Glossary of bowling

This glossary relates to terms applicable to ten-pin bowling. For candlepin terms, see Candlepin bowling#Jargon. 180: A pinsetter malfunction in which the sweep bar is stuck at the back of the lane, halfway through a pinsetter cycle. 270: A pinsetter malfunction in which the pin sweep is stuck at the front of the pin deck and the setter is unable to lower the next set of pins. In some bowling establishments, this malfunction is incorrectly referred to as 180. ABC: American Bowling Congress, the first enduring standards and rules governing organization for ten-pin bowling in the United States, formed in September 1895 and merged in 2005 with other organizations to form the United States Bowling Congress. Abralon: An abrasion technology product used to "sand" ball coverstocks with different grits to control the amount of friction between the coverstock and lane. Absentee: See blind. Action bowling: Bowling contests involving money betting associated with the New York underworld from the 1940s to the 1970s.

Adjust: A change in technique—especially in alignment, but in approach, delivery or targeting—often made in response to changing lane conditions or to correct undesirable ball motion. Align: A choice of location of the feet during setup, location of the sliding foot at time of release, choice of target, which collectively determine initial ball trajectory. Alignment is expressed in terms of board number and arrow number, for example, "standing at 25, sliding at 20, looking at the second arrow". Anchor: In league play, the person bowling last: the bowler with the highest average or the best performer under pressure. Andy Varipapa 300: 12 consecutive strikes bowled across two games. Angle of entry: The angle at which the ball is moving when first impacting a pin, measured with respect to a line parallel to the lane's boards. A ball that hooks has a larger angle of entry than a ball thrown in a straight line. Approach: The part of the delivery that leads up to the release. Approach denotes the area behind the foul line.

Arrows: Seven regularly-spaced arrowhead-shaped guides located about 15 feet past the foul line, used as targets for rolling the ball. Arsenal: The set of bowling balls available for a bowler's use. Balls in an arsenal are chosen to be mutually distinct in coverstock, core characteristics, pin configuration, to achieve desired ball paths under different lane conditions. Asymmetric: Adjective describing a ball, not symmetric, therefore tending to have greater flare potential. Adjective is applied to the ball's core. Average: The total of scores from multiple games divided by the number of games, rounded down to an integer value. Axis rotation: Angle of the ball's axis of rotation in a horizontal plane, measured with respect to a line parallel to the foul line. Initial axis rotation is defined at the time of release. Referred to as side roll. Distinguish: axis tilt. Axis tilt: Angle of the ball's axis of rotation in a vertical plane, measured with respect to the horizontal. Initial axis tilt is defined at the time of release.

Distinguish: axis rotation. Baby Split: A split which can be converted by hitting both pins with the ball. Examples: 2-7, 4-5. Back _#_: A number, _#_, of consecutive strikes ending with the final roll of a game. Compare: front #_. Back-up ball: A ball thrown with a right-handed release that hooks left to right, or thrown with a left-handed release that hooks right to left. Back end: The third of the lane furthest from the foul line, that lacks oil. _#_-Bagger: A string of _#_ consecutive strikes. Baker format: A team game scoring format in which a team's members bowl frames in a repetitive order to complete a single game. Named after 1950s American Bowling Congress officer Frank K. Baker. Ball reaction: Change in direction of ball motion due to frictional contact with the lane surface, the term applied to describe the amount of hook. Shortened to reaction. Ball speed: Rate at which a ball as a whole moves down the lane. Distinguish: rev rate, which describes a ball's rotational velocity. Beer frame: Frame in which the only bowler on a team not to strike in the frame, or the bowler with the lowest score in a predetermined frame, buys beer for his teammates.

BFO: When three of the first four bowlers of a five-man team have struck such that if the fourth strikes, the frame will constitute a beer frame. Big Four: A split where only the 4, 6, 7 and 10 pins are standing. Blind: In league play, a score attributed to a team member, absent for a particular session, the score smaller than his average. Called "absentee score" or "dummy score". Distinguish: vacancy. Blocked lane: A lane with an oil pattern in which high oil volume on the middle boards allows a shot missed to inside to slide toward the pocket and not cross over, in which low oil volume on the outer boards causes a shot missed to the outside to hook more toward the pocket, the differing oil concentrations collectively increasing the margin of error for a strike. See typical house shot. Distinguish: over/under. Blow-out-five: On a full rack, the ball hits light in the pocket, but still hits the 5-pin and makes it fly into the 7-pin to strike. Broadcaster Nelson Burton, Jr. used this term. If the result of a pocket hit like this leaves a corner pin, the resulting leave is a "Swishing 7".

