Carl Tchilinghiryan was a German businessman, who co-founded the coffee house Tchibo. In 1949, together with Max Herz, he founded the "Frisch-Röst-Kaffee Carl Tchiling GmbH", which today is known as Tchibo. Before founding the Tchibo company Tchilinghiryan dealt as a dried fruit specialist in dates and trail mix. In order to facilitate the pronunciation of his Armenian name for future Tchibo customers, Tchilinghiryan changed the spelling of his name to "Carl Tchiling-Hiryan". Tchilinghiryan is buried at the Ohlsdorf Cemetery in Hamburg, Germany, in a family tomb together with his parents Karabet Tchilinghiryan and Erna Tchilinghiryan, née Petersen. Tchibo is 100% owned by the Herz family, Ingeburg Herz, two of her sons, Michael Herz and Wolfgang Herz, through their company Maxingvest AG. Der Hamburger Hauptfriedhof Ohlsdorf. Geschichte und Grabmäler - Band 1 und Band 2. Hans Christians Verlag. Hamburg, 1990 Hamburgische Biografie - Personenlexikon, Bd. 5 HANDEL / KAFFEE - Heiß wie die Hölle. DER SPIEGEL.
17.10.1962 Der Parkfriedhof Ohlsdorf in Hamburg, Teil II. Münchener Begräbnisverein e. V
Liechtenstein the Principality of Liechtenstein, is a doubly landlocked German-speaking microstate in Alpine Central Europe. The principality is a constitutional monarchy headed by the Prince of Liechtenstein. Liechtenstein is bordered by Switzerland to Austria to the east and north, it is Europe's fourth-smallest country, with an area of just over 160 square kilometres and a population of 37,877. Divided into 11 municipalities, its capital is Vaduz, its largest municipality is Schaan, it is the smallest country to border two countries. Economically, Liechtenstein has one of the highest gross domestic products per person in the world when adjusted for purchasing power parity, it was once known as a billionaire tax haven, but is no longer on any blacklists of uncooperative tax haven countries. An Alpine country, Liechtenstein is mountainous, making it a winter sport destination; the country has a strong financial sector centered in Vaduz. 20,000 people commute to work in Liechtenstein. Liechtenstein is a member of the United Nations, the European Free Trade Association, the Council of Europe, although not a member of the European Union, it participates in both the Schengen Area and the European Economic Area.
It has a customs union and a monetary union with Switzerland. The oldest traces of human existence in what is now Liechtenstein date back to the Middle Paleolithic era. Neolithic farming settlements were founded in the valleys around 5300 BCE; the Hallstatt and La Tène cultures flourished during the late Iron Age, from around 450 BCE—possibly under some influence of both the Greek and Etruscan civilisations. One of the most important tribal groups in the Alpine region were the Helvetii. In 58 BCE, at the Battle of Bibracte, Julius Caesar defeated the Alpine tribes, therefore bringing the region under close control of the Roman Republic. By 15 BCE, Tiberius—destined to be the second Roman emperor—with his brother, conquered the entirety of the Alpine area. Liechtenstein was integrated into the Roman province of Raetia; the area was maintained by the Roman military, who maintained large legionary camps at Brigantium, near Lake Constance, at Magia. A Roman road which ran through the territory was created and maintained by these groups.
In 259/60 Brigantium was destroyed by the Alemanni, a Germanic people who settled in the area in around 450 CE. In the Early Middle Ages, the Alemanni settled the eastern Swiss plateau by the 5th century and the valleys of the Alps by the end of the 8th century, with Liechtenstein located at the eastern edge of Alemannia. In the 6th century, the entire region became part of the Frankish Empire following Clovis I's victory over the Alemanni at Tolbiac in 504; the area that became Liechtenstein remained under Frankish hegemony, until the empire was divided by the Treaty of Verdun in 843 CE, following the death of Charlemagne. The territory of present-day Liechtenstein was under the possession of East Francia, it would be reunified with Middle Francia under the Holy Roman Empire, around 1000 CE. Until about 1100, the predominant language of the area was Romansch, but thereafter German began to gain ground in the territory. In 1300, an Alemannic population—the Walsers, who originated in Valais—entered the region and settled.
