Takeoff and landing
Aircraft can have different ways to take off and land. Conventional airplanes accelerate along the ground until sufficient lift is generated for takeoff, reverse the process to land; some airplanes can take off at this being a short takeoff. Some aircraft such as helicopters and Harrier Jump Jets can land vertically. Rockets usually take off vertically, but some designs can land horizontally. Takeoff is the phase of flight in which an aircraft goes through a transition from moving along the ground to flying in the air starting on a runway. For balloons and some specialized fixed-wing aircraft, no runway is needed. Takeoff is the opposite of landing. Landing is the last part of a flight, where spacecraft returns to the ground; when the flying object returns to water, the process is called alighting, although it is called "landing" and "touchdown" as well. A normal aircraft flight would include several parts of flight including taxi, climb, cruise and landing. STOL is an acronym for short take-off and landing, aircraft with short runway requirements.
CATOBAR is a system used for the launch and recovery of aircraft from the deck of an aircraft carrier. Under this technique, aircraft are launched using a catapult and land on the ship using arrestor wires. Although this system is more costly than alternative methods, it provides greater flexibility in carrier operations, since it allows the vessel to support conventional aircraft. Alternate methods of launch and recovery can only use aircraft with STOBAR capability. STOBAR is a system used for the launch and recovery of aircraft from the deck of an aircraft carrier, combining elements of both STOVL and CATOBAR. Horizontal takeoff, horizontal landing — is the mode of operation for the first private commercial spaceplane, the two-stage-to-space Scaled Composites Tier One from the Ansari X-Prize SpaceShipOne/WhiteKnightOne combination, it is used for the upcoming Tier 1b SpaceShipTwo/WhiteKnightTwo combination. A prominent example of its use was the North American X-15 program. In these examples the space craft are carried to altitude on a "mother ship" before launch.
The failed proposals for NASA Space Shuttle replacements, Rockwell X-30 NASP used this mode of operation but were conceived as single stage to orbit. The Lynx rocketplane is a suborbital HTHL spaceplane, slated to begin atmospheric flight testing in late 2011, yet has not as of late 2015. Reaction Engines Skylon, a design descendant of the 1980s British HOTOL design project, is an HTHL spaceplane in the early stages of development in the United Kingdom. Both the Lynx rocketplane and SpaceShipTwo have been proffered to NASA to carry suborbital research payloads in response to NASA's suborbital reusable launch vehicle solicitation under the NASA Flight Operations Program. An early example was the 1960s Northrop HL-10 atmospheric test aircraft where the HL stands for "Horizontal Lander". Different terms are used for landing depending on the source of thrust used. VTVL uses. VTOL is an acronym for vertical landing aircraft; this classification includes fixed-wing aircraft that can hover, take off and land vertically as well as helicopters and other aircraft with powered rotors, such as tiltrotors.
The terminology for spacecraft and rockets is VTVL. Some VTOL aircraft can operate in other modes as well, such as CTOL, STOL, and/or STOVL. Others, such as some helicopters, can only operate by VTOL, due to the aircraft lacking landing gear that can handle horizontal motion. VTOL is a subset of V/STOL. Besides the ubiquitous helicopter, there are two types of VTOL aircraft in military service: craft using a tiltrotor, such as the Bell Boeing V-22 Osprey, aircraft using directed jet thrust such as the Harrier family. Vertical takeoff, vertical landing is a form of takeoff and landing proposed for expendable spacecraft. Multiple VTVL rocket craft have flown. In aviation the term VTOHL as well as several VTOHL aviation-specific subtypes: VTOCL, VTOSL, VTOBAR exist; the zero length launch system or zero length take-off system was a system whereby jet fighters and attack aircraft were intended to be placed upon rockets attached to mobile launch platforms. Most zero length launch experiments took place during the Cold War.
