click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Taylor Report

The Hillsborough Stadium Disaster Inquiry report is the report of an enquiry, overseen by Lord Justice Taylor, into the causes of the Hillsborough disaster on 15 April 1989, as a result of which, at the time of the report, 95 Liverpool F. C. fans had died. An interim report was published in August 1989, the final report was published in January 1990, it sought to establish the causes of the tragedy and make recommendations regarding the provision of safety at sporting events in future. The Taylor Report found, it recommended that all major stadiums convert to an all-seater model, that all ticketed spectators should have seats, as opposed to some or all being obliged to stand. The Football League in England and the Scottish Football League introduced regulations that required clubs in the highest divisions to comply with this recommendation by August 1994; the report stated that standing accommodation is not intrinsically unsafe, but the government decided that no standing accommodation was to be allowed at all.

Other recommendations of the Taylor Report included points on items such as the sale of alcohol within stadiums, crush barriers, turnstiles, ticket prices and other stadium items. After the Hillsborough disaster, Lord Justice Taylor was appointed to conduct an inquiry into the events; the Taylor Inquiry sat for a total of 31 days and published two reports: an interim report which laid out the events of the day and immediate conclusions, the final report which outlined general recommendations on football ground safety. This became known as the Taylor Report. Taylor concluded that "policing on 15 April broke down" and "although there were other causes, the main reason for the disaster was the failure of police control." Attention was focused on the decision to open the secondary gates. Sheffield Wednesday were criticised for the inadequate number of turnstiles at the Leppings Lane end and the poor quality of the crush barriers on the terraces, "respects in which failure by the Club contributed to this disaster."

Taylor found there was "no provision" for controlling the entry of spectators into the turnstile area. Questioned why more action had not been taken to screen individuals and improve the flow of supporters approaching the stadium from the west "where the turnstile area was so small and awkwardly laid out", senior police officers responded that policy and practice had been no different from in the past, they had no reason to anticipate problems as earlier events had proceeded without major incident. In fact, Taylor noted only two occasions when the entry at Leppings Lane had been the sole access to the north and west sides of the ground, at the 1987 and 1988 semi-finals, with evidence of congestion at both, but owing to good fortune and circumstance police policy "was not put to the same test and strain as a year later"; the senior police officers said. In fact, the only two previous occasions when the Leppings Lane terraces had been used to fill the whole of the north and west sides of the ground were at the two semi-finals, in 1987 and 1988.

In 1987, the match was on a Sunday scheduled for 12 noon, kick-off was postponed for a quarter of an hour because of late arrivals. The need to open gate C was due to dangerous congestion at the turnstiles; that occurred because, as both Club and police should have realised, the turnstile area could not cope with the large numbers demanded of it unless they arrived over a lengthy period. The Operational Order and police tactics on the day failed to provide for controlling a concentrated arrival of large numbers should that occur in a short period; that it might so occur was foreseeable and it did. As a result of the inadequate number of turnstiles, it has been calculated that it would have taken until 3:40 pm to get all ticket holders into the Leppings Lane end had an exit gate not been opened. Gate C was opened to let fans in, but the number of fans entering the terrace was not thought to have been more than the capacity of the entire standing area. Once inside the stadium, most fans entering the terraces headed for the central pens 3 and 4, as directed by a large sign above the access tunnel.

Since pens 3 and 4 were full by 2.50 pm, the tunnel should have been closed off whether gate C was to be opened or not.... T should have been clear in the control room where there was a view of the pens and of the crowd at the turnstiles that the tunnel had to be closed. If orders had been given to that effect when gate C was opened, the fans could have been directed to the empty areas of the wings and this disaster could still have been avoided. Failure to give that order was a blunder of the first magnitude. Standard procedure for league fixtures was to estimate the size of the visiting fan base, determine how many enclosures need to be opened fill each standing area one at a time. For all-ticket games that had sold out, such as semi-final matches, a different approach was adopted whereby supporters were allowed to enter any enclosure they wished upon arrival. There was no mechanical or electronic means for calculating when individual enclosures had reached capacity. A police officer made a visual assessment before guiding fans to other pens.

