Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area
The Big South Fork National River and Recreation Area preserves the Big South Fork of the Cumberland River and its tributaries in northeastern Tennessee and southeastern Kentucky. In addition, the mining community of Blue Heron is preserved and interpreted via signage. Charit Creek Lodge is a lodge, accessible by trail. The Big South Forks most prominent feature is the river cutting through the softer Mississippian age rock beneath the hard Pennsylvanian capstone of the Cumberland Plateau. Water is the most influential agent of change in the Big South Fork region. Over time water action has many unique and amazing geologic features ranging from the river gorge with its magnificent bluffs to the natural arches. Flowing water hollows out the softer layers beneath and forms waterfalls, where there is hard capstone intact, arches can form creating natural bridges across streams or a dry ravines. Direct erosion widens a joint and forms a cavity below the more resilient rock thus creating a void between the hard capstone and the area below, as result, water eroded arches are formed in the Big South Fork.
Hoodoos are a rare but intriguing feature occurring in the Big South Fork and these hoodoos form in a similar manner to those found in the western United States. Where tough capstone still exists on the side of a hill for instance, the result is a naturally formed erect columnar rock where once was located a hill
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
Zachary Taylor was the 12th President of the United States, serving from March 1849 until his death in July 1850. Before his presidency, Taylor was an officer in the United States Army. Taylors status as a hero as a result of his victories in the Mexican-American War won him election to the White House despite his vague political beliefs. His top priority as president was preserving the Union, but he died 16 months into his term, before making any progress on the status of slavery and he remains the only President to come from Louisiana. Taylor was born into a prominent family of planters who migrated westward from Virginia to Kentucky in his youth and he was commissioned as an officer in the U. S. Army in 1808 and made a name for himself as a captain in the War of 1812. He climbed the ranks establishing military forts along the Mississippi River and his success in the Second Seminole War attracted national attention and earned him the nickname Old Rough and Ready. The Mexican–American War broke out in April 1846, in May, Taylor defeated Mexican troops commanded by General Mariano Arista at the Battles of Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma, and managed to drive his troops out of Texas.
Taylor subsequently led his troops into Mexico, where once again defeated Mexican troops commanded by Pedro de Ampudia at the Battle of Monterrey in September. Defying orders, Taylor moved his troops further south, despite being severely outnumbered, he dealt a crushing blow to Mexican forces under Antonio López de Santa Anna in February 1847 at the Battle of Buena Vista. After this, most of Taylors troops were transferred to the command of Major General Winfield Scott, the Whig Party convinced the reluctant Taylor to lead their ticket in the 1848 presidential election, despite his unclear political beliefs and lack of interest in politics. At the 1848 Whig National Convention, Taylor defeated Scott and former Senator Henry Clay to take the nomination, as president, Taylor kept his distance from Congress and his cabinet, even as partisan tensions threatened to divide the Union. Debate over the status of slavery in the Mexican Cession dominated the political agenda, despite being a Southerner and a slaveholder himself, Taylor did not push for the expansion of slavery, and he sought sectional harmony above all other concerns.
To avoid the issue of slavery, he urged settlers in New Mexico and California to bypass the territorial stage and draft constitutions for statehood, Taylor died suddenly of a stomach-related illness in July 1850, with his administration having accomplished little aside from the ratification of the Clayton–Bulwer Treaty. Fillmore served the remainder of Taylors term, Zachary Taylor was born on November 24,1784, on a plantation in Orange County, Virginia, to a prominent family of planters of English ancestry. He is inconclusively believed to have born at the home of his maternal grandfather. He was the third of five surviving sons in his family and had three younger sisters and his mother was Sarah Dabney Taylor. His father, Richard Taylor, had served as a lieutenant colonel in the American Revolution, Taylors second cousin through that line was James Madison, the fourth president. Leaving exhausted lands, his family joined the migration out of Virginia and settled near what developed as Louisville, Kentucky
Land Between the Lakes National Recreation Area
The Land Between the Lakes National Recreation Area is a United States National Recreation Area located in Kentucky and Tennessee between Lake Barkley and Kentucky Lake. The area was designated a recreation area by President John F. Kennedy in 1963. The recreation area was managed by the Tennessee Valley Authority. It was designated as a UNESCO Biosphere reserve in 1991, the Tennessee and Cumberland Rivers flow very close to each other in the northwestern corner of Middle Tennessee and Western Kentucky, separated by a rather narrow and mostly low ridge. The area of land separates the two bodies of water by only a few miles became known as Between the Rivers since at least the 1830s or 1840s. After the Cumberland River was impounded in the 1960s and a canal was constructed between the two lakes, Land Between the Lakes became the largest inland peninsula in the United States. Downstream from this area, the courses of the two rivers diverge again, with the mouth of the Cumberland emptying into the Ohio River approximately 4 mi from that of the Tennessee, the site of the last dam downstream on the Tennessee was to be Gilbertsville, Kentucky.
