and found its way into Czech and Hungarian. The term Tatra appears as a general term in Slovak for barren or stony land, in Little Russia for rocks and little stones in a river. Machek stresses that the name has no Slavic origin and mentions Rozwadowski's theory of an Illyrian origin because of a connection with a Herzegovian highland called Tatra, thus taken from local inhabitants; the name is close to the Ukrainian word for gravel, toltry. The Tatras are a mountain range of a corrugated nature, originating from the Alpine orogeny, therefore characterized by a young-looking lay of the land, quite similar to the landscape of the Alps, although smaller, it is the highest mountain range within the Carpathians. It consists of the internal mountain chains of: Eastern Tatras, which in turn consist of: the Belianske Tatras and the High Tatras Western Tatras The overall nature of the Tatras, together with their easy accessibility, makes them a favorite with tourists and researchers.

Therefore, these mountains are a popular winter sports area, with resorts such as Poprad and the town Vysoké Tatry in Slovakia created in 1999, including former separate resorts: Štrbské Pleso, Starý Smokovec, Tatranská Lomnica or Zakopane, called "winter capital of Poland". The High Tatras, with their 24 peaks exceeding 2,500 m above sea level, together with the Southern Carpathians, represent the only form of alpine landscape in the entire 1,200 kilometres length of arc of the Carpathians. By the end of the First Polish Republic, the border with the Kingdom of Hungary in the Tatras was not defined; the Tatras became an unoccupied borderland. On 20 November 1770, under the guise of protection against the epidemic of plague in the Podolia, an Austrian army entered into Polish land and formed a cordon sanitaire, seizing Sądecczyzna, Spiš and Podhale. Two years the First Partition of Poland allocated the lands to Austria. In 1824, Zakopane region and area around Morskie Oko were purchased from the authorities of the Austrian Empire by a Hungarian Emanuel Homolacs.

When Austria-Hungary was formed in 1867, the Tatra Mountains have become a natural border between the two states of the dual monarchy, but the border itself still has not been determined. In 1889, a Polish Count Władysław Zamoyski purchased at auction the Zakopane region along with the area around Morskie Oko. Due to numerous disputes over land ownership in the late 19th century, attempts were made at the delimitation of the border, they were fruitless until 1897, the case went to an international court which determined on 13 September 1902 the exact course of the Austro-Hungarian border in the disputed area. A new round of border disputes between Poland and Czechoslovakia started after the end of the First World War, when these two countries were established. Among other claims, Poland claimed owne

John F. Forester

John F. Forester is a planning theorist with a particular emphasis on participatory planning, his scholarship appeals moral philosophy, oral history and ethnographic social science, as well as planning and policy studies. He is the author of Critical Theory and Public Life, Planning in the Face of Power, The Deliberative Practitioner and "Dealing with Differences: Dramas of Mediating Public Disputes". John F. Forester was educated at the University of California, receiving a BS in 1970 and an MS in 1971, he completed a Master of City Planning in 1974, a PhD in 1977 at the University of California. His continued academic interest in planning led to his 1985 edited collection, Critical Theory and Public Life, works Planning in the Face of Power, The Deliberative Practitioner and Dealing with Differences: Dramas of Mediating Public Disputes. In 1990 he co-authored, with Norman Krumholz, "Making Equity Planning Work: Leadership in the Public Sector". In 1998 Forester was appointed chair of the Department of City and Regional Planning at Cornell University, a position he held until 2001.

He has remained with the College as an academic, has served as associate dean of the College of Architecture and Planning. He served for 20 years as a mediator for the Community Dispute Resolution Center of Tompkins County, has consulted for the Consensus Building Institute, has lectured in Seattle, Chapel Hill, Melbourne, Palermo, Johannesburg and Aix en Provence. Forester visited the University of Amsterdam for his sabbatic year, 2008–2009, as the NICIS Professor at the Amsterdam Centre for Conflict and Negotiation, University of Amsterdam. See Since January 2010, he has once again become Director of Graduate Studies in the Department of City and Regional Planning at Cornell University. In 2013, the American Planning Association published Forester's curated collection of vignette case studies in "Planning in the Face of Conflict: The Surprising Possibilities of Facilitative Leadership." Cornell University website: Faculty Profile: John Forester Profiles of Practitioners website: Profiles of Practitioners Cornell University people website: John Forester