Whilst in theory the police would intervene if a pen became "full", in practice they permitted the test of fullness to be what the fans would tolerate. By 2.52 pm when gate C was opened, pens 3 and 4 were over-full by this test. Many were uncomfortab

Abdul Bari Jahani

Abdul Bari Jahani is an Afghan poet, novelist and journalist. He wrote the national anthem of Afghanistan. Jahani was born in southern Afghanistan. Jahani recalls his old good days of childhood in Kandahar where he spent most of his teenage years and talks about how Kandahar was once a melting pot and a common home for all ideologies and beliefs. In his Raazo-Niyaaz book Jahani talks about how he grew up playing in Kandahar as a kid and how peaceful Kandahar was during his high school time. Jahani is from a sub-tribe of Ghilzai, one of the two main tribes of Pashtuns, he considers the ethnic diversity of Afghanistan, with its various tribes and ethnic groups, as constituting the country's strength, thinks that Afghans have shown throughout the history of their country that they are united and one hand. Their unity is better portrayed when they face an outside threat as a nation or when their country is celebrating a national victory. Jahani completed his primary and high school in Mirwais Nika high school of Kandahar city--- a well -known public school in the south.

Kandahar University was not yet built. Upon completing his high school at Mirwais Nika, Jahani only had two options for his higher education, he could either move to Kabul to study what he wanted to study, history and literature or move to Nangarhar province—home to the second Afghan university at the time in the country. He chose the former one because unlike Kabul University where students had the option to pursue various majors, Nangarhar University only offered education in the field of medicine. Jahani graduated from Kabul University in 1972 with a BA in Pashto history. Upon his graduation from Kabul University, Jahani joined the Pashto Tolana, a prestigious literature body in Afghanistan whose members have been prominent Afghan philosophers, historians and writers. Getting into Pashto Tolana is the equivalent of getting into Harvard Law Review if someone was pursuing legal education in the U. S. Pashto Tolana approves the entrance of new terminologies into Pashto language and is tasked to develop Pashto language to be richer in terms of new vocabulary.

Jahani had tremendous contribution to the development of Pashto language while at Pashto Tolana Jahani has just been given parliamentary vote of approval to serve as a minister in the cabinet of Afghan unity government 2015 for the ministry of information and culture. Besides being a member of the Pashto Tolana, Jahani served as the Managing-Editor of a well-known Afghan magazine, Kabul Magazine. Under his leadership, Kabul Magazine witnessed considerable increase in its readership. In his capacity as the Managing Editor of the Magazine, Jahani oversaw the flow of hundreds of informative and educative social and political articles aimed at keeping the Afghan public aware of the state of affairs of their country. Subsequently, Jahani served in the Afghan Ministry of Education for two years before he was forced to leave the country during the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. Jahani's mission from the beginning was to inspire Afghan society to walk towards knowledge and education and for that noble goal he join the Afghan government's education sector.

Communists and leftists feared voices of prominent figures like Jahani and began a government planned campaign against influential and intellectual figures. Jahani migrated to Pakistan as a refugee and after two years of living as a refugee there, Jahani was offered a job with the Voice of America in Washington DC. Jahani accepted the offer and joined the Voice of America's Pashto service in 1983 as an International broadcaster, he has contributed extensively to Pashto language programing of the Radio. Jahani hosted news hour shows and poetry shows at the Voice of America, his poetry show of late 11PM called “Da Ashnayaano Adabi dera” had listeners in the entire South Asian region and the Middle East. His poetry show had listeners from different age groups including elders. One of his most famous poem which had a huge demand and continues to have, was the story of “three cows and one wolf”, written in the language of poetry; the moral of the poem is unity. Like most of his other poetry, in his “three cow one wolf” poem Jahani speaks to his audiences in a plain and understandable language.