The mountain village of Triesenberg still preserves features of Walser dialect into the present century. By 1200, dominions across the Alpine plateau were controlled by the Houses of Savoy, Zähringer and Kyburg. Other regions were accorded the Imperial immediacy that granted the empire direct control over the mountain passes; when the Kyburg dynasty fell in 1264, the Habsburgs under King Rudolph I extended their territory to the eastern Alpine plateau that included the territory of Liechtenstein. This region was enfeoffed to the Counts of Hohenems until the sale to the Liechtenstein dynasty in 1699. In 1396 Vaduz gained imperial immediacy; the family, from which the principality takes its name came from Liechtenstein Castle in Lower Austria which they had possessed from at least 1140 until the 13th century. The Liechtensteins acquired land, predominantly in Moravia, Lower Austria and Styria; as these territories were all held in feudal tenure from more senior feudal lords various branches of the Habsburgs, the Liechtenstein dynasty was unable to meet a primary requirement to qualify for a seat in the Imperial diet, the Reichstag.
Though several Liechtenstein princes served several Habsburg rulers as close advisers, without any territory held directly from the Imperial throne, they held little power in the Holy Roman Empire. For this reason, the family sought to acquire lands that would be classed as unmittelbar or held without any intermediate feudal tenure, directly from the Holy Roman Emperor. During the early 17th century Karl I of Liechtenstein was made a Fürst by the Holy Roman Emperor Matthias after siding with him in a political battle. Hans-Adam I was allowed to purchase the minuscule Herrschaft of Schellenberg and county of Vaduz from the Hohenems. Tiny Schellenberg and Vaduz had the political status required: no feudal lord other than their comital sovereign and the suzerain Emperor. On 23 January 1719, after the lands had been purchased, Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor, decreed that Vaduz and Schellenberg were united and elevated the newly formed terri
Kochlöffel is a German fast-food restaurant chain. Its product range includes hamburgers, bratwurst and french fries with their signature turquoise plastic fork resembling a cooking spoon. In 2012 the company sold 3 million grilled half chickens, 6.7 million Hamburgers, 1.4 million sausages, 0.4 million servings of salad, some 1,000 tons of French fries and 1.4 million liters of drinks. The restaurant chain had 11.5 million customers in 2012 hosted in its 90 restaurants. The first Kochlöffel restaurant was opened in 1961. Martha and Clemens van den Berg drove expansion in the 80s, their daughter Julia and her husband Torsten Hessler took over in 2010, together with Mrs van den Berg is the manager of the restaurant chain. In the 1990s the previous red logo was replaced with the current turquoise. To date, Kochlöffel is still run by the founding family. Kochlöffel have traded in Poland since 1995, under the name "Conieco." In addition, Kochlöffel exported its concept in cooperation with a master licensee in Turkey.
The stated goal is to establish Kochlöffel long-term as a restaurant chain in Turkey. Since 1995 the company issues licenses for its quick-service restaurant concept. Kochlöffel provides its partners in addition to a qualified consulting a wealth of support available; the franchise partner participates on the reputation of Kochlöffel. Meanwhile, a third of all businesses of franchisees are guided; the restaurant chain is a full member of the German Franchise Association The fast food restaurants can be found nationwide in 1A-run downtown locations as well as in the food courts of shopping malls. Kochlöffel managed its growth on its own and is looking for expansion nationwide in the inventory area suitable properties. Official website
Costa Coffee is a British multinational coffeehouse company headquartered in Dunstable, Bedfordshire. Costa Coffee was founded in London in 1971 by the Costa family as a wholesale operation supplying roasted coffee to caterers and specialist Italian coffee shops. Acquired by Whitbread in 1995, it was sold in 2019 to The Coca-Cola Company in a deal worth £3.9bn, has grown to 3,401 stores across 31 countries. The business has 2,121 UK restaurants, over 6,000 Costa Express vending facilities and a further 1,280 outlets overseas; the Coca-Cola Company announced its intention of acquiring Costa Limited from parent company Whitbread PLC for $5.1 billion. The deal closed on 3 January 2019, it gives the cola giant a strong coffee platform across parts of Europe, Asia Pacific, the Middle East, Africa, it is the second largest coffeehouse chain in the world, the largest in the UK. Brothers Bruno and Sergio Costa founded a coffee roastery in Lambeth, London, in 1971, supplying local caterers; the family had moved to England from Italy, in the 1960s.