VTHL—vertical takeoff, horizontal landing—is the mode of operation for all current and operational orbital spaceplanes, such as the Boeing X-37, the NASA Space Shuttle, the 1988 Soviet Buran space shuttle, as well as the circa-1960 USAF Boeing X-20 Dyna-Soar project. For launch vehicles an advantage of VTHL over HTHL is that the wing can be smaller, since it only has to carry the landing weight of the vehicle, rather than the takeoff weight. There have been several other VTHL proposals that never flew including NASA Space Shuttle proposed replacements Lockheed Martin X-33 and VentureStar; the 1990s NASA concept spaceplane, the HL-20 Personnel Launch System, was VTHL, as was a circa-2003 derivative of the HL-20, the Orbital Space Plane concept. As of March 2011, two VTHL commercial spaceplanes were in various st
A taxiway is a path for aircraft at an airport connecting runways with aprons, hangars and other facilities. They have a hard surface such as asphalt or concrete, although smaller general aviation airports sometimes use gravel or grass. Busy airports construct high-speed or rapid-exit taxiways to allow aircraft to leave the runway at higher speeds; this allows the aircraft to vacate the runway quicker, permitting another to land or take off in a shorter interval of time. This is accomplished by making the exiting taxiway longer, thus giving the aircraft more space in which to slow down, before the taxiways' upcoming intersection with another taxiway, another runway, or the ramp/tarmac. Most airports do not have a specific speed limit for taxiing. There is a general rule on safe speed based on obstacles. Operators and aircraft manufacturers might have limits. Typical taxi speeds are 20-30 knots. Normal Centerline A single continuous yellow line, 15 centimetres to 30 centimetres in width. Enhanced Centerline The enhanced taxiway center line marking consists of a parallel line of yellow dashes on either side of the taxiway centerline.
Taxiway centerlines are enhanced for 150 feet before a runway holding position marking. The enhanced taxiway centerline is standard at all FAR Part 139 certified airports in the USA. Taxiway Edge Markings Used to define the edge of the taxiway when the edge does not correspond with the edge of the pavement. Continuous markings consist of a continuous double yellow line, with each line being at least 15 centimetres in width, spaced 15 centimetres apart, they divide the taxiway edge from the shoulder or some other abutting paved surface not intended for use by aircraft. Dashed markings define the edge of a taxiway on a paved surface where the adjoining pavement to the taxiway edge is intended for use by aircraft, e.g. an apron. These markings consist of a broken double yellow line, with each line being at least 15 centimetres in width, spaced 15 centimetres apart; these lines are 15 feet in length with 25 foot gaps. Taxi Shoulder Markings Taxiways, holding bays, aprons are sometimes provided with paved shoulders to prevent blast and water erosion.
Shoulders are not intended for use by aircraft, may be unable to carry the aircraft load. Taxiway shoulder markings are yellow lines perpendicular to the taxiway edge, from taxiway edge to pavement edge, about 3 metres. Surface Painted Taxiway Direction Signs Yellow background with a black inscription, provided when it is not possible to provide taxiway direction signs at intersections, or when necessary to supplement such signs; these markings are located on either side of the taxiway. Surface Painted Location Signs Black background with a yellow inscription and yellow and black border. Where necessary, these markings supplement location signs located alongside the taxiway and assist the pilot in confirming the designation of the taxiway on which the aircraft is located; these markings are located on the right side of the centerline. Geographic Position Markings, they are positioned to the left of the taxiway centerline in the direction of taxiing. Black inscription centered on pink circle with white outer ring.
If the pavement is a light colour the border is white with a black outer ring. Runway Holding Position Markings These show where an aircraft should stop when approaching a runway from a taxiway, they consist of four yellow lines, two solid and two dashed, spaced six or twelve inches apart, extending across the width of the taxiway or runway. The solid lines are always on the side. There are three locations where runway holding position markings are encountered: Runway holding position markings on taxiways. Holding Position Markings for Instrument Landing System These consist of two yellow solid lines spaced two feet apart connected by pairs of solid lines spaced ten feet apart extending across the width of the taxiway. Holding Position Markings for Taxiway/Taxiway Intersections These consist of a single dashed line extending across the width of the taxiway. Surface Painted Holding Position Signs Red background signs with a white inscription to supplement the signs located at the holding position.