This was very unpopular with some of those affected, while others seemed happy to get an opportunity to sell their land and this would considerably lessen the shipping distances for goods going to ports on the Gulf of Mexico for products leaving the Cumberland Valley. This was completed in the 1960s and the impoundment was referred to as Lake Barkley, after Alben W. Barkley. The plan called for a new dam and the evacuation of the entire former Between the Rivers area, the area was to become Land Between the Lakes National Recreation Area – a TVA experiment designed to show a multiple-use approach to recreational lands. Unlike a national park, there were to be areas where hunting would be allowed, the road through the Tennessee portion was renamed from State Route 49 to The Trace, which is what many roads and paths were called in pioneer times. Many area residents resented the condemnation of their lands, especially when it was explained to them that most of the area was not to be flooded, the former settlements of Tharpe, Model and Golden Pond, were forcibly abandoned.
The remains of an iron furnace, manned in the 1850s by slave labor, are about all that remains of Model. Golden Pond was replaced by the headquarters of the area and retained as the address for it. There is a museum, a planetarium, and an education area there. The area has miles of hiking trails, many boat ramps, an off-road vehicle area, many campgrounds, and group lodges. The area was burned and reseeded with grasses, and elk. In 1996 the Elk & Bison Prairie was officially inaugurated and is now open to driving tours where visitors see a typical 18th century landscape, in the 1990s, the directors of the TVA decided to get out of most activities requiring direct taxpayer funding
United States National Forest
National Forest is a classification of protected and managed federal lands in the United States. The National Forest System was created by the Land Revision Act of 1891, abbot Kinney and forester Theodore Lukens were key spokesmen for the effort. In the United States there are 155 National Forests containing almost 190 million acres of land and these lands comprise 8.5 percent of the total land area of the United States, an area about the size of Texas. Some 87 percent of National Forest land lies west of the Mississippi River in the ranges of the Western United States. Alaska has 12 percent of all National Forest lands, the U. S. Forest Service manages all of the United States National Grasslands, and around half of the United States National Recreation Areas. There are two different types of forests within the National Forest system. Those east of the Great Plains in the Midwestern and Eastern United States were primarily acquired by the government since 1891. The land had long been in the domain and sometimes repeatedly logged since colonial times.
