Tavistock and Portman NHS Foundation Trust
The Tavistock and Portman NHS Foundation Trust is a specialist mental health trust based in north London. The Trust specialises in talking therapies; the education and training department caters for 2,000 students a year from the United Kingdom and abroad. The Trust is based at the Tavistock Centre in Swiss Cottage; the founding organisation was the Tavistock institute of medical psychology founded in 1920 by Dr. Hugh Crichton-Miller, it has long been regarded as a professional centre of excellence of international renown, in its application of psychoanalytic ideas to the study and treatment of mental health and interpersonal dynamics. The institution is notable for the great number of publications that have issued from it and its continuing engagement in a broad dialogue on the major social issues of the day, its approaches have in the past been seen to be influential in the British Army, the English Prison service, aspects of the judicial system, the Probation Service, in Education, Social Services, the National Health Service, in Management consulting across industry and in the arts.
Its signal attribute has been the Multidisciplinary approach to its work. The main challenge to its influence appears to be driven by accountancy-led policy. Threats to the Clinic's organisational and financial survival have surfaced from time to time. At one such juncture, in 1994, it joined forces with the neighbouring Portman Clinic in Fitzjohn's Avenue; the Portman specialises in areas of Forensic psychiatry, including the treatment of addictive and criminal behaviours and tendencies. It owes its name to the fact; when it moved to larger premises, it took its name with it. Although Hugh Crichton-Miller was a psychiatrist who developed psychological treatments for shell-shocked soldiers during and after the First World War, clinical services were always destined for both children and adults; the clinic's first patient was a child. From its foundation it was clear that to offer free treatment to all who need it meant that the Tavistock Clinic needed to generate income by providing training to clinical professionals who could help people across the UK and beyond.
The clinical staff were researchers. These principles remain influential to this day. Following its foundation the Tavistock Clinic developed a focus on preventive psychiatry, expertise in group relations – including army officer selection – social psychiatry, action research. There was an openness to different streams of research and thought as for instance the famous series of lectures given by the Swiss psychiatrist and one time collaborator of Sigmund Freud, Dr. Carl Jung, which were attended by doctors and members of the public, including H. G. Wells and Samuel Beckett, its staff, who were still unpaid honorary psychiatrists and social workers, were interested in researching and consulting to leadership within the armed forces. The staff offered treatment to members of the civilian population who might be traumatised by the prospect of a further world war, which could bring bombing of cities, evacuation of children and the shocks of loss and bereavement. After the Second World War, the Tavistock Clinic benefited from the Northfield Hospital experience and from the arrival of talented professionals from Europe, many fleeing Nazi persecution.
In 1948 it became a leading clinic within the newly created National Health Service. At this point its education and training services were managed separately by the Tavistock Institute for Medical Psychology, the umbrella for the Tavistock Institute, involved in social action research and thinking about group relations and organisational dynamics, for work with marital couples; the clinic was managed on a democratic model by a professional committee and developed further its distinct focus on multi-disciplinary and community-centred work. New developments in child and adolescent mental health were fruitful in the immediate post-war period. In 1948 the creation of the children's department supported the development of training in child and adolescent psychotherapy. Dr John Bowlby supported this new training and naturalistic infant observation, he developed Attachment Theory. Clinicians James and Joyce Robertson showed in their film work the impact of separation in temporary substitute care on young children for example, when their parent was admitted to hospital.
The Tavistock Clinic opened its Adolescent Department in 1959, recognising the distinctive developmental needs and difficulties of younger and older adolescents. In 1989 the Tavistock established the Gender Identity Development Service, a specialised clinic for young people presenting with difficulties with their gender identity. By the 1960s The Tavistock Clinic was providing both 1-year and 4-year professional training courses in educational psychology, the latter embracing a teacher training element through Leicester University School of Education. For a number of years the senior tutor and principal psychologist for these courses was Irene Caspari who did much to promote the concept and practice of Educational therapy. In the 1970s systemic psychotherapy became the Tavistock Clinic's newest professional training. Applications of the clinical ideas and skills of its multidisciplinary clinicians are at the heart of its education and training, with academically validated programmes developing from the early 1990s with the University of East London, with the University of Essex and Middlesex University.