He warns them of what is at stake if Afghans remain divided and what could be achieved if Afghans leave behind their differences and get united behind a common goal of building a prosperous and peaceful Afghanistan. Jahani continued to use his able mind and pen and VOA provided him the platform to convey his message of enlightenment to various parts of Afghanistan. With Jahani's contribution and dedication to excellence and his prominence and popularity amongst Afghans, VOA's Pashto service ratings and listeners have soared. Jahani's career as a journalist with the Voice of America has earned him several recognitions and medals from the leadership of the Voice of America, he retired from the Voice of America in 2010, but never ceased to end his advocacy for Afghan unity, Afghan education and Afghan prosperity. He gets offers to speak at various Afghan events held in Afghanistan, Middle East and the United States and gets interview request by various Afghan TV and Radio stations in Afghanistan and around the world.

Not only that Jahani's articles about social and economic situation of Afghanistan are well received by various public and private print and online media outlets in Afghanistan and around the world. Jahani visits Afghanistan and speak at various events including seminars discu

Satsuma Kaidō

The Satsuma Kaidō was a road across Kyūshū from Chikushino to Kagoshima, used by daimyōs for the sankin-kōtai, by the lord of the Satsuma han on whom a similar obligation of visiting the shōgun was imposed. The Satsuma Kaidō's route is followed by the modern Route 3. In addition to the established use of traveling from Edo to Satsuma Province, there were many roads that connected from the Satsuma Kaidō. One such sub-route was the Ōkuchisuji; the terminus for the Ōkuchisuji is in Ōkuchi in modern Isa. Another sub-route was the Takaokasuji connected Kajiki with the Sadowara Castle in Sadowara, Miyazaki Prefecture. Part of its route can be traced with Japan's Route 10; the Satsuma Kaidō's 23 post stations are listed below with their modern-day municipalities indicated beside them. Starting Location: Yamae-shuku 1. Matsuzaki-shuku 2. Fuchu-shuku 3. Hainuzuka-shuku 4. Setaka-shuku 5. Haramachi-shuku 6. Nankan-shuku 7. Yamaga-shuku 8. Mitorishinmachi-shuku 9. Kumamoto-shuku 10. Kawashiri-shuku 11. Uto-shuku 12.

Ogawa-shuku 13. Yatsushiro-shuku 14. Hinagu-shuku 15. Sashiki-shuku 16. Chinmachi-shuku 17. Izumi-shuku 18. Akune-shuku 19. Mukōda-shuku 20. Kushikino-shuku 21. Ichiki-shuku 22. Ijūin-shuku 23. Kagoshima-shuku Ending Location: Kagoshima Castle Kaidō Edo Five Routes

The Laytons

The Laytons is an American sitcom, broadcast on the now defunct DuMont Television Network, from August to October 1948. The series starred Amanda Randolph, who became the first African-American performer in a regular role on a U. S. network TV series. It co-starred Vera Tatum. According to The Complete Directory to Prime Time Network and Cable TV Shows 1946–Present by Tim Brooks and Earle Marsh, "little is known about the content of this early series"; the 30-minute program and distributed by DuMont, aired on Wednesdays at 8pm on DuMont's affiliate stations. The program had been seen locally on DuMont's New York flagship station WABD, beginning in May/June 1948. According to Donald Bogle, the series made such a small impression. However, the program paved the way for TV shows starring or featuring black actors; the final episode of the program aired on October 13, 1948. In 1948, Randolph appeared again on DuMont, on a daytime series titled Amanda; as with most DuMont series, no recorded episodes of The Laytons are known to still exist.