The taxiways are given alphanumeric identification. These taxiway IDs are shown on yellow signboards along the taxiways. Airport guidance signs provide information to taxiing aircraft and airport vehicles. Smaller airports may have few or no signs, relying instead on airport charts. There are two classes of signage at airports, with several types of each: Location signs – yellow on black background. Identifies the runway or taxiway the aircraft is on or is entering. Direction/Runway exit signs – black on yellow. Identifies the intersecting taxiways the aircraft is approaching, with an arrow indicating the direction to turn. Stop Bar signs – white on blue background; the designation consists of the letter S followed by designation of the taxiway on which the Stop Bar is positioned. This sign is not standard. Other – many airports use conventional traffic signs such as stop and yield signs throughout the airport. Mandatory instruction signs are white on red, they show entrances to critical areas. Vehicles and aircraft are required to stop at these signs until the control tower gives clearance to proceed.
Runway signs – White text on a red background. These signs identify a runway inte
Van's Aircraft, Inc. is an American kit aircraft manufacturer, founded by Richard "Van" VanGrunsven in 1973. Van's RV series of aircraft, from the single-seat RV-3 to the latest RV-14, are all-aluminum, low-wing monoplanes of monocoque construction; the RV series of airplanes has been successful, as of February 2019, about 10,400 RV kits had been completed and flown, thousands more are under construction. Completion rates average about 1.5 per day, making the series the most numerous of all homebuilt aircraft. They feature both good speed and fuel economy. In 2013, the company announced it would begin selling some assembled aircraft as well on a limited basis. In December 2017 the company reported that its 10,000th aircraft had flown, an RV-7 built in Martinsburg, West Virginia. Van's factory is located at Oregon. RVs are deemed Experimental Amateur Built aircraft by the Federal Aviation Administration in the United States and are accepted under the corresponding category by the aviation authorities in many other countries, including the United Kingdom, New Zealand and Australia.
A modified version of the RV-6 was sold to the Nigerian government as a kit-assembled military trainer. The RV-12 is available as an experimental light sport aircraft or special light-sport aircraft, which allows for commercial use for purposes like rental and flight training. RV-1: single example of a modified Stits SA-3 Playboy built by VanGrunsven in 1965 and modified with a 125 hp Lycoming engine, larger tail, modified cowling, modified fuselage and a custom metal wing RV-2: wooden flying wing sailplane prototype, never completed RV-3: single seat kit aircraft, debuted in 1972.
Jet blast is the phenomenon of rapid air movement produced by the jet engines of aircraft on or before takeoff. A large jet-engined aircraft can produce winds of up to 100 knots as far away as 60 metres behind it at 40% maximum rated power. Jet blast can be a hazard to people or other unsecured objects behind the aircraft, is capable of flattening buildings and destroying vehicles Despite the power and destructive nature of jet blast, there are few jet blast incidents. Due to the invisible nature of jet blast and the aerodynamic properties of light aircraft, light aircraft moving about airports are vulnerable. Pilots of light aircraft stay off to the side of the runway, rather than follow in the centre, to negate the effect of the blast. Propeller planes are capable of generating significant rearwards winds, known as prop wash. Maho Beach in Sint Maarten is famous for its unique proximity to the runway of Princess Juliana International Airport, allowing people to experience jet blast, a practice, discouraged by the local authorities.
A tourist was killed on 12 July 2017 when she was blown away by jet blast, which caused her head to smash into concrete. Some airports have installed jet blast deflectors in areas where roads or people may be in the path of the jet blast on take off. Maho Beach, a beach in Saint Maarten popular for experiencing jet blast NASA site on jet blast
Landing is the last part of a flight, where a flying animal, aircraft, or spacecraft returns to the ground. When the flying object returns to water, the process is called alighting, although it is called "landing", "touchdown" or "splashdown" as well. A normal aircraft flight would include several parts of flight including taxi, climb, cruise and landing. Aircraft land at an airport on a firm runway or helicopter landing pad constructed of asphalt concrete, gravel or grass. Aircraft equipped with pontoons or with a boat hull-shaped fuselage are able to land on water. Aircraft sometimes use skis to land on snow or ice. To land, the airspeed and the rate of descent are reduced such that the object descends at a low enough rate to allow for a gentle touch down. Landing is accomplished by descending to the runway; this speed reduction is accomplished by reducing thrust and/or inducing a greater amount of drag using flaps, landing gear or speed brakes. When a fixed-wing aircraft approaches the ground, the pilot will move the control column back to execute a flare or round-out.