Yidispolitics Scandal

Yidispolitics is the name given to the continuing public scandal in Colombia, since April 2008, when the ex-politician Yidis Medina admitted to have received bribes to vote in favor of the re-election project, which changed the constitution and allowed Álvaro Uribe Vélez to become president for a second term. The politicians implicated in Yidispolitics have rejected the accusations; the former president of Colombia, Álvaro Uribe Vélez, has been accused of bribery. Velez argued against these accusations saying: "The national government persuades. On June 25 of 2008, after several days of investigation, the Supreme Court of Colombia found Yidis Medin guilty of bribery and sentenced her to 47 months of house arrest. Included in the same case, the Court claimed that it would send the information to different Judicial bodies that would have to punish the public servers involved in the scandal, it asked the Constitutional Court of Colombia to review the constitutional reform that allowed Álvaro Uribe Vélez to stand for his second consecutive presidential election.

This case caused Álvaro Uribe Vélez to react against the Supreme Court suggesting links between the magistrates of the Court and groups of extreme left-wing and right-wing tendency. He suggested the passing of a constitutional referendum to legitimate his presidential re-election; the day after Álvaro Uribe Vélez's speech, those involved sued the judges of the Supreme Court. The politicians involved in this case are being investigated. Among them are: Diego Palacio Betancourt Social Welfare Minister, Sabas Pretelt De La Vega Colombian ambassador in Italy, the Interior and Justice Minister during the passing of the re-election project, that changed the constitution. Álvaro Uribe Vélez was re-elected as Colombian President for the period of 2006 - 2010, after pushing towards a reform of the Constitution to allow his consecutive re-election. The approbation of the reform was a controversial decision, due to the last minute change of mind of the representatives Yidis Medina and Teodolindo Avendaño.

There was a lot of speculation about the controversial reform, until April 2008 when Yidis Medina declared herself guilty of bribe, when she assured to a Colombian magazine El Espectador that the government did not fulfill the deal, that she was about to write a book with all the information about the case with the help of Teodolindo Avendaño. On April 20, 2008, several days after El Espectador interview, TV news show Noticias Uno broadcast a video where ex Congresswoman Yidis Medina admits before Daniel Coronell, the TV news director, to have accepted bribes from President Álvaro Uribe himself and from some of his closest collaborators, including Sabas Pretelt to change her vote in the First Commission of the Representatives' Chamber in the law project applied by the Government to allow the immediate presidential re-election that would give Uribe a chance to aspire to a second term of office; this video was recorded on August 2004 but the journalist and the congress woman agreed that it wouldn't be exposed until something unexpected happened to her.

Medina said that the video could be exposed in case she didn't receive what was agreed with the Government. Weeks before the video's broadcasting, Medina had revealed its existence in an interview with El Espectador newspaper; because of this, Coronell stated so he told her. She admitted so and the journalist announced its publication. Both President Uribe and his staff members denied Medina's accusations. Uribe said that he had a meeting with her but never had offered her or any other member of the parliament anything for his/her vote. In addition, he accused Medina of having been blackmailing his son Tomás Uribe and other high government employees by phone calls, using a list from cell-phone company Comcel as a proof, with several in-coming phone calls from Medina's number to Tomás Uribe's cell-phone. Though Medina declared it wasn't her phone number, some days it was proved wrong in an official statement by Medina's attorney. Uribe said Medina was behaving as a criminal and declared: "Her vote helped, but she shows up now as a failed, unsatisfied lady because she couldn't pull out her extortion".

Besides, he referred to his collaborators Pretelt and Palacio Betancourt as honest people with impeccable behaviour, accused journalist Daniel Coronell of having covered up the false crime. Corruption in Colombia Uribe wants a redo of the'06 presidential vote LA Times


Sarangesa is a genus of skippers in the family Hesperiidae. Most of the contained species are found in the Afrotropical realm a few are Indomalayan Sarangesa astrigera Butler, 1893 Sarangesa aza Evans, 1951 Sarangesa bouvieri Sarangesa brigida Sarangesa dasahara Moore, Sarangesa gaerdesi Evans, 1949 Sarangesa haplopa Swinhoe, 1907 Sarangesa laelius Sarangesa lucidella Sarangesa lunula Druce, 1910 Sarangesa maculata Sarangesa majorella Sarangesa maxima Neave, 1910 Sarangesa motozi Sarangesa motozioides Holland, 1892 Sarangesa pandaensis Joicey & Talbot, 1921 Sarangesa penningtoni Evans, 1951 Sarangesa phidyle Sarangesa princei Karsch, 1896 Sarangesa purendra Moore, 1882 Sarangesa ruona Evans, 1937 Sarangesa seineri Strand, 1909 Sarangesa tertullianus Sarangesa thecla Sarangesa tricerata Natural History Museum Lepidoptera genus database Seitz, A. Die Gross-Schmetterlinge der Erde 13: Die Afrikanischen Tagfalter. Plate XIII 76