List of programs broadcast by the DuMont Television Network List of surviving DuMont Television Network broadcasts 1948-49 United States network television schedule David Weinstein, The Forgotten Network: DuMont and the Birth of American Television ISBN 1-59213-245-6 Alex McNeil, Total Television, Fourth edition ISBN 0-14-024916-8 Tim Brooks and Earle Marsh, The Complete Directory to Prime Time Network TV Shows, Third edition ISBN 0-345-31864-1 The Laytons on IMDb DuMont historical website

Cerebrospinal fluid

Cerebrospinal fluid is a clear, colorless body fluid found in the brain and spinal cord. It is produced by specialised ependymal cells in the choroid plexuses of the ventricles of the brain, absorbed in the arachnoid granulations. There is about 125mL of CSF at any one time, about 500 mL is generated every day. CSF acts as a cushion or buffer, providing basic mechanical and immunological protection to the brain inside the skull. CSF serves a vital function in the cerebral autoregulation of cerebral blood flow. CSF occupies the subarachnoid space and the ventricular system around and inside the brain and spinal cord, it fills the ventricles of the brain and sulci, as well as the central canal of the spinal cord. There is a connection from the subarachnoid space to the bony labyrinth of the inner ear via the perilymphatic duct where the perilymph is continuous with the cerebrospinal fluid; the ependymal cells of the choroid plexuses have multiple motile cilia on their apical surfaces that beat to move the CSF through the ventricles.

A sample of CSF can be taken via lumbar puncture. This can reveal the intracranial pressure, as well as indicate diseases including infections of the brain or its surrounding meninges. Although noted by Hippocrates, it was only in the 18th century that Emanuel Swedenborg was credited with its rediscovery, as late as 1914 Harvey Cushing demonstrated CSF was secreted by the choroid plexus. There is about 125–150 mL of CSF at any one time; this CSF circulates within the ventricular system of the brain. The ventricles are a series of cavities filled with CSF; the majority of CSF is produced from within the two lateral ventricles. From here, CSF passes through the interventricular foramina to the third ventricle the cerebral aqueduct to the fourth ventricle. From the fourth ventricle, the fluid passes into the subarachnoid space through four openings – the central canal of the spinal cord, the median aperture, the two lateral apertures. CSF is present within the subarachnoid space, which covers the brain, spinal cord, stretches below the end of the spinal cord to the sacrum.

There is a connection from the subarachnoid space to the bony labyrinth of the inner ear making the cerebrospinal fluid continuous with the perilymph in 93% of people. CSF moves in a single outward direction from the ventricles, but multidirectionally in the subarachnoid space. Fluid movement is pulsatile, matching the pressure waves generated in blood vessels by the beating of the heart; some authors dispute this, posing that there is no unidirectional CSF circulation, but cardiac cycle-dependent bi-directional systolic-diastolic to-and-from cranio-spinal CSF movements. CSF is derived from blood plasma and is similar to it, except that CSF is nearly protein-free compared with plasma and has some different electrolyte levels. Due to the way it is produced, CSF has a higher chloride level than plasma, an equivalent sodium level. CSF contains 0.3% plasma proteins, or 15 to 40 mg/dL, depending on sampling site. In general, globular proteins and albumin are in lower concentration in ventricular CSF compared to lumbar or cisternal fluid.

This continuous flow into the venous system dilutes the concentration of larger, lipid-insoluble molecules penetrating the brain and CSF. CSF is free of red blood cells, at most contains only a few white blood cells. Any white blood cell count higher. CSF contains nucleic acids, in particular cell-free DNA. At around the third week of development, the embryo is a three-layered disc, covered with ectoderm and endoderm. A tube-like formation develops in the midline, called the notochord; the notochord releases extracellular molecules that affect the transformation of the overlying ectoderm into nervous tissue. The neural tube, forming from the ectoderm, contains CSF prior to the development of the choroid plexuses; the open neuropores of the neural tube close after the first month of development, CSF pressure increases. As the brain develops, by the fourth week of embryological development three swellings have formed within the embryo around the canal, near where the head will develop; these swellings represent different components of the central nervous system: the prosencephalon and rhombencephalon.