Work discussion, supervised clinical practice and experiential group relations work are central to many trainings all of which aim to equip mental health workers with the emotional and relational capacities to operate
A double-decker bus is a bus that has two storeys or decks. Double-decker buses are used for mass transport in the United Kingdom, Europe and many former European possessions, the most iconic example being the red London bus. Early double-deckers put the driver in a separate cab. Passenger access was via an open platform at the rear, a bus conductor would collect fares. Modern double-deckers have a main entrance door at the front, the driver takes fares, thus halving the number of bus workers aboard, but slowing the boarding process; the rear open platform, popular with passengers, was abandoned for safety reasons, as there was a risk of passengers falling when running and jumping onto the bus. Double-deckers are for commuter transport but open-top models are used as sight-seeing buses for tourists. William Gladstone, speaking of London's double-deck horse drawn omnibuses, once observed that "...the best way to see London is from the top of a bus". Cities listed here have double-decker buses as part of their regular mass transit fleet.
Cities with only tourist and sightseeing double-decker buses are excluded. The first commercial horse-drawn double-decker omnibuses were introduced in England in 1847 by Adams & Co. of Fairfield, Bow improved upon by John Greenwood, who introduced a new double-decker in 1852. Double-decker buses are in common use throughout the United Kingdom, have been favoured over articulated buses by many operators because of the shorter length of double-deckers and larger amount of seating capacity; the majority of double-decker buses in the UK are between 9.5 metres and 11.1 metres long, the latter being more common since the mid-1990s, though there are three-axle 12-metre models in service with some operators. Double-decker coaches in the UK have traditionally been 12.0 metres in length, though many newer models are about 13.75 metres. The maximum permissible length of a rigid double-decker bus and coach in the UK is 15.0 metres, however the total maximum dimensions, including trailer or articulated section, in normal circumstances are.
Articulated double-deckers are allowed at a maximum length of 18.65 metres. In 1941, Miss Phyllis Thompson became the first woman licensed to drive a double-decker vehicle in the United Kingdom, she drove for the bus company Felix Bus Services at Hatfield near Doncaster. The red double-decker buses in London have become a national symbol of England; the majority of buses in London are double-deckers. A iconic example was the AEC Routemaster bus, a staple of the public transport network in London for nearly half a century following its introduction in 1956; because of cited difficulties accommodating disabled passengers, the last remaining Routemasters in use retired from general service in 2005. Transport for London has continued to keep these vintage buses in operation on heritage route 15H, there was a second heritage route but this ceased operation in 2014 due to low patronage and increased operation costs. In 2007, a hybrid-powered double-decker entered service on London Buses route 141. By late 2008, more hybrid double-deckers from three manufacturers entered service in London.
A New Routemaster was developed that year, entered service on 20 February 2012. In October 2015, London added five all-electric double-decker buses - the world's first - made by Chinese firm BYD. Bus Vannin operate several double-deckers on routes all across the island. In the Republic of Ireland, nearly all of buses operated in and around Greater Dublin by Dublin Bus are double-deckers. There are 936 double-decker buses in the company's fleet of 942. Bus Éireann utilises double-decker buses on some of its commuter routes, such as the Dublin to Dundalk service. Double-deckers are common on some of the company's suburban routes in Cork city. More luxurious Double-Deckers are used on Intercity Routes like the XI Dublin-Belfast Route or X3/X4 Dublin-Derry route. Double decker buses were in use on city services in Vienna between 1960 and 1991, they are used on services between Vienna and its airport, operated by Ötztaler Verkehrsgesellschaft under contract to ÖBB-Postbus on service 4420 between Innsbruck and Lienz.
