A tattoo is a form of body modification where a design is made by inserting ink and pigments, either indelible or temporary, into the dermis layer of the skin to change the pigment. The art of making tattoos is tattooing. Tattoos fall into three broad categories: purely decorative. In addition, tattoos can be used for identification such as ear tattoos on livestock as a form of branding; the word tattoo, or tattow in the 18th century, is a loanword from the Samoan word tatau, meaning "to strike". The Oxford English Dictionary gives the etymology of tattoo. From Polynesian tatau. In Marquesan, tatu." Before the importation of the Polynesian word, the practice of tattooing had been described in the West as painting, scarring or staining. The etymology of the body modification term is not to be confused with the origins of the word for the military drumbeat or performance — see military tattoo. In this case, the English word tattoo is derived from the Dutch word taptoe. Copyrighted tattoo designs that are mass-produced and sent to tattoo artists are known as "flash", a notable instance of industrial design.

Flash sheets are prominently displayed in many tattoo parlors for the purpose of providing both inspiration and ready-made tattoo images to customers. The Japanese word irezumi means "insertion of ink" and can mean tattoos using tebori, the traditional Japanese hand method, a Western-style machine or any method of tattooing using insertion of ink; the most common word used for traditional Japanese tattoo designs is horimono. Japanese may use the word tattoo to mean non-Japanese styles of tattooing. British anthropologist Ling Roth in 1900 described four methods of skin marking and suggested they be differentiated under the names "tatu", "moko", "cicatrix" and "keloid"; the first is by pricking that leaves the skin smooth, as found in places including the Pacific Islands, the second a tattoo combined with chiselling to leave furrows in the skin, as found in places including New Zealand, the third is scarification using a knife or chisel, as found in places including West Africa, the fourth is scarification by irritating and re-opening a preexisting wound, rescarification, to form a raised scar, as found in places including Tasmania, Australia and Central Africa.

"Impicit in the classification was an evolutionary development from the most primitive form of body modification to the most sophisticated." The American Academy of Dermatology distinguishes five types of tattoos: traumatic tattoos called "natural tattoos", that result from injuries asphalt from road injuries or pencil lead. A traumatic tattoo occurs when a substance such as asphalt or gunpowder is rubbed into a wound as the result of some kind of accident or trauma. Coal miners could develop characteristic tattoos owing to coal dust getting into wounds; these are difficult to remove as they tend to be spread across several layers of skin, scarring or permanent discoloration is unavoidable depending on the location. An amalgam tattoo is when amalgam particles are implanted in to the soft tissues of the mouth the gums, during dental filling placement or removal. Another example of such accidental tattoos is the result of a deliberate or accidental stabbing with a pencil or pen, leaving graphite or ink beneath the skin.

Many tattoos serve as rites of passage, marks of status and rank, symbols of religious and spiritual devotion, decorations for bravery, sexual lures and marks of fertility, pledges of love and talismans, as punishment, like the marks of outcasts and convicts. The symbolism and impact of tattoos varies in different cultures. Tattoos may show how a person feels about about an unrelated person. Today, people choose to be tattooed for artistic, sentimental/memorial and magical reasons, to symbolize their belonging to or identification with particular groups, including criminal gangs or a particular ethnic group or law-abiding subculture. Popular texts include the Biblical verses John 3:16, Philippians 4:13, Psalm 23. Extensive decorative tattooing is common among members of traditional freak shows and by performance artists who follow in their tradition. People throughout history have been forcibly tattooed for means of identification. A well-known example is the Nazi practice of forcibly tattooing concentration camp inmates with identification numbers during the Holocaust as part of the Nazis' identification system, beginning in fall 1941.