Subarachnoid spaces are first evident around the 32nd day of development near the rhombencephalon. At this time, the first choroid plexus can be seen, found in the fourth ventricle, although the time at which they first secrete CSF is not yet known; the developing forebrain surrounds the neural cord. As the forebrain develops, the neural cord within it becomes a ventricle forming the lateral ventricles. Along the inner surface of both ventricles, the ventricular wall remains thin, a choroid plexus develops and releasing CSF. CSF fills the neural canal. Arachnoid villi are formed around the 35th week of development, with arachnoid granulations noted around the 39th, continuing developing until 18 months of age; the subcommissural organ secretes SCO-spondin, which forms Reissner's fiber within CSF assisting movement through the cerebral aqueduct. It disappears during early development. CSF serves several purposes: Buoyancy: The actual mass of the human brain is about 1400–1500 grams; the brain therefore exists in neutral buoyancy, which allows the brain to maintain its density without being impaired by its own weight, which would cut off blood supply and kill neurons in the lower sections without CSF.

Protection: CSF protects the brain tissu

Someday

Someday or Some Day may refer to: Someday, the title song, 1995 Someday, the title song, 2002 Someday, 2012 Someday, the title song, 1999 Someday, 2008 Someday, by Arlo Guthrie, 1986 Someday, by Frank Carillo & The Bandoleros, 2008 "Someday", 1991 "Someday", 2003 "Someday", from The Hunchback of Notre Dame, 1996 "Someday", 2005 "Someday", 1986 "Someday", 2013 "Someday", 1992 "Someday", 1990 "Someday", 1995 "Someday", 2003 "Someday", 2006 "Someday", 2003 "Someday", 2009 "Someday", from Guitar Town, 1986 "Someday", 1999 "Someday", 2002 "Someday", 2011 "Someday", a song by Britney Spears, 2005 "Someday", a song by Lisa Stansfield, 1992 "Someday", a 1944 song written by Jimmie Hodges, covered by many artists "Someday"/"Boys & Girls", a single by Kumi Koda, 2006 "Some Day", written by Rudolf Friml and Brian Hooker, covered by Frankie Laine "Someday", by The Afters from I Wish We All Could Win "Someday", by Ash from Free All Angels "Someday", by The Black Eyed Peas from The Beginning "Someday", by Brian Houston from Sugar Queen "Someday", by The Carpenters from Ticket to Ride "Someday", by CeCe Rogers "Someday", by Claess & Willumsen "Someday", by Crossfade from Falling Away "Someday", by Crystal Gayle from Someday "Someday", by Dave Bartholomew and Pearl King "Someday", by David Gates from Never Let Her Go "Someday", by Embrace from Out of Nothing "Someday", by Emyli "Someday", by Enuff Z'nuff from Paraphernalia "Someday", by GFriend from Snowflake "Someday", by Greg Kihn Band from Kihnspiracy "Someday", by John Legend "Someday", by Ké "Someday", by Lesley Gore from Ever Since "Someday", by LP "Someday", by Michael Bublé from Nobody but Me "Someday", by Mike Errico "Someday", by Moby Grape from the self-titled album "Someday", by Morris Albert from Solitude "Someday", by Neil Young from Freedom "Someday", by Project Rocket from the split EP Project Rocket / Fall Out Boy "Someday", by Ray Charles "Some Day", by Shinedown from Us and Them "Someday", by Silent Poets "Someday", by Slinkee Minx "Someday", by Tegan and Sara from Sainthood "Someday", by Two Door Cinema Club from Beacon "Someday", by Ween from Shinola, Vol. 1 "Someday", by Yanni from Niki Nana "Someday", by Zebrahead from Waste of Mind "Someday", from Memphis "Someday", a song by Chicago from The Chicago Transit Authority "Watcha Gonna Do/Someday", a song by Keisha White, theme song from the TV series The Story of Tracy Beaker "Someday", by Isaac Asimov Some Day, a 2010 Hong Kong sitcom Someday, a 2006 Korean drama Someday, a 1935 film directed by Michael Powell Someday, a 2011 Japanese film "Someday, Someday", a song by Thirsty Merc Sumday, an album by Grandaddy