These are mostly lands that were kept in the domain, with the exception of inholdings. Land management of these areas focuses on conservation, timber harvesting, livestock grazing, watershed protection, unlike national parks and other federal lands managed by the National Park Service, extraction of natural resources from national forests is permitted, and in many cases encouraged. National Forests are categorized by the U. S. as IUCN Category VI protected areas, the first-designated wilderness areas, and some of the largest, are on National Forest lands. There are management decision conflicts between conservationists and environmentalists, and natural resource extraction companies and lobbies, over the protection and/or use of National Forest lands, many ski resorts and summer resorts operate on leased land in National Forests
Anderson County, Kentucky
Anderson County is a county located in the U. S. state of Kentucky. As of the 2010 census, the population was 21,421, the county was formed in 1827 and named for Richard Clough Anderson, Jr. a Kentucky legislator, U. S. Anderson County is part of the Frankfort, KY Micropolitan Statistical Area, Anderson County was established in 1827 from land given by Franklin and Washington counties. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 204 square miles. The county is in the heart of the Kentucky Bluegrass region along the Kentucky River, the population density was 94 per square mile. There were 7,752 housing units at a density of 38 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 96. 53% White,2. 35% Black or African American,0. 12% Native American,0. 12% Asian,0. 01% Pacific Islander,0. 17% from other races, and 0. 70% from two or more races. 0. 80% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race,20. 50% of all households were made up of individuals and 8. 40% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.59 and the family size was 2.99. Age distribution was 26. 60% under the age of 18,7. 40% from 18 to 24,32. 40% from 25 to 44,22. 70% from 45 to 64, the median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 95.60 males, for every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.00 males. The median household income was $45,433, and the family income was $50,837. Males had an income of $33,125 versus $25,053 for females. The per capita income for the county was $18,621, about 4. 80% of families and 7. 50% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8. 70% of those under age 18 and 13. 10% of those age 65 or over. Glensboro Lawrenceburg National Register of Historic Places listings in Anderson County, Kentucky
Richard Taylor (colonel)
Lt. Col. Richard Lee Taylor was an officer in the Continental Army in the American Revolutionary War. He was the father of Zachary Taylor, the 12th President of the United States, and Joseph Pannell Taylor, Taylor was born in Orange County, Virginia in 1744 to Zachary Taylor and Elizabeth Lee. He was a graduate of the College of William and Mary, in 1769 he explored the Ohio River and Mississippi River with his older brother, Hancock Taylor, travelling from Pittsburgh to New Orleans. He was discharged as a lieutenant colonel on September 12,1781, after the war, Taylor became an Original Member of the Virginia Society of the Cincinnati. Taylor married Sarah Dabney Strother in 1779 and they lived first at his plantation, Hare Forest. However, he had acquired 8,000 acres throughout Kentucky and they did so in 1785, and by 1790 he had built his home Springfield, known today as the Zachary Taylor House. Taylor was involved with the Valley Forge Campaign, in the Fall of 1777 Thomas Shoemakers Gwynedd township house was first plundered by Washingtons army, occupied by Taylor and other officers who kept the foragers away.
The troops commandeered livestock and hay for the army, the troops did not even leave a milk cow for the family with small children and when they bought a new one it was taken too. However, this was stopped by Capt. Richard Taylor, Capt. William Cunningham and they had the prime offender arrested on 24 October 1777, and made him run the gauntlet after which the families in the neighborhood were no longer bothered. Richard Taylor told Thomas Shoemaker, he had been in nine battles, Thomas Shoemakers land was the southwest corner of the intersection of present-day North Wales Rd. and Welsh Rd, just outside Lansdale Pa. During the Northwest Indian War, Taylor served as a volunteer in the Kentucky militia under Major John Adair and he was injured in a disastrous 1792 battle with Indians under Little Turtle near Fort St. Clair, site of the present Eaton, Ohio. By 1800, Taylor had enlarged Springfield to 700 acres by 1800 and he remained active for the remainder of his life in Kentucky politics. He donated 60 acres for the creation of Taylorsville, Richard Taylor died in 1829 at the age of 84.
He was buried in the cemetery, now part of the Zachary Taylor National Cemetery. Richard Taylor on the Find A Grave site
Nelson County, Kentucky
Nelson County is a county located in the U. S. state of Kentucky. As of the 2010 census, the population was 43,437, Nelson County comprises the Bardstown, KY Micropolitan Statistical Area, which is included in the Louisville/Jefferson County-Elizabethtown-Madison, KY-IN Combined Statistical Area. The fourth county created in what is now Kentucky, it was formed from Jefferson County, Virginia in 1784, the county was named for Thomas Nelson, Jr. a Virginia Governor who signed the Declaration of Independence. In 1808, after Kentucky had become a state, a new Virginia county was named for Governor Nelson. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 424 square miles. Spencer County Anderson County Washington County Marion County LaRue County Hardin County Bullitt County As of the census of 2010, the population density was 102.4 per square mile. There were 18,075 housing units at a density of 42.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 93. 48% White,5. 03% Black or African American,0.