Costa branched out to selling coffee in 1978, when its first store opened in Vauxhall Bridge Road, London. In 1985, Sergio bought out Bruno's share of the company. Bruno went on to found a tableware company. By 1995, the chain had 41 stores in UK, was acquired by Whitbread, the UK's largest hotel and coffee shop operator, becoming a wholly owned subsidiary. In 2009, Costa opened its 1,000th store in Cardiff. In December 2009, Costa Coffee agreed to acquire Coffee Heaven for £36 million, adding 79 stores in central and eastern Europe. In 2018, Whitbread faced pressure from two of its largest shareholders, activist group Elliot Advisers and hedge fund Sachem Head to sell or demerge Costa Coffee, the theory being the individual businesses would be worth much more than as one company. On 25 April 2018, Whitbread announced its intention to demerge Costa within two years. Subsequently, Coca-Cola announced a deal to acquire the chain. On 3 January 2019, The Coca-Cola Company completed the acquisition of Costa Coffee for $4.9 billion from Whitbread.
Costa sells: Hot drinks - coffees and hot chocolates Cold drinks - including Frostino and fruit coolers Savoury snacks - including sandwiches and breakfast items Cakes and pastries - including cookies and croissantsCosta Coffee moved its own roastery from Lambeth to Basildon, Essex, in May 2017 with an investment of £38 million, increasing the roasting capacity from 11,000 to 45,000 tons of coffee beans per year. Costa Coffee employs Gennaro Pelliccia as a coffee taster, who had his tongue insured for £10m with Lloyd's of London in 2009. Costa Coffee operates 2,467 outlets in the United Kingdom as of May 2018. Overseas, it operates 1,412 stores in 31 countries; the first Costa store outside the UK opened in Dubai in 1999 and, in September 2017, was the first coffee shop worldwide to start delivering coffee via drones to customers sunbathing on Dubai beaches. Following Whitbread's £59.5m acquisition of Coffee Nation, a chain of coffee machines, the machines were re-branded as Costa Express. The company plans to expand to target hospitals and transport interchanges.
In Denmark, Costa Express machines are located in Shell stations. Costa Express machines were available in Shell locations in Canada, but have since been removed. Costa Coffee has been the sponsor of the Costa Book Awards since 2006. List of coffeehouse chains Coffee portal Media related to Costa Coffee at Wikimedia Commons Official website
Imperial Brands plc Imperial Tobacco Group plc, is a British multinational tobacco company headquartered in Bristol, United Kingdom. It is the world’s fourth-largest international cigarette company measured by market share after Philip Morris International, British American Tobacco, Japan Tobacco, the world's largest producer of cigars, fine-cut tobacco, tobacco papers. Imperial Brands produces over 320 billion cigarettes per year, has 51 factories worldwide, its products are sold in over 160 countries, its brands include Davidoff, Gauloises Blondes, Golden Virginia and Rizla. Imperial Brands is a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index, it had a market capitalization around £24.3 billion as of 23 December 2011, the 19th-largest of any company with a primary listing on the London Stock Exchange. Imperial Tobacco Canada has no relationship to Imperial Tobacco Group plc. Imperial Tobacco Canada is the Canadian subsidiary of British American Tobacco; the Imperial Tobacco Company was created in 1901 through the amalgamation of 13 British tobacco and cigarette companies: W.
D. & H. O. Wills of Bristol, John Player & Sons of Nottingham, 11 other independent family businesses, which were in competition with companies from the United States by the American Tobacco Company. First W. D. & H. O. Wills of Bristol merged with Stephen Son of Glasgow. Subsequently, other smaller companies including Lambert & Butler, William Clarke & Son, Franklyn Davey, Edwards Ringer & Bigg, Hignett Brothers, Hignett's Tobacco, Adkins & Sons, Richmond Cavendish, D&J MacDoland, F&J Smith joined in the amalgamation. In 1904, James & Finlay Bell Ltd merged with Stephen Son; the Company's first chairman was Sir William Henry Wills, Bt. of the Wills Company. In 1902, the Imperial Tobacco Company and the American Tobacco Company agreed to form a joint venture: the British-American Tobacco Company Ltd; the parent companies agreed not to trade in each other's domestic territory and to assign trademarks, export businesses, overseas subsidiaries to the joint venture. It built the Imperial Tobacco Company Building at Mullins, South Carolina, between 1908 and 1913.