The SS introduced the practice at Auschwitz concentration camp in order to identify the bodies of registered prisoners in the concentration camps. During registration, guards would pierce the outlines of the serial-number digits onto the prisoners' arms. Of the Nazi concentration camps, only Auschwitz put tattoos on inmates; the tattoo was the prisoner's camp number, sometimes with a special symbol added: some Jews had a triangle, Romani had the letter "Z". In May 1944, Jewish men received the letters "A" or "B" to indicate a particular series of numbers. Tattoos have been used for identification in other ways; as early as the Zhou, Chinese authorities would employ facial tattoos as a punishment for certain crimes or to mark prisoners or slaves. During the Roman Empire and slaves were tattooed: exported slaves we


The Radio Telephone Network C, was a first generation analog cellular phone system deployed and operated in Germany by DeTeMobil. It utilized the C450 standard and was the third and last update of a series of analog mobile phone systems used within Germany, superseding the B-Netz and the A-Netz before it, it has been replaced by both the newer D-Netz and E-Netz systems. The dialing code for the C-Netz was 0161, no longer in use; as a result, users were not able to transfer their numbers to GSM networks when the C-Netz was shut down. The C-Netz was introduced in 1985 to replace the existing B-Netz/B2-Netz system used in Germany at the time. Due to problems with the B-Netz mobile networks, early adoption of C-Netz was high in rural areas which had lacked prior B-Netz coverage. However, like other first-generation analog systems, it suffered from poor call quality and was susceptible to eavesdropping; the system was built up in West Germany and West Berlin, but following German reunification in 1990, was built up in the new German states.

By December 1988, the service had grown to nearly 100,000 customers, reached a peak user base of around 800,000 in the early 1990s. It remained popular throughout the decade as a preferred system for mobile car phones rural taxi services, where it enjoyed an advantage in reception. However, it was inferior in all other ways to the newer GSM networks, by the late 1990s Deutsche Telekom stopped accepting new customers, its user base dropped rapidly. The C-Netz service was shut down on December 31, 2000; some cells near the German-Dutch border remained active for several more months but were discontinued as well. The C-Netz radio spectrum in Germany was reallocated for use with Flarion's Flash-OFDM mobile networking standard which launched in 2005, it was used to service Germany's rail service with Internet connectivity under the name Railnet. The C450 standard was developed by Siemens in 1980, it is a 1G analog cellular standard that utilized non-audible in-band signaling, audio scrambling via band-inversion and cell network call queuing when congested.

Cellular nodes varied in size, supporting a primary cell size of 15–20 km and micro-cells of 2–3 km in size. Channel bandwidth was 20 kHz, although it could be operated in a narrow-band mode of only 12 kHz; as its name implies, it was designed for the 450 MHz UHF frequency range. The C-Netz's C450 standard was a heterogeneous cellular system. France used the RadioCom 2000 analog standard while Sweden, the Netherlands and Switzerland used the NMT analog standard in the 450 or 900 MHz bands. Austria's own C-Netz system utilized the NMT standard, not C450; this differs from previous systems used in Austria. A-Netz B-Netz D-Netz E-Netz

Former Ploiești derby

The Former Ploiești derby is the name given in football to any match between Petrolul Ploiești and Astra Giurgiu. Petrolul Ploiești leads regarding honours, as they won the Liga I four times and the Cupa României three times. Astra Giurgiu won one Liga I, one Cupa României, two Supercupa României. Astra was founded in 1921 in Ploiești, while Petrolul was founded three years in Bucharest as Juventus, following the merger of Triumf and Romcomit. In 1952 it moved to Ploiești, changed its name to Flacăra Ploiești accordingly. After 91 years, in September 2012, Astra moved to Giurgiu; the actual rivalry started in 1998. After its relocation to Giurgiu, the rivalry continued between the governances of the clubs. However, Petrolul fans consider the derby with Rapid București the most important one; as of 12 December 2015 Petrolul Ploiești win Draw Astra Giurgiu win As of 12 December 2015 Petrolul Ploiești win Draw Astra Giurgiu 2 win As of 10 Aprilie 2018 Petrolul Ploiești official website Astra Giurgiu official website