12% Native American,0. 50% Asian,0. 02% Pacific Islander,0. 78% from other races, and 1. 62% from two or more races. 2. 04% of the population were Hispanics or Latinos of any race,24. 41% of all households were made up of individuals and 8. 09% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.55 and the family size was 3.01. The age distribution was 25. 98% under 18,7. 98% from 18 to 24,26. 47% from 25 to 44,27. 84% from 45 to 64, the median age was 37.7 years. For every 100 females there were 96.80 males, for every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.60 males. Income data for Kentucky locations from the 2010 Census has not yet been released, as of the 2000 census, the median income for a household in the county was $39,010, and the median income for a family was $44,600. Males had an income of $32,015 versus $21,838 for females. The per capita income for the county was $18,120, about 10. 00% of families and 12. 20% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15. 70% of those under age 18 and 17. 40% of those age 65 or over.
There are many attractions and events in Bardstown. 5-foot -tall fiberglass rooster statue standing in front of the store, according to The Kentucky Encyclopedia, it is one of the best-known general stores in the country and one of Kentuckys best-known unincorporated businesses. The district operates two K-8 schools, two schools, two middle schools, an alternative school, a vocational-technical school, and two high schools. The Bardstown City Schools serve students in most of the city of Bardstown, some areas of the city are instead served by the Nelson County district, and some of the Nelson County schools are physically within the Bardstown district
National Wildlife Refuge
National Wildlife Refuge System is a designation for certain protected areas of the United States managed by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service. The National Wildlife Refuge System is the system of lands and waters set aside to conserve Americas fish, wildlife. National Wildlife Refuges manage a range of habitat types, including wetlands, prairies and marine areas. Among these hundreds of national refuges are home to some 700 species of birds,220 species of mammals,250 reptile and amphibian species and more than 1000 species of fish. Endangered species are a priority of National Wildlife Refuges in that nearly 60 refuges have been established with the purpose of conserving 280 threatened or endangered species. National Wildlife Refuges are places where visitors can participate in a variety of outdoor recreational activities. The National Wildlife Refuge System welcomes nearly 50 million visitors each year, hunters visit more than 350 hunting programs on refuges and on about 36,000 Waterfowl Production Areas.
Opportunities for fresh or saltwater fishing are available at more than 340 refuges, there is at least one wildlife refuge in each of the fifty states. The agency has created Comprehensive Conservation Plans for each refuge, developed through consultation with private and these began a review process by stakeholders beginning in 2013. The CCCPs must be consistent with the Fish and Wildlife Service goals for conservation, the CCPs outline conservation goals for each refuge for fifteen years into the future, with the intent that they will be revised every fifteen years thereafter. Additionally, NEPA requires FWS planners and refuge staff to engage the public in planning process to assist them with identifying the most appropriate alternative. Completed CCPs are available to the public and can be found on the FWS website, equally important is an intimate understanding of the social and economic drivers that impact and are impacted by management decisions and can facilitate or impede implementation success.
Consideration of these contributes to the success of the Service’s mission to protect wildlife. The Refuge System works collaboratively internally and externally to leverage resources, according to the Services 2013 Banking on Nature Report, visitors to refuges positively impact the local economies. Prevention and control of fires is a very active part of refuge management. Completion of controlled burns to reduce fuel loading, and participation in the wildland fire suppression efforts, are vital for management of refuge lands. A considerable infrastructure of physical structures is essential to management of refuge lands. As of September 30,2015 there were 13,030 roads and trails,5,284 buildings,8,007 water management structures, the overall facility infrastructure is valued at nearly $30 billion
Blue Licks Battlefield State Resort Park
Blue Licks Battlefield State Resort Park is a park located near Mount Olivet, Kentucky in Robertson and Nicholas counties. The park encompasses 148 acres and features a monument commemorating the August 19,1782 Battle of Blue Licks, the battle was regarded as the final battle of the American Revolutionary War. The earliest accounts of Blue Licks describe it as a place where animals gathered to lick the salt deposits flowing from the springs in the area. The Reverend James Smith provides this account in his 1795–97 diary, As you approach the Licks, at the distance of 4 or 5 miles from it, you begin to perceive the change. Here immense herds of buffalo used formerly to meet and with their fighting, scraping etc. have worn away the ground to what it is at present, in 1782, British Captain William Caldwell led a force of Indians against the small Kentucky settlement of Bryans Station. Caldwell met stiff resistance, and after two days, retreated toward the Ohio River, in the battle that followed,60 of the 176 men who followed McGary were killed, Boones son Israel among them.