American Tobacco sold its share in 1911, but Imperial maintained an interest in British American Tobacco until 1980. In 1973, the Imperial Tobacco Company, having become diversified by acquisition of restaurant chains, food services and distribution businesses, changed its name to Imperial Group. In 1910, Imperial Tobacco formed the Imperial Tobacco Company of India. In 1985, the company acquired the Peoples Drugstore chain and all subsidiaries from A. C. Israel. In 1986 the Company was acquired by the conglomerate Hanson Trust plc for £2.5billion. Divestments during the period of ownership by Hanson included Courage Brewery to Elders, Golden Wonder to Dalgety, Finlays to Arunbhai J. Patel, the wholesaling arm of Sinclair & Collis to Palmer & Harvey, Imperial Hotels and Catering to Trust House Forte and Ross Frozen Foods to United Biscuits; this led to a dispute over pension payments to employees, as seen in Imperial Group Pension Trust Ltd v Imperial Tobacco Ltd. In 1996, following a decision to concentrate on core tobacco activities, Hanson de-merged Imperial and it was listed as an independent company on the UK stock exchange.
In 2003, Imperial acquired the world's fourth-largest tobacco company, Reemtsma Cigarettenfabriken GmbH of Germany: the deal added brands such as Davidoff, Peter Stuyvesant, West to its portfolio. In 2007, Imperial Tobacco entered the United States tobacco market with its $1.9-billion acquisition of Commonwealth Brands Inc. the fourth-largest tobacco company in the US. In February 2008, Imperial acquired the world's fifth-largest tobacco company, whose brands included Fortuna, Gauloises Blondes, Gitanes. A number of factory closures were subsequently announced, including the long-running cigar factory in Bristol. Following the Scottish Parliament's decision in January 2010 to ban the display of tobacco products in shops, as well as the availability of tobacco vending machines in public buildings with effect from autumn 2011, Imperial Tobacco attempted to challenge the change in the law on the grounds that regulations of the sale goods rested with the Houses of Parliament in Westminster. However, this case was dismissed on 30 September 2010 by Lord Bracadale in the Court of Session in Edinburgh.
In 2011, Altadis USA Inc. said it would add to its Fort Lauderdale, Florida and move Commonwealth Brands Inc. employees from Bowling Green, Kentucky. The company's name changed to Commonwealth-Altadis Inc. In 2013, Imperial opened a new global headquarters in Bristol. In April 2014, Imperial announced the closure of its long-running Horizon factory in Nottingham; the factory closed in 2016. On 15 July 2014, Reynolds American agreed to buy Greensboro, North Carolina-based Lorillard Tobacco Company, for $27.4 billion. The deal included the sale of the Kool, Winston and blu eCigs brands to Imperial for $7.1 billion. In November 2014, Imperial said Commonwealth-Altadis and the Lorillard operations being acquired would be called ITG Brands LLC; the deal with Lorillard was completed on 12 June 2015, as part of the deal, Greensboro became the location of the ITG headquarters. On 1 November 2018, ITG announced production would move from the former American Tobacco Company plant in Reidsville, North Carolina, built in 1892 and expanded, to Greensboro by 2020.
The plant made USA Gold, Sonoma, Mo
Telepizza is a pizza restaurant chain that operates in Spain, some Spanish-speaking countries, in countries of the European Union, the Middle East and in the United Kingdom. It was founded in 1987 with capital from Galicia and Madrid, the Galician segment would leave in 1989 to create Pizza Móvil; the company had factories in Guadalajara, Barcelona, Móstoles, but were sold and all the production is made at a factory in Daganzo de Arriba, Madrid. The factories produce the pizza base and distribute them through the different stores. Telepizza was created by Leopoldo Fernández Pujals. In 1986 he inaugurated the first Telepizza in the Barrio del Pilar neighbourhood in Madrid. Prior to its IPO in 2016, the company was owned by the founding Ballvé family and private equity fund Permira. In March 2010 Telepizza has 1025 outlets worldwide, 603 stores in Spain and has 422 international stores present in countries such as Portugal, Chile, Russia, Central America, the United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia.
In June 2010 the company announced the arrival of the pizza chain to Colombia, where they bought Jeno's Pizza. In 2016, Telepizza announced its arrival in Saudi Arabia. In April 2016, Telepizza completed. In June 2017, Telepizza opened its first two location in Iran. Telepizza has three stores in London. Telepizza official site in Spain. Telepizza official site in Chile. Telepizza official site in Poland. Telepizza official site in Portugal. Telepizza official site in Uk. Telepizza official site in Iran
Domino's Pizza, Inc. branded as Domino's, is an American pizza restaurant chain founded in 1960. The corporation is headquartered at the Domino's Farms Office Park in Ann Arbor and incorporated in Delaware. In February 2018, the chain became the largest pizza seller worldwide in terms of sales. On April 23, 1963, Tom Monaghan and his brother, took over the operation of DomiNick's, an existing location of a small pizza restaurant chain, owned by Dominick DiVarti, at 507 Cross Street in Ypsilanti, near Eastern Michigan University; the deal was secured by a $500 down payment, the brothers borrowed $900 to pay for the store. The brothers planned to split the work hours evenly, but James did not want to quit his job as a full-time postman to keep up with the demands of the new business. Within eight months, James traded his half of the business to Tom for the Volkswagen Beetle they used for pizza deliveries. By 1965, Tom Monaghan had purchased two additional pizzerias. Monaghan wanted the stores to share the same branding, but the original owner forbade him from using the DomiNick's name.