Swishing 7-10 splits can happen. Bo Derek: Used by Rob Stone, ten

Port Elizabeth Harbour 0-4-0ST

The Port Elizabeth Harbour 0-4-0ST of 1894 was a South African steam locomotive from the pre-Union era in the Cape of Good Hope. Between 1894 and 1902, eight 0-4-0 saddle-tank locomotives entered shunting service at the Port Elizabeth Harbour, they were taken onto the Cape Government Railways roster in 1908 and all of them were still in service when the South African Railways classification and renumbering was implemented in 1912. In 1894 and 1895, four 0-4-0 saddle-tank locomotives were delivered to the Port Elizabeth Harbour Board from Black, Hawthorn & Company, they were numbered in the range from 1 to 4 and placed in service as harbour shunters at Port Elizabeth Harbour. By 1901, their numbers 1 to 4 had been replaced by the letters D to G. During 1896, the firm of Black, Hawthorn was taken over by Chapman and Furneaux, who delivered another two of these locomotives in 1901. Instead of being numbered, these were lettered K and L; the firm of Chapman and Furneaux closed down in 1902. Two locomotives, ordered from them in February 1902, order numbers 1213 and 1214, were built instead by Hudswell, Clarke & Company, ex works in July 1902 with works numbers 616 and 617.

These two were lettered M and N. In 1904, one of these locomotives, ex no. 4/G, was sent to Port Alfred on loan to the Kowie Railway Company, who used it as yard engine in Port Alfred station. While there, the name plates from the recently withdrawn 4 ft 8 1⁄2 in broad gauge engine Aid of 1878 were affixed to the saddle-tank of no. 4, it became the engine Aid reincarnated. Many people erroneously believed that it was one-and-the-same locomotive, to the extent that it became accepted as fact; the locomotive was returned to Port Elizabeth in 1910. In terms of Act 38 of 1908, the Cape Government Railways became responsible for the administration of the three major harbours in the Cape of Good Hope with effect from 1 January 1909; the locomotives were therefore all taken onto the CGR roster and renumbered in the range from 1015 to 1022. When the Union of South Africa was established on 31 May 1910, the three Colonial government railways were united under a single administration to control and administer the railways and harbours of the Union.

Although the South African Railways and Harbours came into existence in 1910, the actual classification and renumbering of all the rolling stock of the three constituent railways was only implemented with effect from 1 January 1912. In 1912, these locomotives were considered obsolete by the South African Railways and renumbered by having the numeral "0" prefixed to their existing numbers. In June 1914, SAR no. 01017 was transferred to Mosselbaai Harbour. The rest remained in service in Port Elizabeth Harbour. In July 1929, SAR no. 01021 was sold to Rhodesia Railways, where it was given RR number 5. The locomotive never left South Africa, since it was purchased for use as shop engine at the RR's Mafeking Workshop, staffed by SAR personnel; the engine was scrapped in 1940. In the classification and renumbering lists of the SAR, published in 1912, three additional 0-4-0 tank locomotives of uncertain origin are listed as Port Elizabeth Harbour locomotives. Two of them are listed as CGR numbers 1012 and 1013, built by Peckett and Sons, while the third is listed as CGR no.

1014, built by Lowca Engineering Company. Considered obsolete by the SAR, they were renumbered with a numeral "0" prefixed to their CGR numbers; these locomotives are shown here for the sake of completeness and because their PEHB letters and CGR and SAR numbers precede those of the eight locomotives which are the subject of this article. It has since been discovered that the builder's details about the first two of these locomotives in the Rolling Stock Register was incorrect as a result of the locomotives getting equipped with replacement parts, such as new boilers bearing the markings of a manufacturer other than the original locomotive builder; the first locomotive, PEHB A CGR no. 1012 SAR no. 01012, was built by Fox and Company, a predecessor of Peckett and Sons, as a Class W 0-4-0ST, ex-works in December 1876 and landed in Port Elizabeth in April 1877. Its erroneous description as a Peckett locomotive could be as a result of the Peckett name appearing on replaced parts on the locomotive.

How the first two locomotives both came to be described as Peckett locomotives in the 1912 renumbering lists is not known, since no records have been found of another Fox, Walker or Peckett locomotive which could have ended up on the Port Elizabeth Harbour Board roster. The second locomotive, PEHB B CGR no. 1013 SAR no. 01013, was more to be a 0-4-0ST engine, delivered to the Despatch Brickmaking & Woolwashing Company in Port Elizabeth, built in 1881 by Andrew Barclay Sons & Co. The Port Elizabeth Harbour Board Report for 1903 refers to the purchase of a small tank locomotive from the Despatch Brick Works. Since Andrew Barclay employed Ogee shaped tanks and since no other tank locomotives of this shape came to South Africa, it can be safely assumed that the engine depicted is the Despatch engine; the third locomotive, PEHB C CGR no. 1014 SAR no. 01014, is believed to be Lowca Engineering's works no. 232 of 1898, which went to the Table Bay Harbour Board, where it is believed to have been the TBHB's second no. 3, transferred to Port Elizabeth before 1901.

The builders, works numbers, order dates, original numbers and letterings and disposition of the Port Elizabeth Harbour Board 0-4-0ST locomotives of 1894 are listed in the table. The Fox and Lowca locomotives are included in the table