Reinforcements under George Rogers Clark eventually arrived and drove Caldwells forces from Kentucky for good, by the mid-19th century, the Blue Licks area had become a health resort, due in large part to the nearby saltwater springs that had been used for salt making since the 1770s. The mineral water found in the springs was rumored to cure everything from asthma to gout, by 1896, the areas last spring had gone dry. Efforts to locate another spring unearthed several geological and historical artifacts, a more extensive excavation of the area was conducted in 1945. However, a team from Morehead State University is to search the battlefield using modern equipment to explore for artifacts relating to the battlefields, enough success in this endeavor could mean the return of the battlefield to the Register. The park is located along the Licking River, and offers canoeing and fishing, the Licking River Trail offers a one-mile hike along the riverbank. Overnight stays are accommodated at the 32-room lodge or the 51-site campground, the park features a 15-acre nature preserve containing a cedar glade.
This glade was previously maintained as an area by the large numbers of herbivores, such as bison, elk. Today much of the glade has transitioned into forest, but the remnant areas are being maintained by controlled burns and these remnants are home to the federally endangered Shorts goldenrod and the state threatened Great Plains Ladies-tresses. The Pioneer Museum is the major attraction. It houses a variety of artifacts, from a tooth found during an excavation of the site to relics from the American Civil War. Exhibits focus on the natural and cultural history, including prehistoric animals and fossils, area Native Americans and 18th century pioneers. The museum was dedicated in 1931, saw renovations completed in 2007, the Battle of Blue Licks celebration is held annually in mid-August and features a re-enactment of the Battle of Blue Licks
Daniel Boone National Forest
Daniel Boone National Forest is the only national forest completely within the boundary of Kentucky. Established in 1937, it was named the Cumberland National Forest. The forest was named after Daniel Boone, a frontiersman and explorer in the late 18th century who contributed greatly to the exploration, in 1937, a national forest was established containing 1,338,214 acres within its proclamation boundary. As of June 1937, the Forest Service had purchased only 336,692 acres, most early purchases were large, isolated tracts owned by lumber and coal companies with but few inhabitants. The Forest Service has since had difficulty acquiring more land within the boundary, the bulk of which was. Due in part to World War II, funds for land acquisition were curtailed in the early 1940s, substantial acquisition efforts could not resume until the mid-1960s. The lengthy cessation of land acquisitions, except for period during the forests renaming, naming the forest entailed considerable debate. Protests began immediately after the national forest was named, the naming issue was reopened in the late 1950s.
The Forest Service investigated the name Cumberland, and found it came to Kentucky in 1750 when Thomas Walker named the Cumberland River in honor of Prince William Augustus, the Duke had defeated the Scottish Highlanders in 1746 at the Battle of Culloden, an especially brutal conflict. Many Scottish families fled to America and ultimately Kentucky as a result of the event, the Forest Service found that for their descendants still living in Eastern Kentucky, the name Cumberland was particularly distasteful. In addition, the Forest Service noted the influence of history on the names of places in Kentucky, during this period of time, place names with British connotations fell out of favor and changes were made. For example, prior to the Revolution, the Kentucky River was called the Louisa River, after the wife of the Duke of Cumberland, during the 1960s, a new movement to rename the national forest took place. Also during the 1960s, part of the national forest was designated a Primitive Weapons Area and set apart for hunting with longbow, crossbow, in 1970, this was the only US area where deer could legally be hunted with crossbows.
The park remains unique still for allowing only muzzle-loaded firearms, in 1967, a large and disconnected addition to the national forest was created, called the Redbird Purchase Unit, after a key purchase from the Red Bird Timber Company. About a third of the land within the national forest proclamation boundary is owned or managed by the Forest Service, the pattern of land ownership is highly fragmented and changes relatively frequently. One of the goals of the Forest Service is to consolidate holdings into larger blocks, the boundaries of Forest Service lands are marked in various ways, including red paint on trees. The shifting boundaries and growing size of Forest Service lands sometimes results in local complaints, in addition, it can be difficult for recreational users to know whether they are on Forest Service lands or not. No Trespassing signs are used by landowners, and conflicts between landowners and recreational users are not uncommon