This increases the angle of attack. Progressive movement of the control column back will allow the aircraft to settle onto the runway at minimum speed, landing on its main wheels first in the case of a tricycle gear aircraft or on all three wheels in the case of a conventional landing gear-equipped aircraft referred to as a "taildragger"; this is known as flaring. In a light aircraft, with little crosswind, the ideal landing is when contact with the ground occurs as the forward speed is reduced to the point where there is no longer sufficient airspeed to remain aloft; the stall warning is heard just before landing, indicating that this speed and altitude have been reached. The result is light touch down. Light aircraft landing situations, the pilot skills required, can be divided into four types: Normal landings Crosswind landings - where a significant wind not aligned with the landing area is a factor Short field landings - where the length of the landing area is a limiting factor Soft and unprepared field landings - where the landing area is wet, soft or has ground obstacles such as furrows or ruts to contend with In large transport category aircraft, pilots land the aircraft by "flying the airplane on to the runway."
The airspeed and attitude of the plane are adjusted for landing. The airspeed is kept well at a constant rate of descent. A flare is performed just before landing, the descent rate is reduced, causing a light touch down. Upon touchdown, spoilers are deployed to reduce the lift and transfer the aircraft's weight to its wheels, where mechanical braking, such as an autobrake system, can take effect. Reverse thrust is used by many jet aircraft to help slow down just after touch-down, redirecting engine exhaust forward instead of back; some propeller-driven airplanes have this feature, where the blades of the propeller are re-angled to push air forward instead of back using the'beta range'. Factors such as crosswind where the pilot will use a crab landing or a slip landing will cause pilots to land faster and sometimes with different aircraft attitude to ensure a safe landing. Other factors affecting a particular landing might include: the plane size, weight, runway length, ground effects, runway altitude, air temperature, air pressure, air traffic control, visibility and the overall situation.
For example, landing a multi-engine turboprop military such as a C-130 Hercules, under fire in a grass field in a war zone, requires different skills and precautions than landing a single engine plane such as a Cessna 150 on a paved runway in uncontrolled airspace, different from landing an airliner such as an Airbus A380 at a major airport with air traffic control. Required Navigation Performance is being used more. Rather than using radio beacons, the airplane uses GPS-navigation for landing using this technique; this translates into a much more fluid ascend, which results in decreased noise, decreased fuel consumption. The term "landing" is applied to people or objects descending to the ground using a parachute; some consider these objects to be in a controlled descent instead of flying. Most parachutes work by capturing air, inducing enough drag that the falling object hits the ground at a slow speed. There are many examples including the seeds of a dandelion. On the other hand, modern ram-air parachutes are inflatable wings that operate in a gliding flight mode.
Parachutists execute a flare at landing, reducing or eliminating both downward and forward speed at touchdown, in order to avoid injury. Sometimes, a safe landing is accomplished by using multiple forms of lift and dampening systems. Both the Surveyor unmanned lunar probe craft and the Apollo Lunar Module used a rocket deceleration system and landing gear to soft-land on the moon. Several Soviet rockets including the Soyuz spacecraft have used parachutes and airbag landing systems to dampen the landing on earth. In November 2015, Blue Origin's New Shepard became the first rocket to cross the van Karman line and land vertically back on Earth. In December 2015, SpaceX's Falcon 9 became the first launch vehicle on an orbital trajectory to vertically-land and recover its first stage, although the landed first stage was on a sub-orbital trajectory. Arresting gear Landing performance Instrument landing system Instrument flight rules Visual flight rules
Compania Națională de Transporturi Aeriene Române TAROM S. A. doing business as TAROM, is the flag carrier and oldest operating airline of Romania, based in Otopeni near Bucharest. Its headquarters and its main hub are at Henri Coandă International Airport, it is the second largest airline operating in Romania based on international destinations, international flights and the third largest measured by fleet size and passengers carried. The brand name is an acronym for Romanian: Transporturile Aeriene Române. Over ninety-seven percent of TAROM is owned by the Romanian Government; the airline transported 2.4 million passengers in 2015, with an average load factor of 70%. The airline joined SkyTeam on 25 June 2010; the history of Romanian National Air Transport Company can be traced back from 1920, when CFRNA - was founded. The airline used French-built Potez 15 aircraft for its passenger/mail service between Paris and Bucharest via several cities in Central Europe. In 1925, the city of Galați became the first destination in Romania served by regular flights followed, from 24 June 1926, by an extended service to Iași and Chișinău.