Since 1970, various operators of Copenhagen city transport were using double-deckers—originally Leyland, in the 1980s-90s MAN and in the 2000s Volvo, derivates of model B7. The first French double-decker bus was brought into service in Paris in 1853; the upper floor was cheaper and uncovered. The first double-decker motor bus in Paris, the Schneider Brillié P2, appeared in 1906, it was designed to replace the horse-drawn double-decker omnibus. Like trams and omnibuses, double-decker motor buses included two classes of travel: first class inside the car and second class outdoors on top, but this type of vehicle was withdrawn in 1911. It was not until 1966. A prototype built by Berliet, was put into service in 1966, with an order being placed for 25 vehicles; the first production car was commissioned on 19 June 1968 on Gare Montparnasse - Levallois. On 17 February 1969, Opera - Porte d'Asnieres was in turn equipped with this model, but traffic problems caused RATP to definitively abandon this ve
The London Underground is a public rapid transit system serving London and some parts of the adjacent counties of Buckinghamshire and Hertfordshire in the United Kingdom. The Underground has its origins in the Metropolitan Railway, the world's first underground passenger railway. Opened in January 1863, it is now part of the Metropolitan lines; the network has expanded to 11 lines, in 2017/18 carried 1.357 billion passengers, making it the world's 11th busiest metro system. The 11 lines collectively handle up to 5 million passengers a day; the system's first tunnels were built just below the surface. The system has 250 miles of track. Despite its name, only 45% of the system is underground in tunnels, with much of the network in the outer environs of London being on the surface. In addition, the Underground does not cover most southern parts of Greater London, with fewer than 10% of the stations located south of the River Thames; the early tube lines owned by several private companies, were brought together under the "UndergrounD" brand in the early 20th century and merged along with the sub-surface lines and bus services in 1933 to form London Transport under the control of the London Passenger Transport Board.
The current operator, London Underground Limited, is a wholly owned subsidiary of Transport for London, the statutory corporation responsible for the transport network in Greater London. As of 2015, 92% of operational expenditure is covered by passenger fares; the Travelcard ticket was introduced in 1983 and Oyster, a contactless ticketing system, in 2003. Contactless card payments were introduced in 2014, the first public transport system in the world to do so; the LPTB was a prominent patron of art and design, commissioning many new station buildings and public artworks in a modernist style. The schematic Tube map, designed by Harry Beck in 1931, was voted a national design icon in 2006 and now includes other TfL transport systems such as the Docklands Light Railway, London Overground and Tramlink. Other famous London Underground branding includes the roundel and Johnston typeface, created by Edward Johnston in 1916; the idea of an underground railway linking the City of London with the urban centre was proposed in the 1830s, the Metropolitan Railway was granted permission to build such a line in 1854.
To prepare construction, a short test tunnel was built in 1855 in Kibblesworth, a small town with geological properties similar to London. This test tunnel was used for two years in the development of the first underground train, was in 1861, filled up; the world's first underground railway, it opened in January 1863 between Paddington and Farringdon using gas-lit wooden carriages hauled by steam locomotives. It was hailed as a success, carrying 38,000 passengers on the opening day, borrowing trains from other railways to supplement the service; the Metropolitan District Railway opened in December 1868 from South Kensington to Westminster as part of a plan for an underground "inner circle" connecting London's main-line stations. The Metropolitan and District railways completed the Circle line in 1884, built using the cut and cover method. Both railways expanded, the District building five branches to the west reaching Ealing, Uxbridge and Wimbledon and the Metropolitan extended as far as Verney Junction in Buckinghamshire, more than 50 miles from Baker Street and the centre of London.
For the first deep-level tube line, the City and South London Railway, two 10 feet 2 inches diameter circular tunnels were dug between King William Street and Stockwell, under the roads to avoid the need for agreement with owners of property on the surface. This opened in 1890 with electric locomotives that hauled carriages with small opaque windows, nicknamed padded cells; the Waterloo and City Railway opened in 1898, followed by the Central London Railway in 1900, known as the "twopenny tube". These two ran electric trains in circular tunnels having diameters between 11 feet 8 inches and 12 feet 2.5 inches, whereas the Great Northern and City Railway, which opened in 1904, was built to take main line trains from Finsbury Park to a Moorgate terminus in the City and had 16-foot diameter tunnels. While steam locomotives were in use on the Underground there were contrasting health reports. There were many instances of passengers collapsing whilst travelling, due to heat and pollution, leading for calls to clean the air through the installation of garden plants.