Ras Nouadhibou

Ras Nouadhibou is a 60-kilometre peninsula or headland divided by the border between Mauritania and Western Sahara on the African coast of the Atlantic Ocean. It is internationally known as Cap Blanc in French. In the 14th and 15th centuries, fishing activities carried out from the nearby Canary Islands, by Spanish fishermen, inspired Spain to develop an interest in the desert coast of what is today called Western Sahara. Cabo Blanco, in the Atlantic Ocean, is the only place in the world where Mediterranean monk seals form a true colony. In 1997, two-thirds of the colony died off; the headland forms the western limit of Dakhlet Nouadhibou Bay. This thin stretch of land is divided between Western Sahara. On the western side lies the ghost town of La Güera. Portuguese sailing explorers first reached the location they called Cabo Branco in 1441; the Spanish interest in Western Africa, in the desert coast of the Sahara, resulted from fishing activities carried out from the Canary Islands by Spanish fishermen, who hunted and traded seal.

The Spanish fished and whaled off the Sahara coast from Dakhla to Ras Nouadhibou from 1500 to the present, ranging from whaling humpback whales and North Atlantic right whales and whale calves in Cape Verde, the Guinea gulf in Annobon, the São Tomé and Príncipe islands. These fishing activities have had a negative impact on wildlife and caused the disappearance or endangerment of many species of marine mammals and birds; the Spanish claimed the land from 20° 51' N to 26° 8' N in 1885. This protectorate was governed from the Canary Islands in 1887. France would claim the Western Sahara. At a joint convention held in 1900, the French and Spanish settled the boundary, dividing the area between Spanish Sahara and French West Africa. Today, the same border separates Western Sahara from Mauritania. However, the western side is policed by Mauritania, as neither Morocco nor the Polisario Front occupies the area. A lighthouse was constructed on the cape in 1910; the Mediterranean monk seal's former range extended throughout the Northwest Atlantic Africa and Black Sea, including all offshore islands of the Mediterranean, into the Atlantic and its islands: Canary, Ilhas Desertas, Porto Santo, as far west as the Azores.

Vagrants could be found as far south as Gambia and the Cape Verde islands, as far north as continental Portugal and Atlantic France. Today, the cape hosts the largest surviving single population of the species, the only remaining site which still seems to preserve a colony structure. In the summer of 1997, two-thirds of its seal population were wiped out within two months compromising the species' viable population. While opinions on the precise causes of this epidemic remain divided the mass die-off emphasized the precarious status of a species regarded as critically endangered throughout its range. While still far below the early 1997 count, numbers in this all-important location have started a slow-paced recovery since; the population in this location is estimated at 270 individuals, down from some 310 in 1997, but still the largest single colony by far. The threat of a similar incident that could wipe out the entire population remains. Captain James Riley's captivity memoir, Sufferings in Africa, recounts his and his men's experiences after beaching their ship at what is thought to be Cabo Blanco.

Robert Adams's Narrative recounts a similar experience. The Pharaon from The Count of Monte Cristo sinks between Cape Bojador. Cape Blanco is mentioned in the novel Moby Dick. Referenced in Sir Arthur Conan Doyle's short story, F. Habakuk Jephson’s Statement

North Wales station

North Wales station is a station along the SEPTA Lansdale/Doylestown Line located at Beaver and School Streets in North Wales, Pennsylvania. In FY 2013, North Wales station had a weekday average of 791 alightings; the station includes a 167-space parking lot. Parking is available on both sides of the tracks between Beaver Street and Walnut Street, which includes an entrance at Walnut and 5th Streets; the east parking lot runs between 6th Street/Railroad Street. School Street runs through the west parking lot, turns southwest while that parking lot continues to follow the tracks reaching Walnut Street. North Wales station was built in 1873 by the Reading Railroad, contained a cupola over the ticket window, iron support under the overhanging roof, a matching shelter on the opposite side of the tracks. At some point it was moved 2500 feet from its previous location, the cupola was removed, the support beams were replaced with wood. North Wales has two high-level side platforms. SEPTA - North Wales Station Station from Walnut Street from Google Maps Street View Station from Beaver Street from Google Maps Street View