Ten de Havilland DH.9 and five Ansaldo A.300, in addition to the Potez aircraft, operated the service. In 1928 the airline changed its name to SNNA. In 1930, the company adopted the name LARES while 1937 saw the merger of LARES with its competitor, SARTA. After World War II, in 1945, when the Soviet Union had extended its influence across Eastern Europe, a new reorganization replaced LARES with TARS, jointly owned by the governments of Romania and the Soviet Union. Domestic operations were started from Bucharest on 1 February 1946, when TARS took over all air services and aircraft from LARES. Over the following decade, the company's Soviet share was purchased by Romanian government and, on 18 September 1954, the airline adopted the name of TAROM. By 1960, TAROM was flying to a dozen cities across Europe. 1966 saw the operation of its first transatlantic flight. On 14 May 1974, it launched a regular service to New York City. Being part of the regional group of airlines within Eastern Bloc states meant that for much of its history TAROM has operated Soviet-designed aircraft.
These included the Lisunov Li-2, Ilyushin Il-14, Ilyushin Il-18 long-range turboprop, Ilyushin Il-62 long-range jet airliner, Antonov An-24 regional turboprop, the Tupolev Tu-154 medium-range tri-jet. As was the case with a number of other nations, the Il-62 was the first long-range jet airliner to be put into operation by Romania, in 1973. Five examples were owned by TAROM, which leased the aircraft to other operators. An exception to Soviet-built aircraft was made in 1968, when TAROM bought BAC One Elevens for European and Middle East destinations, in 1974 when it acquired Boeing 707 aircraft to share its long-haul operations with the Il-62. Plans were made to acquire Vickers VC10 aircraft as well, but in the end the Soviets did not allow it, made them buy the Il-62 instead. With 59 aircraft in operation, in the late'70s, TAROM had the largest fleet in the Eastern Bloc, after Aeroflot. In 1978, a contract was signed with the UK enabling Rombac to manufacture the BAC One Eleven at Romaero, near Bucharest.
Meanwhile, the 707 and Il-62 long-range aircraft were operating New York, Abu-Dhabi-Bangkok-Singapore, Karachi-Beijing. TAROM was the only Eastern Bloc airline to operate flights to Tel Aviv, Israel. During the mid 1980s, TAROM leased Tupolev Tu-154 jets to Guyana Airways and supported these aircraft which were operated in scheduled passenger service between Georgetown, Guyana in South America and both Miami and New York City. After the collapse of the communist regime in 1989, the airline, operating a fleet of 65 aircraft of six basic types, was able to acquire more Western-built jets. By 1993, TAROM had introduced long-haul flights to Montreal and Bangkok using Ilyushin Il-62 and Airbus A310 aircraft. During the 1990s, TAROM replaced its long-haul fleet of Boeing 707s and IL-62s with Airbus A310s. In 2001, the airline cancelled its non-profitable long-haul services to Bangkok and Montreal and terminated services to its remaining intercontinental destinations of Beijing in 2003, Chicago in 2002, New York City in 2003.
TAROM terminated loss-making domestic services to Craiova, Caransebeș, Constanța, focused its activity on service to key destinations in Europe and the Middle East. 2004 was the first profitable year of the last decade. TAROM is recovering from a difficult period that began in the 1990s, when losses of up to $68 million per year were registered, caused by unprofitable routes. At the beginning of the new millennium, the airline initiated a programme, aimed at restoring profitability; this was achieved by terminating loss-making intercontinental services. TAROM has decided to focus its operations on Bucharest and Cluj-Napoca International Airport, initiated direct international flights from Sibiu International Airport. A fleet upgrade programme started in 2006 with the acquisition of four Airbus A318s, three Boeing 737-800s, two ATR 72-500s, which resulted in a fleet increase to 26 by 2009; the airline had a frequent-flyer pr
Eurocopter EC120 Colibri
The Eurocopter EC120 Colibri is a five-seat, single-engine, light utility helicopter. Jointly designed and developed by Eurocopter, China National Aero-Technology Import & Export Corporation, Harbin Aviation Industries Ltd and Singapore Technologies Aerospace Ltd at Eurocopter France's Marignane facility, the EC120B was assembled by Eurocopter in France and Australia. In China, the aircraft is produced by Harbin Aircraft Manufacturing Corporation as the HC120. In 2004, HAMC began local manufacturing of the HC120 at their assembly line in Harbin, in northern China. In the Chinese market, both the People's Liberation Army and multiple local police forces have purchased HC120 helicopters; the EC120 Colibri has its origins in the P120, a proposal by French helicopter manufacturer Aérospatiale, intended to replace both their Aérospatiale Gazelle and Aérospatiale SA 315B Lama single engine helicopters. During the 1980s, Aérospatiale sought international partners with which to co-produce the P120, these included aerospace companies in China and Australia.