The Metropolitan encouraged beards for staff to act as an air filter. There were other reports claiming beneficial outcomes of using the Underground, including the designation of Great Portland Street as a "sanatorium for asthma and bronchial complaints", tonsillitis could be cured with acid gas and the Twopenny Tube cured anorexia. With the advent of electric Tube services, the Volks Electric Railway, in Brighton, competition from electric trams, the pioneering Underground companies needed modernising. In the early 20th century, the District and Metropolitan railways needed to electrify and a joint committee recommended an AC system, the two companies
London Buses route 30
London Buses route 30 is a Transport for London contracted bus route in London, England. Running between Hackney Wick and Marble Arch station, it is operated by Metroline. By 1987 the route had been amended to run from Hackney to Earl's Court, taking about 75 minutes to complete the journey, at a frequency of one bus every 14 minutes. Driver-only operation was introduced in January 1987 with double-deckers, three months the route was reported to be carrying around 20,000 passengers per day. In June 2010, the route was revealed to be the sixth worst performing route in London; as a result of this, new bus priority measures were introduced on the route. Upon being re-tendered in 2010, the route was awarded to First London from 25 June 2011. On 22 June 2013, route 30 was included in the sale of First London's Lea Interchange garage to Tower Transit. On 23 June 2018, the route passed to Metroline operating from their King's Cross garage. On 7 July 2005 at 09:47, a Stagecoach London Dennis Trident 2 double-decker bus, fleet number 17758, registration LX03 BUF, was involved in a terrorist attack perpetrated by Hasib Hussain, a bomb in whose rucksack exploded, killing 13 other passengers as well as himself.
The explosion destroyed the back of the vehicle. The detonation took place close to the British Medical Association building in Tavistock Square; the bus was off line of route and on diversion due to earlier multiple attacks on the London Underground system. The bus was replaced by the first Alexander Dennis Enviro400 produced, named Spirit of London to symbolise the courage of Londoners. Route 30 operates via these primary locations: Hackney Wick Trowbridge Road South Hackney Morning Lane Hackney Central station Hackney Downs station Dalston Junction station Kingsland High Street Canonbury Highbury Corner Islington Town Hall Angel station King's Cross station St Pancras International Euston bus station for Euston station Euston Square station Great Portland Street station Regent's Park station Baker Street station Marble Arch station The #30 bus is mentioned in the song Kiss Me Deadly, by the pop music band Generation X, released on their 1978 long-player Generation X. Media related to London Buses route 30 at Wikimedia Commons Timetable
A blue plaque is a permanent sign installed in a public place in the United Kingdom and elsewhere to commemorate a link between that location and a famous person, event, or former building on the site, serving as a historical marker. The term is used in the United Kingdom in two different senses, it may be used narrowly and to refer to the "official" scheme administered by English Heritage, restricted to sites within Greater London. The "official" scheme traces its origins to that launched in 1866 in London, on the initiative of the politician William Ewart, to mark the homes and workplaces of famous people, it has been administered successively by the Society of Arts, the London County Council, the Greater London Council and English Heritage. It remains focused on London, although between 1998 and 2005, under a trial programme since discontinued, 34 plaques were erected elsewhere in England; the first such scheme in the world, it has directly or indirectly provided the inspiration and model for many others.
Many other plaque schemes have since been initiated in the United Kingdom. Some are restricted to a specific geographical area, others to a particular theme of historical commemoration, they are administered by a range of bodies including local authorities, civic societies, residents' associations and other organisations such as the Transport Trust, the Royal Society of Chemistry, the Music Hall Guild of Great Britain and America and the British Comic Society. The plaques erected are made in a variety of designs, shapes and colours: some are blue, others are not. However, the term "blue plaque" is used informally to encompass all such schemes. There are commemorative plaque schemes throughout the world such as those in Paris, Oslo, Dublin; the forms these take vary, they are more to be known as commemorative plaques or historical markers. The original blue plaque scheme was established by the Society of Arts in 1867, since 1986 has been run by English Heritage, it is the oldest such scheme in the world.