One day, an employee, Jim Kennedy, returned from a pizza delivery and suggested the name "Domino's". Monaghan loved the idea and renamed the business Domino's Pizza, Inc. in 1965. The company logo had three dots, representing the three stores in 1965. Monaghan planned to add a new dot with the addition of every new store, but this idea faded, as Domino's experienced rapid growth. Domino's Pizza opened its first franchise location in 1967 and by 1978, the company expanded to 200 stores. In 1975, Domino's faced a lawsuit by Amstar Corporation, the maker of Domino Sugar, alleging trademark infringement and unfair competition. On May 2, 1980, the Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals in New Orleans found in favor of Domino's Pizza. On May 12, 1983, Domino's opened its first international store, in Winnipeg, Canada; that same year, Domino's opened its first in Vancouver, Washington. In 1985, the chain opened their first store in the United Kingdom in Luton. In 1985, Domino's opened their first store in Tokyo, Japan.
In 1993, they became the second American franchise to open in the Dominican Republic and the first one to open in Haiti, under the direction of entrepreneur Luis de Jesús Rodríguez. By 1995, Domino's had expanded to 1,000 international locations. In 1997, Domino's opened its 1,500th international location, opening seven stores in one day across five continents. By 2014, the company had grown to 6,000 international locations and was planning to expand to pizza's birthplace, Italy. CEO Patrick Doyle, in May 2014, said. In February 2016, Domino's opened its 1,000th store in India. Domino's Pizza chose to use its traditional delivery-based business model in China, altering neither its toppings, nor reducing the sizes of pizzas, promising the usual 30-minute delivery time; the delivery time promise failed due to high automobile traffic patterns in many crowded Chinese cities hindering the delivery operations. The large pizza sizes made the use of knives and forks to eat them impractical, takeout services were unpopular with Chinese people due to cultural reasons.
Savio S. Chan and Michael Zakkour, authors of China's Super Consumers: What 1 Billion Customers Want and How to Sell it to Them, wrote that Domino's "failed miserably" in its strategy, resulting in the company being "basically" irrelevant in China, with only 40 restaurants there as of 2014. In January 2014, the company began introducing small restaurants in China. Jamie Fullerton of Vice stated that these restaurants served "solid, mildly overpriced pizzas" and did not have unique-to-China menu items. In 1998, after 38 years of ownership, Domino's founder Tom Monaghan announced his retirement, sold 93 percent of the company to Bain Capital, Inc. for about $1 billion, ceased being involved in day-to-day operations of the company. A year the company named Dave Brandon as its CEO. In 2004, after 44 years as a held company, Domino's began trading common stock on the New York Stock Exchange under the ticker symbol "DPZ". Industry trade publication Pizza Today magazine named Domino's Pizza "Chain of the Year" in 2003, 2010, 2011.
In a simultaneous celebration in January 2006, Domino's opened its 5,000th U. S. store in Huntley and its 3,000th international store in Panama City, making 8,000 total stores for the system. In August 2006, the Domino's location in Tallaght, Ireland, became the first store in Domino's history to hit a turnover of $3 million per year; as of September 2006, Domino's has 8,200+ stores worldwide, which totaled $1.4 billion in gross income. In 2007, Domino's introduced its Veterans Delivering the Dream franchising program and rolled out its online and mobile ordering sites. In 2008, Domino's introduced the Pizza Tracker, an online application that allows customers to view the status of their order in a real time progress bar; the first Domino's with a dining room opened in Stephenville, giving the customers the option to either eat in or take their pizza home. Since 2005, the voice of Domino's Pizza's US phone ordering service has been Kevin Railsback. In a 2009 survey of consumer taste preferences among national chains by Brand Keys, Domino's was last — tied with Chuck E.
Cheese's. In December that year, Domino's announced plans to reinvent its pizza, it began a self-critical ad campaign in which consumers were filmed criticizing the then-current pizza's qu