In the aftermath of the Chinese Government's crackdown on the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, the exclusion of Chinese involvement in the project was speculated. On 20 October 1992, a contract for the joint development contract of the new helicopter was signed by the three principle partners of the project, the newly formed Eurocopter, China National Aero-Technology Import & Export Corporation and Singapore Aerospace Ltd. Under the joint development agreement, Eurocopter received a 61% controlling interest and technical leader in the programme, CATIC received a 24% work share and STAero received a 15% work share. Development of the rotorcraft allowed Eurocopter to extend its range to include 1.5-tonne rotorcraft. On 9 June 1995, the first prototype EC120 Colibri conducted its maiden flight. By February 1996, the prototype had accumulated 60 flight hours, a second prototype joined the test program that year. In February 1997, the EC120 Colibri was formally launched at the Helicopter Association International show in Anaheim, California.
By October 1998, more than 100 orders had been received for the type, leading Eurocopter to increase the production rate from four helicopters per month to six. In 2002, Eurocopter was in the process of establishing a second assembly line for the EC120 at Australian Aerospace's facility in Brisbane, Australia. In September 2003, Eurocopter and China Aviation Industry Corporation II expanded their partnership agreement to include a co-production arrangement with AVIC II-subsidiary Harbin Aircraft Industry Group. On 11 June 2004, a final production agreement was signed. In June 2014, the People's Liberation Army of China became the launch customer for the Harbin-produced HC120 placing an order for eight of the type with options for fifty more. On 30 November 2017 Airbus Helicopters formally announced the end of the H120 program citing low delivery numbers. Only five H120s were delivered in 2016 compared to 63 Robinson R-66s. Airbus stated they are moving away from the lower end of the market spectrum and those helicopters are not as sophisticated as their traditional product line.
Within the Green Rotorcraft European Clean Sky Joint Technology Initiative environmental research program started in 2011, a H120 Technology demonstrator equipped with a HIPE AE440 high-compression aircraft diesel engine, running on jet fuel, first flew on 6 November 2015. It aims to reduce pollutant emissions and increase fuel efficiency, nearly double the range and enhanced operations in hot and high conditions; the powerplant is a liquid-cooled, dry sump lubricated 4.6-liter 90° V8 engine with an 1,800-bar common rail direct injection machined aluminum blocks, titanium connecting rods, steel pistons and liners, one turbocharger per cylinder bank. With an air-to-air intercooler, it weighs 197 kilograms without gearbox and the 330 kW installed powerpack weighs 249 kilograms; the rotors are driven via the existing transmission, the faster-turning Turbomeca Arrius turboshaft is replaced with a multiplier gearbox. Its brake specific fuel consumption is 200 g/kW⋅h. Torque oscillations are reduced through a light torsional shaft and vibrations are damped by Silent blocs.
It is manufactured by Teos Powertrain Engineering—a joint venture between Mecachrome and D2T —for the mechanical design, engine main parts manufacturing and testing and Austro Engine for the dual-channel FADEC and harness, fuel system, airworthiness. Power is maintained at 2,500 m and ISA+20° and it achieved 42% fuel consumption reduction, reducing the direct operating costs by 30% along with simpler maintenance; the EC120B Colibri is a single-engine multimission helicopter, designed for safe and cost-effective operations. It incorporates several of Eurocopter's trademarked technologies, those of prominence are the 3-bladed Speriflex main rotor head and the 8-bladed fenestron anti-torque tail rotor. Airbus Helicopters has claimed that the EC120 B possesses the