Since 1984 English Heritage have commissioned Frank Ashworth to make the plaques which have been inscribed by his wife, Sue, at their home in Cornwall. English Heritage plans to erect an average of twelve new blue plaques each year in London. Many are unveiled by prominent public people: for example, in 2010 a plaque dedicated to John Lennon was unveiled in Montagu Square by Yoko Ono, at the house where the couple shot the cover of the album Two Virgins. After being conceived by politician William Ewart in 1863, the scheme was initiated in 1866 by Ewart, Henry Cole and the Society of Arts, which erected plaques in a variety of shapes and colours; the first plaque was unveiled in 1867 to commemorate Lord Byron at his birthplace, 24 Holles Street, Cavendish Square. This house was demolished in 1889; the earliest blue plaque to survive put up in 1867, commemorates Napoleon III in King Street, St James's. Byron’s plaque was blue, but the colour was changed by the manufacturer Minton, Hollins & Co to chocolate brown to save money.
In total the Society of Arts put up 35 plaques. The Society only erected one plaque within the square-mile of the City of London, that to Samuel Johnson on his house in Gough Square, in 1876. In 1879, it was agreed that the City of London Corporation would be responsible for erecting plaques within the City to recognise its jurisdictional independence; this demarcation has remained since. In 1901, the Society of Arts scheme was taken over by the London County Council, which gave much thought to the future design of the plaques, it was decided to keep the basic shape and design of the Society's plaques, but to make them uniformly blue, with a laurel wreath and the LCC's title. Though this design was used from 1903 to 1938, some experimentation occurred in the 1920s, plaques were made in bronze and lead. Shape and colour varied. In 1921, the most common plaque design was revised, as it was discovered that glazed ceramic Doulton ware was cheaper than the encaustic used. In 1938, a new plaque design was prepared by an unnamed student at the LCC's Central School of Arts and Crafts and was approved by the committee.
It omitted the decorative elements of earlier plaque designs, allowed for lettering to be better spaced and enlarged. A white border was added to the design shortly after, this has remained the standard since. No plaques were erected between 1915 and 1919, or between 1940 and 1947, owing to the two world wars; the LCC formalised the selection criteria for the scheme in 1954. When the LCC was abolished in 1965, the scheme was taken over by the Greater London Council; the principles of the scheme changed little, but now applied to the entire, much larger, administrative county of Greater London. The GLC was keen to broaden the range of people commemorated; the GLC erected 252 plaques, the subjects including Sylvia Pankhurst, Samuel Coleridge-Taylor, Mary Seacole. In 1986, the GLC was disbanded and the blue plaques scheme passed to English Heritage. English Heritage erected more than 300 plaques in London. In January 2013 English Heritage suspended proposals for plaques owing to funding cuts; the National Trust's chairman stated.
In the event the scheme was relaunched by English Heritage in June 2014 with private funding (including support from a new donors' club, the Blue Plaques
Adeline Virginia Woolf was an English writer, considered one of the most important modernist 20th-century authors and a pioneer in the use of stream of consciousness as a narrative device. Woolf was born into an affluent household in South Kensington, the seventh child in a blended family of eight, her mother, Julia Prinsep Jackson, celebrated as a Pre-Raphaelite artist's model, had three children from her first marriage, while Woolf's father, Leslie Stephen, a notable man of letters, had one previous daughter. The Stephens produced another four children, including the modernist painter Vanessa Bell. While the boys in the family received college educations, the girls were home-schooled in English classics and Victorian literature. An important influence in Virginia Woolf's early life was the summer home the family used in St Ives, where she first saw the Godrevy Lighthouse, to become iconic in her novel To the Lighthouse. Woolf's childhood came to an abrupt end in 1895 with the death of her mother and her first mental breakdown, followed two years by the death of her stepsister and surrogate mother, Stella Duckworth.
From 1897 to 1901, she attended the Ladies' Department of King's College London, where she studied classics and history and came into contact with early reformers of women's higher education and the women's rights movement. Other important influences were her Cambridge-educated brothers and unfettered access to her father's vast library. Encouraged by her father, Woolf began writing professionally in 1900, her father's death in 1905 caused another mental breakdown for Woolf. Following his death, the Stephen family moved from Kensington to the more bohemian Bloomsbury, where they adopted a free-spirited lifestyle, it was in Bloomsbury where, in conjunction with the brothers' intellectual friends, the Stephens formed the artistic and literary Bloomsbury Group. Following her 1912 marriage to Leonard Woolf, the couple founded the Hogarth Press in 1917, which published much of her work; the couple rented a home in Sussex and moved there permanently in 1940. Throughout her life, Woolf was troubled by bouts of mental illness.
She was institutionalized attempted suicide at least twice. Her illness is considered to have been bipolar disorder, for which there was no effective intervention during her lifetime. At age 59, Woolf committed suicide in 1941 by putting rocks in her coat pockets and drowning herself in the River Ouse. During the interwar period, Woolf was an important part of London's artistic society. In 1915 she published her first novel, The Voyage Out, through her half-brother's publishing house, Gerald Duckworth and Company, her best-known works include the novels Mrs Dalloway, To the Orlando. She is known for her essays, including A Room of One's Own, in which she wrote the much-quoted dictum, "A woman must have money and a room of her own if she is to write fiction." Woolf became one of the central subjects of the 1970s movement of feminist criticism and her works have since garnered much attention and widespread commentary for "inspiring feminism." Her works have been translated into more than 50 languages.
A large body of literature is dedicated to her life and work, she has been the subject of plays and films. Woolf is commemorated today by statues, societies dedicated to her work and a building at the University of London. Virginia Woolf was born Adeline Virginia Stephen on 25 January 1882 at 22 Hyde Park Gate in South Kensington, London to Julia and Leslie Stephen, historian, essayist and mountaineer. Julia Jackson was born in 1846 in Calcutta, British India to Dr. John Jackson and Maria "Mia" Theodosia Pattle, from two Anglo-Indian families. John Jackson FRCS was the third son of George Jackson and Mary Howard of Bengal, a physician who spent 25 years with the Bengal Medical Service and East India Company and a professor at the fledgling Calcutta Medical College. While John Jackson was an invisible presence, the Pattle family were famous beauties, moved in the upper circles of Bengali society; the seven Pattle sisters married into important families. Julia Margaret Cameron was a celebrated photographer, while Virginia married Earl Somers, their daughter, Julia Jackson's cousin, was Lady Henry Somerset, the temperance leader.
Julia moved to England with her mother at the age of two and spent much of her early life with another of her mother's sister, Sarah Monckton Pattle. Sarah and her husband Henry Thoby Prinsep, conducted an artistic and literary salon at Little Holland House where she came into contact with a number of Pre-Raphaelite painters such as Edward Burne-Jones, for whom she modelled. Julia was the youngest of three sisters and Adeline Virginia Stephen was named after her mother's eldest sister Adeline Maria Jackson and her mother's aunt Virginia Pattle; because of the tragedy of her aunt Adeline's death the previous year, the family never used Virginia's first name. The Jacksons were a well educated and artistic proconsular middle-class family. In 1867, Julia Jackson married Herbert Duckworth, a barrister, but within three years was left a widow with three infant children, she was devastated and entered a prolonged period of mourning, abandoning her faith and turning to nursing and philanthropy. Julia and Herbert Duckworth had three children.
T. S. Eliot
Thomas Stearns Eliot, "one of the twentieth century's major poets" was an essayist, publisher and literary and social critic. Born in St. Louis, Missouri, in the United States, to a prominent Boston Brahmin family, he moved to England in 1914 at the age of 25, settling and marrying there, he became a British subject in 1927 at the age of 39. Eliot attracted widespread attention for his poem "The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock", seen as a masterpiece of the Modernist movement, it was followed by some of the best-known poems in the English language, including The Waste Land, "The Hollow Men", "Ash Wednesday", Four Quartets. He was known for his seven plays Murder in the Cathedral and The Cocktail Party, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1948, "for his outstanding, pioneer contribution to present-day poetry". The Eliots were a Boston Brahmin family with roots in New England. Thomas Eliot's paternal grandfather, William Greenleaf Eliot, had moved to St. Louis, Missouri, to establish a Unitarian Christian church there.
His father, Henry Ware Eliot, was a successful businessman and treasurer of the Hydraulic-Press Brick Company in St Louis. His mother, Charlotte Champe Stearns, wrote poetry and was a social worker, a new profession in the early 20th century. Eliot was the last of six surviving children. Eliot was born at a property owned by his grandfather, William Greenleaf Eliot, his four sisters were between 19 years older. Known to family and friends as Tom, he was the namesake of Thomas Stearns. Eliot's childhood infatuation with literature can be ascribed to several factors. First, he had to overcome physical limitations as a child. Struggling from a congenital double inguinal hernia, he could not participate in many physical activities and thus was prevented from socializing with his peers; as he was isolated, his love for literature developed. Once he learned to read, the young boy became obsessed with books and was absorbed in tales depicting savages, the Wild West, or Mark Twain's thrill-seeking Tom Sawyer.
In his memoir of Eliot, his friend Robert Sencourt comments that the young Eliot "would curl up in the window-seat behind an enormous book, setting the drug of dreams against the pain of living." Secondly, Eliot credited his hometown with fuelling his literary vision: "It is self-evident that St. Louis affected me more than any other environment has done. I feel that there is something in having passed one's childhood beside the big river, incommunicable to those people who have not. I consider myself fortunate to have been born here, rather than in Boston, or New York, or London."From 1898 to 1905, Eliot attended Smith Academy, where his studies included Latin, Ancient Greek and German. He began to write poetry when he was fourteen under the influence of Edward Fitzgerald's Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam, a translation of the poetry of Omar Khayyam, he said the results were gloomy and despairing and he destroyed them. His first published poem, "A Fable For Feasters", was written as a school exercise and was published in the Smith Academy Record in February 1905.
Published there in April 1905 was his oldest surviving poem in manuscript, an untitled lyric revised and reprinted as "Song" in The Harvard Advocate, Harvard University's student magazine. He published three short stories in 1905, "Birds of Prey", "A Tale of a Whale" and "The Man Who Was King"; the last mentioned story reflects his exploration of the Igorot Village while visiting the 1904 World's Fair of St. Louis; such a link with primitive people antedates his anthropological studies at Harvard. Eliot lived in St. Louis, Missouri for the first sixteen years of his life at the house on Locust St. where he was born. After going away to school in 1905, he only returned to St. Louis for visits. Despite moving away from the city, Eliot wrote to a friend that the "Missouri and the Mississippi have made a deeper impression on me than any other part of the world."Following graduation, Eliot attended Milton Academy in Massachusetts for a preparatory year, where he met Scofield Thayer who published The Waste Land.
He studied philosophy at Harvard College from 1906 to 1909, earning his bachelor's degree after three years, instead of the usual four. While a student, Eliot was graduated with a pass degree, he recovered and persisted, attaining a B. A. in an elective program best described as comparative literature in three years, an M. A. in English literature in the fourth. Frank Kermode writes that the most important moment of Eliot's undergraduate career was in 1908 when he discovered Arthur Symons's The Symbolist Movement in Literature; this introduced him to Jules Laforgue, Arthur Rimbaud, Paul Verlaine. Without Verlaine, Eliot wrote, he might never have heard of Tristan Corbière and his book Les amours jaunes, a work that affected the course of Eliot's life; the Harvard Advocate published some of his poems and he became lifelong friends with Conrad Aiken, the American writer and critic. After working as a philosophy assistant at Harvard from 1909 to 1910, Eliot moved to Paris where, from 1910 to 1911, he studied philosophy at the Sorbonne.
He read poetry with Henri Alban-Fournier. From 1911 to 1914, he was back at Harvard studying Indian Sanskrit. Eliot was awarded a scholarship to Merton College, Oxford, in 1914, he first visited Marb